Sociology exam#2 preparation

50 cards

On chapters 2-5 in Society: The Basics 9th edition.Created using the study guide provided by Jeff Shulz.If I messed up an answer please let me know- it is not my aim to steer anyone wrong, but to help myself study.


 
  
Created Mar 1, 2010
by
kelbots

 

 
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  Side A   Side B
1
As a part of human culture, religion would be an example of:
 
Subculture
2
What is the term for beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects that, together, constitute...
 
Culture
3
What is the gist of the Sapir-Whorf thesis?
 
People perceive the world through the cultural lens of language.
4
Standards by which people who share culture define what is desirable, and beautiful are called:
 
Values
5
High Income nations tend to have cultural values that emphasize what?
 
Self Expression and Individualism
6
Industrializations brings what changes to societies?
 
-Pushes aside traditional family values,-Makes the world seem smaller due to technological...
7
Cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population are called:
 
Popular Culture (Pop Culture)
8
The perspective which recognizes the cultural diversity of the U.S., and promotes the self...
 
Multiculturalism
9
Cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society are called:
 
Counterculture
10
Cultural Integration alerts us to the fact that:
 
Cultures change and adapt due to their shifting needs.
11
The practice of judging another culture on the standards of one's own is known as:
 
Ethnocentrism
12
The process of judging any other culture using its own standards is called:
 
Cultural Relativism
13
The theoretical approach that highlights the way any cultural pattern helps meet human needs...
 
The Sociobiological Approach.Darwins evolutional theories used to explain human sociological...
14
The lifelong social experience by which human beings develop their potential and learn culture...
 
Socialization
15
A person's fairly consistant pattern of behavior is called:
 
Personality
16
Our basic drives, or needs, as humans are reflected in Freud's concept of:
 
Id
17
In Freud's model of personality, which element of the personality represents a person's efforts...
 
Superego
18
Jean Piaget called the level of development at which individuals first use language and other...
 
The Pre-Operational Stage
19
George Herbert Mead placed the Origin of the Self in:
 
Socialization and role playing. (mostly the book says role playing but it hints at socialization...
20
By "taking the role of the other" Mead had in mind:
 
"Social interaction depends on understanding the intention of another, which requires taking...
21
When Charles Horton Cooley used the term "looking-glass self", he was referring to what?
 
He was referring to the way that people would form the view of themselves based on how they...
22
Erik H. Erikson's view of socialization was:
 
Individuals faced challenges at every stage of life, and depending on how they dealt with them...
23
Sociologists claim that the main reason that many young people in the U.S. experience adolescence...
 
Teenagers are being pulled in two different directions; expected to be an adult and take responsibility...
24
The "graying of the United States" refers to the process by which:
 
The average age of citizens in the U.S. is rising.
25
The effort to radically change someone's personality through careful control of their environment...
 
Resocialization
26
According to Erving Goffman, the goal of a total institution is:
 
To radically change a person's personality or behavior.
27
Which concept defines who and what we are in relation to others?
 
Social Interaction
28
At a given time, you occupy a number of statuses.  Together, these form your:
 
Status Set
29
Which concept refers to a social status received at birth or involuntarily taken...
 
Ascribed Status
30
Being an honer student is a good example of which type of status?
 
Achieved Status
31
What are some likely examples of a Master Status?
 
A persons race, profession, or disability.
32
Which concept do sociologists use to refer to the behavior that people expect of someone who...
 
Role
33
Define Role Conflict
 
The result of tension among roles linked to two or more statuses.
34
Define Role Strain
 
The result of tension among roles linked to a single status.
35
The Thomas Theorem (a.k.a. "situational analyses" or "definition of the situation") states...
 
Situations defined as real are real in their consequences.  (The book gives another definition;...
36
Harold Garfinkel's research, called "ethnomethodology" involves:
 
The study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings.  He would deliberately...
37
According too Erving Goffman, our use of costumes, props, tone of voice, and gestures to convey...
 
Performance
38
In terms of dramaturgical analysis, helping another person to "save face" or avoid embarrassment,...
 
Tact
39
Charles Horton Cooley referred to  a small social group whose members share personal and...
 
Primary GroupExamples; family or very close friends.
40
A secondary group is a social group that:
 
Is large, impersonal and goal-oriented, and often of shorter duration.Examples; college class...
41
Which type of group leader emphasizes collective well-being?
 
Expressive
42
Which type of group leader supports collective decision making on an egalitarian basis?
 
Democratic
43
Which type of leaders tend to downplay their position and power, allowing the group to function...
 
Laissez-Faire
44
Solomon Ashe believed that;
 
Many of us will compromise our beliefs, even in front of those we don't know, to avoid being...
45
Stanley Milgram's research, in which subjects used a shock generator, showed that:
 
People will follow the directions not only of legitimate authority figures, but of groups of...
46
The tendency for members of a group to conform, resulting in a narrow view on some...
 
Groupthink
47
Which type of formal organization do people typically join to make money?
 
Utilitarian
48
The tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves is:
 
Bureaucratic Inertia
49
What are the principles of McDonaldization?
 
Efficiency, uniformity, and control.  Limiting human creativity, choice and freedom.
50
The term "McDonaldization of Society" refers to the fact that:
 
Impersonal organizations concerned with efficiency, uniformity, and control are becoming more...


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