Sociology Test 2

87 cards

Chapters 5 - 7﷯﷯﷯ ﷯﷯﷯


 
  
Created Oct 19, 2010
by
egollehon

 

 
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1
Achieved Status
 

- a status attained by effort

2
Ascribed Status
 
- a status determined by birth
3
Collective Consciousness
 
- the body of beliefs that are common to a community or society and that give people a sense...
4
Cyberspace Interaction
 
- interaction occurring when two or more persons share a virtual reality experience via electronic...
5
Division of Labor
 
- the systematic interrelation of different tasks that develops in complex societies
6
Ethnomethodology
 
- a technique for studying human interaction by deliberately disrupting social norms and observing...
7
Game Theory
 

- a mathematical theory that regards human interaction as a game

- characterized...

8
Gemeinschaft
 

- German for community

- a state characterized by a sense of common feeling among...

9
Gesellschaft
 
- a type of society in which increasing importance is placed on the secondary relationships...
10
Group
 
- a collection of individuals who interact and communicate, share goals and norms, and who...
11
Impression Management
 
- a process by which people attempt to control how others perceive them
12
Imprinting
 
- a process whereby a newly hatched or newborn member of a species attaches itself to the first...
13
Macroanalysis
 
- analysis of the whole of society, how it is organized and how it changes
14
Master Status
 
- some characteristic of a person that overrides all other features of the person's identity
15
Mechanical Solidarity
 
- unity based on similarity, not difference, of roles
16
Microanalysis
 
- analysis of the smallest, most immediately visible parts of social life, such as people interacting
17
Nonverbal Communication
 
- communication by means other than speech, as by touch, gestures, use of distance, eye movements,...
18
Organic (Contractual) Solidarity
 
- unity based on role differentiation, not similarity
19
Postindustrial Society
 
- a society economically dependent upon the production and distribution of services, information...
20
Preindustrial Society
 
- one that directly uses, modifies, and/or tills the land as a major means of survival
21
Proxemic Communication
 
- meaning conveyed by the amount of space between interacting individuals
22
Role
 
- behavior others expect from a person associated with a particular status
23
Role Conflict
 
- two or more roles associated with contradictory expectations
24
Role Modeling
 
- imitation of the behavior of an admired other
25
Role Set
 
- all roles occupied by a person at a given time
26
Role Strain
 
- conflicting expectations within the same role
27
Social Institution
 
- an established and organized system of social behavior with a recognized purpose
28
Social Interaction
 
- behavior between two or more people that is given meaning
29
Social Organization
 
- the order established in social groups
30
Social Structure
 
- the patterns of social relationships and social institutions that make up society
31
Society
 
- a system of social interaction that includes both culture and social organization
32
Status
 
- an established position in a social structure that carries with it a degree of prestige
33
Status Inconsistency
 
- exists when the different statuses occupied by the individual bring with them significantly...
34
Status Set
 
- the complete set of statuses occupied by a person at a given time
35
Tacitile Communication
 
- patterns of touch, influenced by gender, that express emotional support, assert power, or...
36
Attribution Error
 
- error made in attributing the causes for someone's behavior to their membership in a particular...
37
Attribution Theory
 
- the principle that dispositional attributions are made about others (what the other is "really...
38
Bureaucracy
 
- a type of formal organization characterized by an authority hierarchy, a clear division of...
39
Coercive Organization
 

- organizations for which membership is involuntary

- examples are prisons, mental...

40
Deindividuation
 
- the feeling that one's self has merged with a group
41
Dyad
 
- a group consisting of two people
42
Expressive Needs
 
- needs for intimacy, companionship, and emotional support
43
Formal Organization
 
- a large secondary group organized to accomplish a complex task or set of tasks
44
Group Size Effect
 
- the effect upon the person of groups of varying sizes
45
Groupthink
 
- the tendency for group members to reach a consensus at all costs
46
Instrumental Needs
 
- emotionally neutral, task-oriented (goal-oriented) needs
47
Normative Organization
 

- an organization having a voluntary membership and that pursues goals

- examples...

48
Primary Group
 
- a group characterized by intimate, face-to-face interaction and relatively long-lasting relationships
49
Reference Group
 
- any group (to which one may or may not belong) used by the individual as a standard for evaluating...
50
Risky Shift (Polarization Shift)
 
- the tendency for group members, after discussion and interaction, to engage in riskier behavior...
51
Secondary Group
 
- a group that is relatively large in number and not as intimate or long in duration as a primary...
52
Social Network
 
- a set of links between individuals or other social units such as groups or organizations
53
Tenure
 
- a guarantee of continuing employment in an organization
54
Total Institution
 
- an organization cut off from the rest of society in which individuals are subject to strict...
55
Triad
 
- a group consisting of three people
56
Triadic Segregation
 
- the tendency for a triad to separate into a dyad and an isolate
57
Utilitarian Organization
 

- a profit or nonprofit organization that pays its employees salaries or wages

-...

58
Altruistic Suicide
 
- the type of suicide that can occur when there is excessive regulation of individuals by social...
59
Anomic Suicide
 
- the type of suicide occurring when there are disintegrating forces in the society that make...
60
Anomie
 
- the condition existing when social regulations (norms) in a society break down
61
Bioterrorism
 
- a form of terrorism involving the dispersion of chemical or biological substances intended...
62
Crime
 

- one form of deviance

- specifically, behavior that violates criminal laws

63
Criminology
 
- the study of crime from a scientific perspective
64
Cyberterrorism
 
- the use of the computer to commit one or more terrorist acts
65
Deviance
 
- behavior that is recognized as violating expected rules and norms
66
Deviant Career
 
- continuing to be labeled as deviant even after the initial (primary) deviance may have ceased
67
Deviant Communities
 
- groups that are organized around particualr forms of social deviance
68
Deviant Identity
 
- the definition a person has of himself or herself as a deviant
69
Differential Association Theory
 
- theory that interprets deviance as behavior one learns through interaction with others
70
Egoistic Suicide
 
- the type of suicide that occurs when people feel totally detached from society
71
Elite Deviance
 
- the wrongdoing of powerful individuals and organizations
72
Hate Crimes
 

- assaults and other malicious acts (including crimes against property) motivated by various...

73
Index Crimes
 
- the FBI's tallying of violent crimes of murder, manslaughter, rape, robbery and aggravated...
74
Labeling Theory
 
- a theory that interprets the responses of others as most significant in understanding deviant...
75
Master Status
 
- some characteristic of a person that overrides all other features of the person's identity
76
Medicalization of Deviance
 
- explanations of deviant behavior that interpret deviance as the result of individual pathology...
77
Organized Crime
 
- crime committed by organized groups, typically involving the illegal provisionof goods and...
78
Personal Crimes
 
- violent or nonviolent crimes directed against people
79
Property Crimes
 
- crimes involving theft of or harm to property without bodily harm to the victim(s) 
80
Racial Profiling
 
- the use of race alone as the criterion for deciding whether to stop and detain someone on...
81
Social Control
 
- the process by which groups and individuals within these groups are brought into conformity...
82
Social Control Agents
 
- those who regulate and administer the response to deviance, such as the police or mental...
83
Social Control Theory
 
- theory that explains deviance as the result of the weakening of social bonds
84
Stigma
 
- an attribute that is socialy devalued and discredited
85
Structural Strain Theory
 
- a theory that interprets deviance as oriinating in the tensions that exist in society between...
86
Victimless Crimes
 
- violations of law not listed in the FBI's serious crime index, such as gambling or prostitution
87
Ponzi Scheme
 
- a con game whereby a central person collects money from a large number of people, including...

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