Sociology Exam Ch.1-4

72 cards

Tuesday, Sept ember 27


 
  
Created Sep 23, 2011
by
mbamacher21

 

 
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1
Sociology
 
the scientific study of human behavior as it is shaped by groups Comte said: "the study of...
2
What is empirical data?
 
can be sensed by 5 senses
3
What is the Sociological Perspective?
 
understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context
4
Whe sociological perspective emphasizes how the social ocntext influences people's lives, particularly...
 
society
5
Social Location  
 
the group memberships that people have bc of their location in history and society  
6
What did Peter Berger say about the sociological perspective?
 
The seeing the general in particular (general patterns of behavior in people) We see ourselves...
7
What is generalization?
 
A statement that goes beyond the indiviual case and is applied to a broader group or situation
8
Who is Auguste Comte?
 
creditied as founder of sociology purpose=discover social priciples and apply them to social...
9
What is positivism? What did Comte propose?
 
A scientific approach to knowledge based on "positive" facts on the social world as opposed...
10
What are the goals of scientific discipline?
 
1. Explain why something happens 2. Make generalizations 3. Predict
11
The ideal of Objectivity...
 
"personal neutrality" To allow facts to speak for themselves and not be influenced by the...
12
What was Weber's concept of Verstehen?
 
Verstehen=understanding Weber said to interpret human behavior is to understand the feelings...
13
Who was the social thinker of the 19th century who predicted that there would be a classless...
 
Emile Durkheim
14
Durkheim identified social integration What is social integration?
 
the degree to which members of a group or a society feel united by shared values and other...
15
What is basic or pure sociology?
 
sociological research for the purpose of making discoveries about life in human groups, not...
16
What is applied sociology?
 
the use of sociology to solve problems from the micro level of family relationships to the...
17
 A theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people...
 
Symbolic Interactionism
18
A framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together...
 
Structural Functional Analysis aka: functionalism, structural functionalism
19
Social Structure Social Functions What theory?
 
-any relatively stable pattern of social behaviors -consequences of a social pattern for the...
20
Manifest functions? Latent functions?
 
-intented to help some part of a social pattern -the unrecognized and unintended sonsequences...
21
Who developed manifest and latent functions?
 
Robert Merton
22
A theorical framework in which society is viewed as a complosed of groups that are competing...
 
Conflict theory
23
Macro-level analysis Micro-level analysis
 
large scale patterns of society (Functional analysis and Conflict theory) small scale patterns...
24
What did Karl Marx say about the conflict perspective?
 
Social classes and class struggle bt the bourgeosie and proletariat was the foundation of the...
25
What is culture?
 
language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, material objects, and technology that are passed...
26
What are the components of symbolic culture?
 
gestures, language, values, norms, and sanctions, folkways (norms not strictly enforced) and...
27
What are some emerging values?
 
leisure, self fulfillment or personal growth, physical fitness, youthfulness, concern for the...
28
the use of one's own culture as a yard-stick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies,...
 
ethnocentrism
29
Culture relativism
 
not judging a culture to understand it on its own terms
30
Who studied the Hopi Indians and concluded that langues has embedded within its ways of looking...
 
Sapir and Whorf
31
What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?
 
language creates ways of thinking and perceiving -reverses common sense -language creates...
32
What are subcultures?
 
groups whose cultural patterns set them apart from the dominant society, still accept the underlying...
33
What are countercultures?
 
Groups whose cultural patterns are at odds with wider society-members typically reject the...
34
George Murdock found what?
 
Cultural Universals:  a value, norm, or other cultural trait that is found in every group...
35
Who is William Ogburn?
 
Coined the term cultural lag -material culture generally happens first (human behavior lagging...
36
What is cultural diffusion?
 
The spread of cultural traits from one group to another; includes both material and nonmaterial...
37
What is cultural leveling?
 
the process by which cultures become similar to one another; refers especially to the process...
38
What concept did Cooley develop?
 
"the looking glass self" which refers to the process by which our self develops through internalizing...
39
What did George Herbert Mead develop?
 
How we learn to take on the roles of others 1) Imitation- no sense of self- under 3 2) Play-...
40
What is Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development?
 
1) The Sensorimotor Stage (birth-2)- individuals experience that world only through...
41
Freud's Model of Personality
 
id- human beings basic drives ego-a person's conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure-...
42
Paul Ekman
 
Anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise -Biological feelings, we share these emotions,...
43
What did Kohlberg do?
 
Studied moral reasoning, how people come to judge situations as right or wrong 1)Preconventional...
44
What is social inequality?
 
a social condition in which privleges and obligations are given to some but denied to others
45
What are the agents of socialization?
 
individuals or groups that affect our self-concept, attitudes, behavior, or other orentations...
46
Impersonal communications aimed at a vast audience and also shape socialization
 
mass media
47
What is resocialization?
 
the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
48
What is Total institution and what is one greeted with when entering a total institution? Who...
 
-a place that is almost totally controlled by those who run it, in which people are cut off...
49
What is macrosociology? Mircosociology?
 
-Places focus on large-scale features of social structure -focues on social interaction
50
The framework (or typical patterns) that surround us, consisting of the relationships of people...
 
Social Structure
51
What would functionalists say about mass media? What would conflict theorists say?
 
-represents the varred interest of many groups that make up a nation -interests of political...
52
Ascribed status Achieved status
 
-a position an individual either inherits at birth or receive involuntarily later in life -a...
53
What is master status?
 
a status that cuts across the other statuses that an individual occupies -being striped of...
54
What is status inconsistency?
 
ranking high on some dimenstions of social class and low on others, aka status discrepancy
55
What is socialization?
 
The process by which people learn the characteristics of their group-the knowledge, skills,...
56
Functionalist Perspective views social institutions as working together to meet universal human...
 
replacing memebers, socializing new members, producing and distributing goods and services,...
57
A collective consciousness that people experience as a result of performing the same or simiar...
 
Mechanical solidarity, Durkheim
58
a collective consciousness based on the interdependence brought about by an increasingly specialized...
 
Organic solidarity, Durkheim
59
The degree to which memebers of a group or a society feel united by shared values and other...
 
Social integration
60
Who is Ferdinand Tonnies and what did he contribute?
 
Analyzed different types of societes that existed befoer and after industrialization -Gemeinschaft...
61
What is Gemeinschaft?
 
type of society in which life is intimate; a community in which every one knows everyone else...
62
What is Gesellschaft?
 
type of society dominated by impersonal relationships, individual accomplishments, and self...
63
What did Edward Hall develop?
 
Distance Zones -intimate, personal, social, public
64
What is dramaturgy? and who made it into a sociological term?
 
Social life is analyzed in terms of drama or the stage aka dramaturgical analysis -Erving...
65
Front stages? Back stages?
 
-places where we give performances -places where people rest from their performances, discuss...
66
What is role perfomance?
 
-the ways in which someone performs a role within the limits that the role provides; showing...
67
What is impression management?
 
people's effort to control the impressions that others receive of them
68
Role conflictt? Role strain?
 
-conflicts that someone feels between roles bc the expectatios attached to one roleare incompatible...
69
What was is face-saving behavior?
 
techniques used to salvage a performance (interaction) that is going sour
70
What is ethnomethodology?
 
the study of how people use background assumptions to make sense out of life
71
Thomas Theorem
 
definition of the situation
72
What is social constuction of reality?
 
the use of backround assumption and life experiences to define what is real

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