Sociology Final On Chapters 11, 12, 15, And 16

Sociology Final On Chapters 11, 12, 15, And 16 Trying To Pass My Final
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The concept "race" refers to:
 
Race is a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important.

What concept refers to a category of people, distinguishable by physical or cultural traits, that are socially disadvantaged?
 
A Minority is a category of people, distinguishable by physical or cultural traits, that are socially disadvantaged.

What are the characteristics of being a minority?
Are Minorities always disadvantaged?
 
The characteristics of being a minority are; a) the ability to distinguish them by a physical of cultural trait, and b) the way that society sets them apart and subordinates them.
Minorities are not always disadvantaged.

What term is used to describe a rigid and irrational generalization about an entire category of people?
 
Prejudice is a rigid and irrational generalization about an entire category of people.

Based on Scapegoat Theory, you would conclude that prejudice is created by:
 
Scapegoat theory claims that prejudice results from frustration among people who are disadvantaged.

Conflict Theory states that prejudice is:
 
Conflict Theory states that prejudice is a tool used by the powerful to divide and control the population.

Institutional prejudice and discrimination refers to the fact that:
 
Institutional prejudice and discrimination refers to the fact that discrimination is built into the operation of societal institutions, including schools, hospitals, police and the work place.

What is a state in which racial and ethnic minorities are distinct but have rough social equality?
 
Pluralism is a state in which racial and ethnic minorities are distinct but have rough social equality.

Assimilation refers to a pattern by which:
 
Assimilation refers to a pattern by which minorities gradually adopt the patterns of the dominant race.

What is the meaning of the term W.A.S.P.?
 
W.A.S.P. stands for White Angelo Saxon Protestants.

Which categories of Asian Americans have a median income above the national average?
 
Chinese and Japanese Americans have a median income above the national average.

What is the largest category of Asian Americans living in the U.S.?
 
Chinese Americans are the largest group of Asian Americans living in the U.S..

Most of todays immigrants come from which two regions?
 
Most of todays immigrants come from Latin America and Asia, with Mexicans, Asian Indians and Chinese coming in the largest numbers.

As a social institution, the economy does what?
 
The economy is a social institution through which society produces, distributes and consumes goods and services.

What concept refers to an economy based on service work and computer technology?
 
Post-Industrial Technology is a concept that refers to an economy based on service work and computer technology.

Turning metal into automobiles is work that falls within which sector of the economy?
 
The secondary sector transforms raw materials into manufactured goods, such as metal into cars.

Socialism is an economic system in which there is:
 
Socialism is an economic system in which there is collective ownership of natural resources and the means of producing goods.

Compared to Socialist economic systems, Capitalist economic systems are typically what?
 
Capitalist economic systems typically offer greater productivity than Socialist economic systems.

What is a conglomerate?
 
A corporation consisting of several companies in different businesses. Such a structure allows for diversification of business risks, but the lack of focus can make managing the diverse businesses more difficult.

The concept Oligopoly refers to what?
 
An Oligopoly is the domination of a market by few producers.

Which of Weber's types of authority rests on extraordinary personal abilities that inspire devotion in followers?
 
Charismatic Authority rests on extraordinary personal abilities that inspire devotion in followers?

What is an Authoritarian political system?
 
An Authoritarian political system is any political system which denies the people the chance to participate in government.

A Totalitarian political system:
 
A Totalitarian political system concentrates all political power in one centralized leadership.

A Pluralist approach to the U.S. political system suggests:
 
A Pluralist approach to the U.S. political system suggests that power is spread widely throughout the united states.

What is the term used to define violence by government officials, often-times used against their own people?
 
State Terrorism refers to violence by government officials, often-times used against their own people?

The military-industrial complex refers to:
 
The military-industrial complex refers to the close association of the federal government, the military and defense agencies. (Not the same as Power Elites)

What is Demography?
 
Demography is the study of the human population.

Fertility refers to:
 
Fertility refers to the incidence of childbirth in a country's population.

The maximum possible childbearing for women is called what?
 
Fecundity is the maximum possible childbearing for women if they were to birth as many children as their bodies would allow.

In terms of migration within the United States, the region of the country most often left behind is:
 
In terms of migration within the United States, the region of the country most often left behind is the Midwest.

Typically, the population in low-income nations grow mostly from _____(birth), whereas the higher-income nations grow from _____.
 
Typically, the population in low-income nations grow mostly from natural increase (birth), whereas the higher-income nations grow from immigration.

The demographic measure called "Sex ratio" refers to:
 
The demographic measure called "Sex Ratio" refers to the number of men for every 100 women.

If a country has a sex ratio of 110, it is likely that:
 
If a country has a sex ratio of 110, it is likely that they value men over women.

Thomas Robert Malthus believed that:
 
Thomas Robert Malthus believed that population increased geometrically, while food could only increase arithmetically.

Thomas Robert Malthus argued that:
 
Thomas Robert Malthus argued that there were 3 checks that kept the population in check naturally; famine, war, and disease. He also believed that birth control and abstinence could act as preventative checks.

