Sociology Test Chapter 5 Groups, Networks, And Organizations

Most Of The Cards Are Definitions And Characteristics Of The Title. Many Include Examples, Summary, Meanings (in Support Of Definition) And Definitions Of Complimentary Vocabulary. Derived From Teachers Lecture Slides, And Textbook And Textbook Glossary.
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social groups
A collection of people who share a common Identity and regularly interact with one another on the basis of shared expectations concerning behavior
social aggregates
A simple collection of people who happen to be together in a particular place but do not significantly identify or interact with one another i.e. stadium or concert croud
in groups
any group or category in which people feel they belong, and feel loyalty toward any "we" or us" i.e. from teenage clique, to whole society
symbolic interactionism
theory developed by George Herbert Mead- emphasizes the role of symbols and language as key elements in human interaction
primary groups
members who care about you, and provide a sense of belonging and shared identity. provide anchor point in society. i.e. fam. friends, class mates, gang members, coworkers
How does Stanley Milgram's experiment relate to authority
Authority can influence people to act against their morality. few people have the resources needed to resist authority.
two person social group. one relationship
large sets of individuals with a definite set of authority relations. many types exist in industrialized societies. they influence most aspects of our lives. close link between development of organizations and bureaucratic tendencies.
Max Weber's theory on Organizations(rationality)
attempt to achieve maximum efficiency. trained leasers planned policies. tasks became more specialized. standardized products allowed for more efficiency, speed, and precision.
formal relations
between people as stated in the rules of the organization.
sameness (store plans, products, procedures)Why? predictability ; calculated so that everything fits a standard. increased control over employees and customers so that there is less variables to consider.
Max Weber on "Ideal type of bureaucracy"
used as a model for specific cases. refers to dominant, essential characteristics, not a good or perfect org. 5 characteristics. 1)clear hierarchy of authority 2) rules for conduct of officials at all levels 3) full time, salaried officials 4) separation of tasks, outside life. 5)no members own the material resources
transformational leadership
goes beyond routine, instilling in members of their group a sense of mission or higher purpose, thereby changing nature of the group. leave their "stamp" on group. as apposed to transactional leadership (just get the job done).
Problematic issues with rigid beauracratic organizations
informal relations (ways of doing things) often allowed for a flexibility that couldn't otherwise be achieved. to much rigidity limits informal relations.
evolution of modern organizations
developed by Max Weber- development began with industrialization in 1700's, became dominant form by 1800's. rationalization as observation of large orgs.tasks became more specialized. some jobs taken over by machines.these modern rational orgs. are called formal orgs. Bureaucracy- specific type w/ purpose of maxing efficiency. (formal relations, clearly laid out rules, stated goals)
narrowing of thought by group leading to perception that their is only one correct answer. suggesting alternatives becomes a sign of disloyalty. coined by Irvin Janis. collective tunnel vision.in very cohesive groups, is a tendency to enforce a high degree of conformity (can be both harmless, destructive), creating demand for unanimous agreement. i.e challenger blast 1986.
development of global, economic developments stretching worldwide. we are all influenced by organizations and social networks (sets of formal, informal societies that link people together) located thousands of miles away. emergence of world system (theory- emphasizes interconnections among countries based on expansion of capitalist world economy) is key part of study. we need to regard the world as forming a single social order.
Goerg Simmel's theory on group size
argued that as groups increase in size, intensity increases, while stability increases. group dynamics are patterns of interaction between groups and individuals, including: (group to # of relationships) dyads-1, triads-3, 4 people-6, 5 people-10
temporary or permanent alliance geared toward common goal. can be narrow, broad based. can take on many different objectives.can be short lived or long term. begin to develop as groups grow larger.
secondary groups
formal, impersonal, businesslike relationships in witch there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding. large, task oriented b/c they have specific task to achieve, and focus on accomplishing a goal. i.e. schools, workplace
out groups
any group an individual feels opposition, rivalry, or hostility toward. or of which people feel they do not belong. hostility develops between in groups and out groups. i.e. columbine, terrorists.
three person social group. three relationships
informal relations
exist in groups and orgs. Developed on basis of personal connections. ways of doing things that depart from formally developed modes of procedure.
Formal Organization
Complex secondary groups deliberately formed to pursue and achieve certain goals. i.e. rationality
reference group
made up of members who act as role models, establish standards for conduct which all members measure up with. 2 purposes: 1)set and enforce codes of conduct. 2) standard for which people can measure themselves.

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