Sociology Quiz/Test 2

Covers Material Discussed After The Midterm. Chapters 6 And 8 And Reading #45.
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a collection of people who share some attribute, identify with one another, and interact with each other
- a temporary gathering of people in a public place
- members might interact but do not identify with each other and will not remain in contact
a collection of people who share a physical location but do not have lasting social relations
primary groups
- the people who are most important to our sense of self
- members' relationships are typically characterized by face to face interaction, high levels of cooperation, and intense feelings of belonging
secondary groups
- larger and less intimate than primary groups
- members' relationships are usually organized around a specific goal and are often temporary
social network
the web of direct and indirect ties connecting an individual to other people who may also affect her
social ties
connections between individuals
- term used to describe the alienation and loss of purpose that result from weaker social bonds and an increased pace of change
electronic or virtual communities
social groups whose interactions are mediated through information technologies, particularly the internet
group dynamics
the patterns of interaction between groups and individuals
a two person-social group
a three-person social group
group that one identifies with and feels loyalty towards
any group an individual feels opposition, rivalry, or hostility toward
reference group
a group that provides a standard of comparison against which we evaluate ourselves
group cohesion
the sense of solidarity or loyalty that individuals feel toward a group to which they belong
group think
in very cohesive groups, the tendency to enforce a high degree of conformity among members, creating a demand for unanimous agreement
social influences (peer pressure)
the influence of one's fellow group members on individual attitudes and behaviors
behaviors approved of by a particular social group
behaviors a particular social groups wants its members to avoid
the mildest type of conformity, undertaken to gain rewards or avoid punishment
a type of conformity stronger than compliance and weaker than internalization, caused by a desire to establish or maintain a relationship with a person or a group
the strongest type of conformity, occurring when an individual adopts the beliefs or actions of a group and makes them her own
social loafing
-the phenomenon in which as more individuals are added to a task, each individual contributes a little less
- a source of inefficacy when working in teams
social identity theory
a theory of group formation and maintenance that stresses the need of individual members to feel a sense of belonging
the ability to control the actions of others
coercive power
power that is backed by the threat of force
influential power
power that is supported by persuasion
the legitimate right to wield power
traditional authority
authority based on custom, birthright, or divine right
legal-rational authority
authority based in laws, rules, and procedures, not in the hereditary or personality of any individual leader
charismatic authority
authority based in the perception of remarkable personal qualities in a leader
instrumental leader
leadership that is task or goal oriented
expressive leadership
leadership concerned with maintaining emotional and relational harmony within the group
a type of secondary group designed to perform tasks efficiently, characterized by specialization, technical competence, hierarchy, written rules, impersonality, and formal written communication
- the application of economic logic to human activity
- the use of formal rules and regulations in order to maximize efficiency without consideration of subjective or individual concerns
George Ritzer's term describing the spread of bureaucratic rationalization and the accompanying increases in efficiency and dehumanization
Three systems of stratification
1. slavery
2. caste
3. social class
social stratification
the division of society into groups arranged in a social hierarchy
social inequality
the unequal distribution of wealth, power, or prestige among members of a society
the most extreme form of social stratification, based on the legal ownership of people
caste system
a form of social stratification in which status is determined by one's family history and background and cannot be changed
the system of segregation of racial and ethnic groups that was legal in South Africa between 1948 and 1991
social class
a system of stratification based on access to resources such as wealth, property, power, and prestige
socioeconomic status (SES)
- a measure of an individual's place within a social class system
- often used interchangeably with "class"
upper class
- a largely self-sustaining group of the wealthiest people in a class system
- in the U.S. they constitute about 1 percent of the population and possess most of the wealth of the country
upper-middle class
- mostly professionals and managers, who enjoy considerable financial stability
- they constitute about 14 percent of the U.S. population
middle class
- composed primarily of "white collar" workers with a broad range of incomes
- they constitute about 30 percent of the U.S. population
a description characterizing workers and skilled laborers in technical and lower-management jobs
working class/lower-middle class
- mostly "blue-collar" or service industry workers who are less likely to have a college degree
- they constitute about 30 percent of the U.S. population
a description characterizing workers who perform manual labor
working poor
- poorly educated workers who work full-time but remain below the poverty line
- they constitute about 20 percent of the U.S. population
- the poorest American who are chronically unemployed and may depend on public or private assistance
- they constitute about 5 percent of the U.S. population
status inconsistency
a situation in whicih there are serious differences between the different elements of an individual's socioeconomic status
feudal system (Marx)
a system of social stratification based on a hereditary nobility who were responsible for and served by a lower stratum of forced laborers called serfs
prestige (Max Weber)
the social honor people are given because of their membership in well-regarded social groups
social reproduction (Bourdieu)
the tendency of social classes to remain relatively stable as soical class status is passed down from one generation to the next
cultural capital (Bourdieu)
the tastes, habits, expectations, skills, knowledge, and other cultural dispositions that help us gain advantages in society
class consciousness
awareness of one's own social status and that of others
social mobility
the movement of individuals or groups within the hierarchal system of social classes
closed system
a social system with very little opportunity to move from one class to another
open system
a social system with ample opportunities to move from one class to another
intergenerational mobility
movement between social classes that occurs from one generation to the next
intragenerational mobility
the movement between social classes that occurs over the course of an individual's lifetime
horizontal social mobility
the occupational movement of individuals or groups within a social class
vertical social mobility
the movement between different class statuses, often called either upward mobility or downward mobility
structural mobility
changes in the social status of large numbers of people due to structural changes in society
a system in which rewards are distributed based on merit

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