Sociology Test 2

Chapters 5 - 7
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Achieved Status

- a status attained by effort
Ascribed Status
- a status determined by birth
Collective Consciousness
- the body of beliefs that are common to a community or society and that give people a sense of belonging
Cyberspace Interaction
- interaction occurring when two or more persons share a virtual reality experience via electronic communication and interaction with each other
Division of Labor
- the systematic interrelation of different tasks that develops in complex societies
- a technique for studying human interaction by deliberately disrupting social norms and observing how individuals attempt to restore normalcy
Game Theory

- a mathematical theory that regards human interaction as a game
- characterized by strategies, rewards and punishments, and winners and losers

- German for community
- a state characterized by a sense of common feeling among the members of a society
- includes strong personal ties, sturdy primary group memberships, and a sense of personal loyalty to one another
- associated with rural life
- a type of society in which increasing importance is placed on the secondary relationships people have-that is, less intimate and more instrumental relationships
- a collection of individuals who interact and communicate, share goals and norms, and who have a subjective awareness as "we"
Impression Management
- a process by which people attempt to control how others perceive them
- a process whereby a newly hatched or newborn member of a species attaches itself to the first object "seen" by it, whether it is the mother or not, and whether it is an animal, human or physical object
- analysis of the whole of society, how it is organized and how it changes
Master Status
- some characteristic of a person that overrides all other features of the person's identity
Mechanical Solidarity
- unity based on similarity, not difference, of roles
- analysis of the smallest, most immediately visible parts of social life, such as people interacting
Nonverbal Communication
- communication by means other than speech, as by touch, gestures, use of distance, eye movements, and so on
Organic (Contractual) Solidarity
- unity based on role differentiation, not similarity
Postindustrial Society
- a society economically dependent upon the production and distribution of services, information and knowledge
Preindustrial Society
- one that directly uses, modifies, and/or tills the land as a major means of survival
Proxemic Communication
- meaning conveyed by the amount of space between interacting individuals
- behavior others expect from a person associated with a particular status
Role Conflict
- two or more roles associated with contradictory expectations
Role Modeling
- imitation of the behavior of an admired other
Role Set
- all roles occupied by a person at a given time
Role Strain
- conflicting expectations within the same role
Social Institution
- an established and organized system of social behavior with a recognized purpose
Social Interaction
- behavior between two or more people that is given meaning
Social Organization
- the order established in social groups
Social Structure
- the patterns of social relationships and social institutions that make up society
- a system of social interaction that includes both culture and social organization
- an established position in a social structure that carries with it a degree of prestige
Status Inconsistency
- exists when the different statuses occupied by the individual bring with them significantly different amounts of prestige
Status Set
- the complete set of statuses occupied by a person at a given time
Tacitile Communication
- patterns of touch, influenced by gender, that express emotional support, assert power, or express sexual interest
Attribution Error
- error made in attributing the causes for someone's behavior to their membership in a particular group, such as a racial group
Attribution Theory
- the principle that dispositional attributions are made about others (what the other is "really like") under certain conditions, such as out-group membership
- a type of formal organization characterized by an authority hierarchy, a clear division of labor, explicit rules, and impersonality
Coercive Organization

- organizations for which membership is involuntary
- examples are prisons, mental hospitals
- the feeling that one's self has merged with a group
- a group consisting of two people
Expressive Needs
- needs for intimacy, companionship, and emotional support
Formal Organization
- a large secondary group organized to accomplish a complex task or set of tasks
Group Size Effect
- the effect upon the person of groups of varying sizes
- the tendency for group members to reach a consensus at all costs
Instrumental Needs
- emotionally neutral, task-oriented (goal-oriented) needs
Normative Organization

- an organization having a voluntary membership and that pursues goals
- examples are the PTA or a political party
Primary Group
- a group characterized by intimate, face-to-face interaction and relatively long-lasting relationships
Reference Group
- any group (to which one may or may not belong) used by the individual as a standard for evaluating her or his attitudes, values and behaviors
Risky Shift (Polarization Shift)
- the tendency for group members, after discussion and interaction, to engage in riskier behavior than they would while alone
Secondary Group
- a group that is relatively large in number and not as intimate or long in duration as a primary group
Social Network
- a set of links between individuals or other social units such as groups or organizations
- a guarantee of continuing employment in an organization
Total Institution
- an organization cut off from the rest of society in which individuals are subject to strict social control
- a group consisting of three people
Triadic Segregation
- the tendency for a triad to separate into a dyad and an isolate
Utilitarian Organization

- a profit or nonprofit organization that pays its employees salaries or wages
- examples are Microsoft Corporation (profit) and a university (nonprofit)
Altruistic Suicide
- the type of suicide that can occur when there is excessive regulation of individuals by social forces
Anomic Suicide
- the type of suicide occurring when there are disintegrating forces in the society that make individuals feel lost or alone
- the condition existing when social regulations (norms) in a society break down
- a form of terrorism involving the dispersion of chemical or biological substances intended to cause widespread disease and death

- one form of deviance
- specifically, behavior that violates criminal laws
- the study of crime from a scientific perspective
- the use of the computer to commit one or more terrorist acts
- behavior that is recognized as violating expected rules and norms
Deviant Career
- continuing to be labeled as deviant even after the initial (primary) deviance may have ceased
Deviant Communities
- groups that are organized around particualr forms of social deviance
Deviant Identity
- the definition a person has of himself or herself as a deviant
Differential Association Theory
- theory that interprets deviance as behavior one learns through interaction with others
Egoistic Suicide
- the type of suicide that occurs when people feel totally detached from society
Elite Deviance
- the wrongdoing of powerful individuals and organizations
Hate Crimes

- assaults and other malicious acts (including crimes against property) motivated by various forms of bias
- includes those based on race, religion, sexual orientation, ethnic and national origin, or disability
Index Crimes
- the FBI's tallying of violent crimes of murder, manslaughter, rape, robbery and aggravated assault, plus property crimes
Labeling Theory
- a theory that interprets the responses of others as most significant in understanding deviant behavior
Master Status
- some characteristic of a person that overrides all other features of the person's identity
Medicalization of Deviance
- explanations of deviant behavior that interpret deviance as the result of individual pathology or sickness
Organized Crime
- crime committed by organized groups, typically involving the illegal provisionof goods and services to others
Personal Crimes
- violent or nonviolent crimes directed against people
Property Crimes
- crimes involving theft of or harm to property without bodily harm to the victim(s)
Racial Profiling
- the use of race alone as the criterion for deciding whether to stop and detain someone on suspicion of their having committed a crime
Social Control
- the process by which groups and individuals within these groups are brought into conformity with dominant social expectations
Social Control Agents
- those who regulate and administer the response to deviance, such as the police or mental health workers
Social Control Theory
- theory that explains deviance as the result of the weakening of social bonds
- an attribute that is socialy devalued and discredited
Structural Strain Theory
- a theory that interprets deviance as oriinating in the tensions that exist in society between cultural goals and the means people have to achieve those goals
Victimless Crimes
- violations of law not listed in the FBI's serious crime index, such as gambling or prostitution
Ponzi Scheme
- a con game whereby a central person collects money from a large number of people, including friends and relatives, and then promises to invest their dollars with a high rate of interest for them

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