Sociology Final

Youngstown State University
Semester: Fall Of 2008
Sociology 1500
Min Li, Ph.D.

Final Exam Preparation
Chapters 8, 9, 10, And 12

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So great was his contribution to Sociology, he has been called, "One of the three greatest modern thinkers."
Karl Marx (1818-1883); came to England after being exiled from Germany for proposing revolution.
Who called Karl Marx, "One of the three greatest modern thinkers"?
The Wall Street Journal
What two other individuals were referenced by the Wall Street Journal, when they placed Karl Marx among their likes?
Sigmund Freud and Albert Einstein
Karl Marx believed "the engine of human history..." to be?
Class Conflict
What two classes did Karl Marx propose as being locked in conflict (provide German name and English translation of both)?
1) bourgeoisie (boor-zhwa-ZEE) - the capitalist 2) proletariat (the exploited class - the workers)
What was Karl Marx's definition of the "bourgeoisie"?
The capitalists, those who own the means to produce wealth - capital, land, factories, and machines.
What was Karl Marx's definition of the "proletariat"?
The exploited class, the mass of workers that do not own the means of production.
What was the basis of Karl Marx's proposed revolution, and what did he claim the result would be - as it relates to "class conflict"?
"This bitter struggle can end only when the workers unite in revolution... The result will be a classless society...."
Is Marxism the same as communism? Explain.
No. Karl Marx did not develop communism, which was a later application of his ideas.
What did Marx say in response to hearing some of the positions attributed to him - by those that debated his insights into social life?
In disgust, he shook his head and said, "I am not a Marxist" (qtd. in "Essentials of Sociology; A Down-To-Earth Approach").
Max Weber (1864 - 1920) disagreed with Marx's claim that economics is the central force in social change; rather, he felt that role belonged to?
According to his theory, that Religion drove social change, what two religious denominations did Max Weber attribute capitalism to?
Roman Catholics and Protestants
There are three major theoretical perspectives in sociology; they are?
1) Symbolic Interactionism 2) Functional Analysis 3) Conflict Theory
The origins of symbolic Interactionism can be traced to these two Scottish moral philosophers:
Charles Horton Cooley (1864-1929), and George Herbert Mead (1863-1931)
What was the perspective that Cooley and Mead had, which lead to symbolic interactionism?
Individuals evaluate their own conduct by comparing themselves with others.
What do symbolic interactionists analyze?
They analyze how our behaviors depend on the ways we define both ourselves and others. they study face-to-face interactions.
What do symbolic interactionists study:
symbolic interactionists study how people use symbols to develop their views of the world and to communicate with one another.
In their studies, what do symbolic interactionists look at?
They look at how people work out their relationships and how they make sense out of life and their place in it.
"Symbols" allow the existence of?
"Symbols allow the existence not only of relationships but also of society" ("Essentials of Sociology; A Down-To-Earth Approach").
How do symbolic interactionists describe how, prior to the early 1900's, Americans viewed marriage?
They note that until the early 1900's, Americans thought of marriage as a sacred, lifelong commitment.
How do symbolic interactionists describe how, prior to the early 1900's, Americans viewed divorce?
They note that until the early 1900's, Americans viewed divorce as an immoral, harmful action, a flagrant disregard for public opinion.
Contrast the views of marriage in the 1930's, to those
In the early 1930's, it was observed that personality was becoming more important mate selection.
Contrast the views of marriage in the 1945, to those
In 1945, sociologists observed that there was a growing importance of mutual affection, understanding, and compatibility in marriage.
How had marriage as a symbol changed as of 1945 (how was the term (symbol) "marriage" viewed then?
Marriage is viewed as more of an arrangement, often temporary, that was based on feelings of intimacy.
How do symbolic interactionists explain the reasons for todays divorce rate, from the perspective of woman/wife's role.
As females became more independent, their role in society changed, as well as in marriage. They became less submissive. Males tend not to like that change, which leads to inequality, causing marital problems and divorce

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