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Side ASide B
a collection of people who share some attribute, identify with one another, and interact with...
- a temporary gathering of people in a public place- members might interact but do not identify...
a collection of people who share a physical location but do not have lasting social relations
- the people who are most important to our sense of self- members' relationships are typically...
- larger and less intimate than primary groups- members' relationships are usually organized...
the web of direct and indirect ties connecting an individual to other people who may also affect...
connections between individuals
-"normlessness"- term used to describe the alienation and loss of purpose that result from...
electronic or virtual communities
social groups whose interactions are mediated through information technologies, particularly...
the patterns of interaction between groups and individuals
a two person-social group
a three-person social group
group that one identifies with and feels loyalty towards
any group an individual feels opposition, rivalry, or hostility toward
a group that provides a standard of comparison against which we evaluate ourselves
the sense of solidarity or loyalty that individuals feel toward a group to which they...
in very cohesive groups, the tendency to enforce a high degree of conformity among members,...
social influences (peer pressure)
the influence of one's fellow group members on individual attitudes and behaviors
behaviors approved of by a particular social group
behaviors a particular social groups wants its members to avoid
the mildest type of conformity, undertaken to gain rewards or avoid punishment
a type of conformity stronger than compliance and weaker than internalization, caused by a...
the strongest type of conformity, occurring when an individual adopts the beliefs or actions...
-the phenomenon in which as more individuals are added to a task, each individual contributes...
social identity theory
a theory of group formation and maintenance that stresses the need of individual members to...
the ability to control the actions of others
power that is backed by the threat of force
power that is supported by persuasion
the legitimate right to wield power
authority based on custom, birthright, or divine right
authority based in laws, rules, and procedures, not in the hereditary or personality of any...
authority based in the perception of remarkable personal qualities in a leader
leadership that is task or goal oriented
leadership concerned with maintaining emotional and relational harmony within the group
a type of secondary group designed to perform tasks efficiently, characterized by specialization,...
- the application of economic logic to human activity- the use of formal rules and regulations...
George Ritzer's term describing the spread of bureaucratic rationalization and the accompanying...
Three systems of stratification
1. slavery2. caste 3. social class
the division of society into groups arranged in a social hierarchy
the unequal distribution of wealth, power, or prestige among members of a society
the most extreme form of social stratification, based on the legal ownership of people
a form of social stratification in which status is determined by one's family history and background...
the system of segregation of racial and ethnic groups that was legal in South Africa between...
a system of stratification based on access to resources such as wealth, property, power, and...
socioeconomic status (SES)
- a measure of an individual's place within a social class system- often used interchangeably...
- a largely self-sustaining group of the wealthiest people in a class system- in the U.S. they...
- mostly professionals and managers, who enjoy considerable financial stability- they constitute...
- composed primarily of "white collar" workers with a broad range of incomes- they constitute...
a description characterizing workers and skilled laborers in technical and lower-management...
working class/lower-middle class
- mostly "blue-collar" or service industry workers who are less likely to have a college degree-...
a description characterizing workers who perform manual labor
- poorly educated workers who work full-time but remain below the poverty line- they constitute...
- the poorest American who are chronically unemployed and may depend on public or private assistance-...
a situation in whicih there are serious differences between the different elements of an individual's...
feudal system (Marx)
a system of social stratification based on a hereditary nobility who were responsible for and...
prestige (Max Weber)
the social honor people are given because of their membership in well-regarded social groups
social reproduction (Bourdieu)
the tendency of social classes to remain relatively stable as soical class status is passed...
cultural capital (Bourdieu)
the tastes, habits, expectations, skills, knowledge, and other cultural dispositions that help...
awareness of one's own social status and that of others
the movement of individuals or groups within the hierarchal system of social classes
a social system with very little opportunity to move from one class to another
a social system with ample opportunities to move from one class to another
movement between social classes that occurs from one generation to the next
the movement between social classes that occurs over the course of an individual's lifetime
horizontal social mobility
the occupational movement of individuals or groups within a social class
vertical social mobility
the movement between different class statuses, often called either upward mobility or downward...
changes in the social status of large numbers of people due to structural changes in society
a system in which rewards are distributed based on merit