Sociology Test

52 cards

Suny Albany Sociology 115 Test


 
  
Created Mar 25, 2010
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1
4 types of capital?
 
economic (wealth), social (interpersonal connections), cultural (knowledge of values and beliefs),...
2
McDonaldization of society?
 
standardizing every aspect of society to be most efficient and uniform 
3
what is social control?
 
Societies have formal and informal means to enforce norms  nFormal – laws,...
4
what is deviance?
 
a violation of societal norms. what is deviant to some is not deviant to others
5
what is a stigma?
 
a blemish on ones identity. a stigma is a violation of norms of appearance and ability 
6
what is differential association theory?
 
learn to deviate by those we associate with in our lives (family/friends) (50% of people in...
7
what is the control theory?
 
we all want to commit deviant acts but don't because of controls. the stronger the control...
8
according to durkheim, why is deviance functional?
 
it affirms moral boundaries, promotes social unity, promotes social change 
9
what is the strain theory?
 
we are all socialized to want certain cultural goals but we don't all have the means to obtain...
10
what are the five responses to strain?
 
conformity, innovator (wants to achieve cultural goals but uses illegitimate methods),...
11
what is the difference between street crime and white collar crime?
 
those who have wealth and power often bypass the law while others suffer full consequences 
12
illegitimate opportunity structure
 
opportunities for crimes that are woven into the texture of life
13
institutionalized means
 
approved ways of reaching cultural goals
14
medicalization of deviance 
 
to make deviance a medical matter, a symptom of some underlying illness that needs to be treated...
15
negative sanction
 
an expression of disapproval for break a norm. ranging from an informal reaction (a frown)...
16
positive sanction
 
a reward or positive reaction for following norms. ranging from a frown to a material reward 
17
social order 
 
a groups usual and customary social arrangements, on which members depend and base their lives...
18
what is general reciprocity 
 
occurs when one person shares goods or labor with another without expecting anything in return....
19
primary groups
 
close, intimate relationships that shape your ideas about the world and yourself
20
secondary groups 
 
impersonal, more formal associations based on a common goal or interest 
21
IN groups VS OUT groups 
 
in groups serve as examples of what you are and should be; out groups do the opposite 
22
what are bureaucracies  
 
A particular administrative structure organized according to rational principles---to accomplish...
23
what are the five characteristics of a bureaucracy?
 
clear cut levels (hierarchy), division of labor, written rules, written communication and records,...
24
why did weber say bureaucracies would become an iron cage? 
 
Weber saw bureaucracy removing the individual from its humanity as the rules and routines...
25
alienation 
 
Marx's term for workers' lack of connection to the product of their labor; cause  by their...
26
goal displacement 
 
an organization replacing old goals with new ones. (goal replacement)
27
groupthink 
 
a narrowing of thought by a group of people, leading to the perception that there is only one...
28
the iron law of oligarchy 
 
Robert Michels' term for the tendency of formal organizations to be dominated by a small, self-perpetuating...
29
reference group
 
a group whose standards we refer to as we evaluate ourselves 
30
2 definitions of power
 
Power has been defined on many occasions as the capacity of one individual or group...
31
authority 
 
the institutionalized arrangement of power relationships (does not require force)
32
legitimacy 
 
required in order for power to transform into authority 
33
ideology 
 
žA set of doctrines or beliefs that form the basis of a political, economic, or other...
34
hegemony 
 
žRefers to the predominant influence, as of a state, region, or group, over another...
35
class consciousness 
 
Marx's term for awareness of a common identity based on one's position in the means of production
36
contradictory class locations
 
Erik Wright's term for a position in the class structure that generates contradictory interests 
37
exchange mobility
 
about the same numbers of people moving up and down the social class ladder, such that, on...
38
intergenerational mobility 
 
the change that family members make in social class from one generation to the next 
39
poverty line
 
the official measure of poverty; calculated to include incomes that are less than 3 times a...
40
power elite 
 
C. Wright Mills' term for the top people in US corporations, military, and politics who make...
41
social class
 
according to Weber, a large group of people who rank close with one another in wealth, prestige,...
42
structural mobility 
 
movement up or down the social class ladder that is due to changes in the structure of society,...
43
underclass
 
group of people for whom poverty persists year after year and across generations 
44
3 types of social stratification
 
slavery (free class and a slave class), caste (rigid; social mobility not common), class (US...
45
functionalist perspective of stratification 
 
all positions must be filled, some are more important than others, more qualified positions...
46
conflict perspective of stratification 
 
no society can exist unless it's organized, leadership requires inequalities of power, human...
47
wealth includes:
 
income, inheritance, property, investments 
48
conspicuous consumption 
 
consumer goods and leisure activities serve as status symbols "good taste" "high culture"
49
race
 
ža socially constructed distinction between groups based on perceived biological characteristics 
50
ethnicity 
 
žrefers to groups that share a perceived cultural background; common ancestry, religion,...
51
minority group 
 
people singled out for unequal treatment by the dominant group
52
discrimination VS prejudice 
 
discrimination is an action, prejudice is an attitude 


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