Sociology Quiz/Test 2

Covers Material Discussed After The Midterm. Chapters 6 And 8 And Reading #45.

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Side ASide B
a collection of people who share some attribute, identify with one another, and interact with...
- a temporary gathering of people in a public place- members might interact but do not identify...
a collection of people who share a physical location but do not have lasting social relations
primary groups
- the people who are most important to our sense of self- members' relationships are typically...
secondary groups
- larger and less intimate than primary groups- members' relationships are usually organized...
social network
the web of direct and indirect ties connecting an individual to other people who may also affect...
social ties
connections between individuals
-"normlessness"- term used to describe the alienation and loss of purpose that result from...
electronic or virtual communities
social groups whose interactions are mediated through information technologies, particularly...
group dynamics
the patterns of interaction between groups and individuals
a two person-social group
a three-person social group
group that one identifies with and feels loyalty towards
any group an individual feels opposition, rivalry, or hostility toward
reference group
a group that provides a standard of comparison against which we evaluate ourselves
group cohesion
 the sense of solidarity or loyalty that individuals feel toward a group to which they...
group think
in very cohesive groups, the tendency to enforce a high degree of conformity among members,...
social influences (peer pressure)
the influence of one's fellow group members on individual attitudes and behaviors
behaviors approved of by a particular social group
behaviors a particular social groups wants its members to avoid
the mildest type of conformity, undertaken to gain rewards or avoid punishment
a type of conformity stronger than compliance and weaker than internalization, caused by a...
the strongest type of conformity, occurring when an individual adopts the beliefs or actions...
social loafing
-the phenomenon in which as more individuals are added to a task, each individual contributes...
social identity theory
a theory of group formation and maintenance that stresses the need of individual members to...
the ability to control the actions of others
coercive power
power that is backed by the threat of force
influential power
power that is supported by persuasion
the legitimate right to wield power
traditional authority
authority based on custom, birthright, or divine right
legal-rational authority
authority based in laws, rules, and procedures, not in the hereditary or personality of any...
charismatic authority
authority based in the perception of remarkable personal qualities in a leader
instrumental leader
leadership that is task or goal oriented
expressive leadership
leadership concerned with maintaining emotional and relational harmony within the group
a type of secondary group designed to perform tasks efficiently, characterized by specialization,...
- the application of economic logic to human activity- the use of formal rules and regulations...
George Ritzer's term describing the spread of bureaucratic rationalization and the accompanying...
Three systems of stratification
1. slavery2. caste 3. social class
social stratification
the division of society into groups arranged in a social hierarchy
social inequality
the unequal distribution of wealth, power, or prestige among members of a society
the most extreme form of social stratification, based on the legal ownership of people
caste system
a form of social stratification in which status is determined by one's family history and background...
the system of segregation of racial and ethnic groups that was legal in South Africa between...
social class
a system of stratification based on access to resources such as wealth, property, power, and...
socioeconomic status (SES)
- a measure of an individual's place within a social class system- often used interchangeably...
upper class
- a largely self-sustaining group of the wealthiest people in a class system- in the U.S. they...
upper-middle class
- mostly professionals and managers, who enjoy considerable financial stability- they constitute...
middle class
- composed primarily of "white collar" workers with a broad range of incomes- they constitute...
a description characterizing workers and skilled laborers in technical and lower-management...
working class/lower-middle class
- mostly "blue-collar" or service industry workers who are less likely to have a college degree-...
a description characterizing workers who perform manual labor
working poor
- poorly educated workers who work full-time but remain below the poverty line- they constitute...
- the poorest American who are chronically unemployed and may depend on public or private assistance-...
status inconsistency
a situation in whicih there are serious differences between the different elements of an individual's...
feudal system (Marx)
a system of social stratification based on a hereditary nobility who were responsible for and...
prestige (Max Weber)
the social honor people are given because of their membership in well-regarded social groups
social reproduction (Bourdieu)
the tendency of social classes to remain relatively stable as soical class status is passed...
cultural capital (Bourdieu)
the tastes, habits, expectations, skills, knowledge, and other cultural dispositions that help...
class consciousness
awareness of one's own social status and that of others
social mobility
the movement of individuals or groups within the hierarchal system of social classes
closed system
a social system with very little opportunity to move from one class to another
open system
a social system with ample opportunities to move from one class to another
intergenerational mobility
movement between social classes that occurs from one generation to the next
intragenerational mobility
the movement between social classes that occurs over the course of an individual's lifetime
horizontal social mobility
the occupational movement of individuals or groups within a social class
vertical social mobility
the movement between different class statuses, often called either upward mobility or downward...
structural mobility
changes in the social status of large numbers of people due to structural changes in society
a system in which rewards are distributed based on merit

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