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What is a somatoform disorder?
A disorder in which problems appear to be physical or medical but are actually due to psychosocial factors
What are the two types of somatoform disorders?
What are the three hysterical somatoform disorders?
-Conversion disorder -Somatization disorder -Pain disorder associated with psychological symptoms
What are the differences between hysterical and medical symptoms?
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What are the differences between hysterical and factitious symptoms?
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What are the preoccupation somatoform disorders?
-Hypochondraisis -Body dysmorphic disorder
What is a factitious disorder?
A disorder in which people go to extreme lengths to create the appearance of a medical disorder
What is the difference between munchausen and munchausen by proxy?
Munchausen - pretend to be sick to get attention from doctors proxy make their children sick
What causes somatoform disorders from a psychoanalytic view?
Hysterical disorder is a conversion of underlying emotional conflicts into physical problems
What causes somatoform disorders from a cognitive view?
Hysterical disorder is a result of emotions converting into physical symptoms - way of communicating difficult emotions
What causes somatoform disorders from a behavioral view?
Hysterical disorders are a result of rewards gained as a result from physical symptoms
What kind of treatment do those with preoccupation somatoform disorders usually receive?
Treatment similar to anxiety disorders (cognitive/behavioral)
What kind of treatment do those with hysterical somatoform disorders usually receive?
Drug therapy, exposure, suggestion, reinforcement, insight therapy, confrontation
What are dissociative disorders?
Disorders in which the individual experiences major losses or changes in memory, consciousness, and identity, but have no physical causes
What are the four dissociative disorders?
-Dissociative amnesia -Dissociative fugue -Dissociative identity disorder -Depersonalization disorder
What are the three relationships one with DID can experience?
-Mutually amnesic relationships (aren't aware of each other) -Mutually cognizant relationships (aware of each other) -One-way relationship
How many personalities do those with DID usually have?
2 or 3
How do DID personalities differ?
-Vital statistics -Abilities and preferences -Different characteristics
Is DID rare?
Traditionally yes, but it is growing more common in US and Canada - thousands of cases
Why was DID rarely diagnosed before 1980?
It was not introduced in DSM before this time
How do psychoanalytic therapists explain dissociative disorders?
Caused by repression, the most basic ego defense mechanism
How do behavioral theorists explain dissociative disorders?
Grows from normal memory processes, response learned through operant conditioning
How does self-hypnosis explain dissociative disorders?
Self-hypnosis allows individual to dissociate from self and escape trauma
How does state-dependent learning explain dissociative disorders?
State-to-memory links are extremely rigid and tied to a particular state of arousal
How do those with dissociative amnesia and fugue recover?
Often on their own, or using psychodynamic, hypnotic, or drug therapy
How do those with DID recover?
Requires extensive therapy in order to regain lost memories and develop an integrated personality, treatment is complex and difficult