Sociology Test 1 - People

28 cards
Sociology Test 1 - People

Ch 1 - 4  

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› Jane Addams
o Leader in the settlement house movement o Only practicing sociologist to win Nobel Peace Prize o Used skills as a research sociologist to develop community projects that assisted people in need
› Auguste Comte
o First coined the term “sociology” as the scientific study of society based on positivism
› Alexis de Tocqueville
o A Frenchman o Analyzed US democratic culture & society in Democracy in America
› W.E. B. Du Bois
o First black scholar to receive a Ph.D in sociology from Harvard o Prominent black scholar & co-founder of the NAACP o Devoted life work to addressing the racial divisiveness in US society
Emile Durkheim
o Viewed society as an entity larger than the sum of its parts (society sui generis) o Work focused on how public rituals & belief systems created social solidarity & how a social system could be known through the discovery & analysis of social facts
› Harriett Martineau
o British o Analyzed American social customs in Society in America o Wrote one of the first sociologist methods books on the research method called participant observation (How to Observe Manners & Morals)
› Karl Marx
o Considered society to be shaped by economic forces o Analyzed capitalism as a system of class relationships
› C. Wright Mills
o Said the task of sociology is to employ the sociological perspective to understand how issues are shaped by social structure
› Robert Park
o Key founder of sociology o Cities organized in concentric circles o The influence of race & class on design of cities
› Max Weber
o Developed a multidimensional analysis of society which integrated political, economic & cultural aspects o Developed the concept of Verstehen o Defined social action as a behavior to which people give meaning
› Ida B. Wells-Barnett
o Early sociologist widely noted for her work in the anti-lynching movement o Born a slave, learned to read & write at Rust College, a school established for freed slaves o Received teaching credentials at Fisk University o Wrote numerous essays on the status of African Americans in the US o Was an active crusader against lynching & for women’s rights, including the right to vote
› William Graham Sumner
o Identified only two types of norms: folkways & mores
› Mitch Dunier
o (in Sidewalk) o Wanted to know how homeless people lived & used participant observation
› Nancy Chodorow
o Used psychoanalytic theory to explain how the asymmetrical division of labor within a family, by gender, shapes personalities
› Charles Horton Cooley
o Postulated the looking-glass self to explain how a person’s conception of self arises through reflection about one’s relationship with others
› Erik Erikson
o Said the central task of adolescence is the formation of a consistent identity
› Sigmund Freud
o Developed the psychoanalytic theory which sees the human identity as relatively fixed at an early age in a process greatly influenced by one’s family o Saw the development of the social identity (ego) as an unconscious process developed from dynamic tensions between strong instinctual impulses (id) & the social standards of society (superego)
› Carol Gilligan
o Found that women’s moral judgments were more contextual & relational than men’s
› Lawrence Kohlberg
o Described moral development occurring in three stages: preconventional, conventional, & postconventional based on research with men
› George Herbert Mead
o Said social roles are the basis of all social interaction o Taking the role of the other, imitation stage, play stage, & game stage
› Jean Piaget
o Argued that the human mind organizes experience into mental categories (schema), which are modified & developed as social experiences accumulate o Proposed that children go through distinct stages of cognitive development as they learn the basic rules of reasoning: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, & formal operational
› Robert Merton
o Functionalist o Manifest function – intended o Latent function – unintended o Dysfunctions – negative
› Charles Darwin
o Identified the process of evolution o Social Darwinists – “survival of the fittest” driving force of social evolution o Organism evolves from simple to complex
› Talcott Parsons
o Functionalist o All parts of a social system are interrelated o Different parts have different basic functions
› Georg Simmel
o Explained critical distance – ability to detach from a situation o Role of strangers inside & outside of social groups o Strangers can see social structure of a group more readily
› Sir Frances Bacon
o British philosopher o Defined & elaborated on the scientific method
› Edward Sapir
o Writings in 1920s o Language central in determining social thought o Language forces people to perceive the world in certain terms
› Benjamin Whorf
o Writings in 1950s o Sapir’s student o Language central in determining social thought o Language forces people to perceive the world in certain terms
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