The basic idea behind demographic transition theory is that: (4 stages)
 
Demographic transition theory is a thesis linking population patterns to a society's level of technological development. There are 4 stages; 1)Pre-Industrial2)Onset of Industrialization3)Industrial Economy4)Post-Industrial Economy

Describe Stage 1-
 
Stage 1: pre-industrial; high birthrates/ high death rates, outbreaks of disease keep the population in check so it neither rises nor falls substantially. High population growth.

Describe Stage 2-
 
Stage 2: onset of industrialization; high birth rates, lower death rates, greater food supplies and scientific medicine. Birth rates remain high, still resulting in high population growth.

Describe Stage 3-
 
Stage 3; industrial economy; declining birth rates, low death rates, mature industrial economy, birth rate drops, curbing population growth, fertility rate falls because most children live to adulthood, high living standards, smaller families/less children desired.

Describe Stage 4-
 
Stage 4, Post-Industrial Economy; low birth rates, steady death rates, demographic transition is complete, two incomes desired per household, lower fertility, population grows slowly or decreases.
Zero Population Growth refers to what?
 
Zero Population Growth refers to a population that maintains a steady level.
Many governments in high-income nations are concerned about population decline because:
 
Many governments in high-income countries are concerned about population decline because it is tough to reverse and because it results in a shortage of young to provide for the growing segment of older citizens.
What term refers to social patterns resulting from industrialization?
 
Modernity is the process of social change begun by industrialization and it has 4 major characteristics;1)the decline of small traditional characteristics,2)the expansion of personal choice,3)increasing social diversity (beginning in urban centers),4)future orientation and growing awareness of time.
A term used to describe social patterns and characteristics of post-industrial societies is:
 
Post-modernity refers to social patterns and characteristics of postindustrial societies.
Demographic changes in the United States over the course of the past decade include what?
 
Smaller families, graying of the population, and migration within and between societies (from snow belt to sun belt)
What type of social movement seeks a radical change, but only in some people?
 
Redemptive Social Movements seeks radical change, but only in some people.
Mass-Society theory predicts that social movements will involve what types of people?
 
Mass-Society theory predicts that social movements will involve people who are socially isolated and join a movement to gain a sense of identity and purpose.
Which theoretical approach states that social movements depend not just on material resources but on rallying around symbols and gaining a sense of unity in action?
 
Cultural theory states that social movements depend not just on material resources but on rallying around symbols and gaining a sense of unity in action.
Ferdinand Tonnies described modernity as the loss of:
 
Ferdinand Tonnies described modernity as the loss of Gemeinschaft, or community.
Durkheim's concept of organic solidarity corresponds to Tonnies concept of what?
 
Durkheim's concept of organic solidarity corresponds to Tonnies concept of Gesselschaft.
Max Weber's view of modernity stressed what?
 
Max Weber's view of modernity stressed the dehumanizing effects of bureaucracy and the alienation of humanity.
Scholars who take a post-modernist approach claim that:
 
Scholars who take a post-modernist approach claim that;1)in important respects post-modernity has failed,2)The bright light of progress is fading,3)Science no longer holds all the answers,4)Cultural debates are intensifying,and5)Social institutions are changing
What are some real trends suggesting that life in the United States is getting better?
 
Five real trends which suggest that life in the U.S. is getting better are;1)lower infant mortality,2)life expectancy has risen3)lower incidence of poverty among seniors4)fewer high school dropoutsand5)higher incidence of college completion
Tonnies' Gemeinschaft is closely related to Durkheim's ____________. (traditional)
 
Tonnies' Gemeinschaft is closely related to Durkheim's Mechanical Solidarity.
Tonnies' Gesselschaft is closely related to Durkheim's _________. (modernity/post-modernity)
 
Tonnies' Gesselschaft is closely related to Durkheim's Organic Sollidarity.
Immigration= migration INTO a society, whereas Emmigration =__________.
 
Immigration= migration INTO a society, whereas Emmigration =migration out of a society
Sir Thomas Malthus was:
 
Sir Thomas Malthus was an English clergyman, professor of literature, and economist. He was one of the first to study populations and write about it.
What is social change?
 
Social change is the transformation of cultural and social institutions over time.
Alterative Social Movements:
 
Alterative Social Movements seek limited change in a limited part of the population.
Revolutionary social movements:
 
Revolutionary social movements strive for major transformation of an entire society.
The primary sector is:
 
The primary sector is the part of the economy that draws raw materials from the natural environment.
The tertiary sector is:
 
The tertiary sector is the part of the economy that involves services, rather than goods.
Define Interlocking directorates:
 
Interlocking directorates are networks of people who serve as directors of many corporations. For example, the CEO of Pepsi sitting on the board of directors for Coca Cola.
Rational-Legal Authority is another term for what?
 
Rational-Legal Authority is another term for Bureaucratic Authority.
The U.S. government's second biggest expenditure is defense. What is it's first?
 
The United States highest ranking expenditure is social security.
Racism is the belief that:
 
Racism is the belief that one racial category is superior or inferior to another.
De Jure Segregation is:
 
Dujour Segregation is the purposeful separation of racial groups.
De facto Segregation is:
 
In-facto Segregation is when you draw up bizarre boundaries to keep racial groups apart.
What is Xenophobia?
 
Xenophobia is hostility toward foreigners.
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