Sociology Exam 1


  
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antipositivism
 
the view that social researchers should strive for subjectivity as they worked to represent social processes, cultural notrms, and societal values
conflict theory
 
a theory that looks at society as a competition for limited recources
dynamic equilibium
 
a stable state in which all parts of a healthy society are working together properly
dysfunctions
 
social patterns that have undesirable consequences for the operation of society
figuration
 
the process of simultaneously analyzing the behavior of an individual and the society that shapes that behavior
functionalism
 
a theoretical approach that sees society as a structrue with interrelated parts desigened to meet te biological and social needs of individual that make up that society
function
 
the part a recurrent activity plays in the social life as a whole and the contribution it makes to structural continuity
grand theories
 
attempts to explain large-scale relationships and anwwer fundamental questions such as why societeis form and why they change
latent functions
 
the unrecognized or unintended consequences of a social process
macro-level
 
a wide-scale view of the role of social structures within society
manifest functions
 
sought sonsequences of a social process
micro-level theories
 
the study of specifice relationsihps between individuals or small groups
paradigms
 
philosophical and theortical frameworks used within a discipline to formulate theories, generalizations, and the experiments performed in support of them
positivism
 
the scientific study of social patterns
qualitiative sociology
 
in-depth interviews, focus groups, and/or analysis of content sources as the source of its data
quantitative sociology
 
statistical methods such as surveys with large numbers of participants
social facts
 
the laws, morals, values, religious beliefs, customs, fashions, rituals, and all of the cultural rule that govern social life
social solidarity
 
the social ties the bind a group of people together such as kinship, shared location, religion
sociological imagination
 
the ability to understand how your own past relates to that of other people, as well as to history in general and societal strucutres in particular
sociology
 
is the systimatic study of society and social interatcion
symbolic interactionism
 
a theoretical perspective through which scholars examine the relationship of individuals within their society by studying their communication (language and symbols)
theory
 
a proposed explaination about social interactions or society
case study
 
in-depth analysis of a single event, situation, or individual
code of ethics
 
a set of guidelines that the American Sociological Association has established to foster ethnical research and professionally responsible scholarship in sociology
content analysis
 
applying a systematic approach to record and value information gleaned from secondary data as it relates to the study at hand
control group
 
an experimental group that is not exposed to the independent variable
correlation
 
when a change in one variable coincides with a change in another variable, but oes not necessarily indication caustion
dependent variables
 
changed by other variables
empirical evidence
 
evidence corrobroated by direct expericence and/or observation
ethnography
 
observing a complete social setting and all that it entails
experiment
 
the testing of a hypothesis under controlled conditions
field research
 
gathering data from a natural environment without doing a lab experiment or survey
Hawthorne effect
 
when study subjects behave in a certain manner due to their awarenes of being obsverved by a researcher
hypothesis
 
an educated guess with predicted outcome about the relationship between two or more variables
independent variables
 
cause changes in dependent variables
interpretive framework
 
as socioligical research approach that seeks in-depth understanding of a topic or subject through observation or interaction; the approach is not based on hypothesis testing
interview
 
a one-on-one conversation between the researcher and the subject
literature review
 
a scholory research step that entails identifying and studying all existing studies on a topic to create a basis for new research
nonreactive research
 
using secondary data, does not include direct contact with subjects and will not alter or influcence people's behaviors
operational definitions
 
specific explanations of abstract concepts that a researcher plans to study
participant observation
 
when a researcher immerses herself in a group or social setting in order to make observations from an "insider" perspective
population
 
a defined group serving as the subject of study
primary data
 
data that are collected directly from firsthand experience
qualitative data
 
comprise information that is subjective and often based on what is seen in a nutural setting
quantitative data
 
represent research collected in numerical form that can be counted
random sample
 
a study's participants being andomly selected to serve as a represntation of a larger population
reliability
 
a measure of a study's consistency that considers how likely results are to be replicated if a study is reproduced
research design
 
a detailed, systematic method for conducting research and obtaining data
samples
 
small, manageable number of subjects that represent the population
scientific method
 
an established scholarly research method that involves asking a question, researching existing sources, forming a hypothesis, designing and conducting a study, and drawing conclusions
secondary data analysis
 
using data collected by other but applying new interpretations
surveys
 
collect data from subjects who repond to a series of questions about behaviors and opinions, often in the form of a questionnaire
validity
 
the degree to which a sociological measure accurately refelcts the topic of study
value neutrality
 
a practice of remaining impartial, without bias or judgement during the course of a study and in publishing results
cultural imperialism
 
the deliberate imposition of one's own culutal values on another culture
cultural relativism
 
the practice of assesing a culture by its own standards, and not in comparison to another culture
cultural universals
 
the patterns or traits that are globally common to all societies
culture lag
 
the gap of time between the introduction of material culture and nonmaterial culture's acceptance of it
culture shock
 
an experience of personal disorientation when confronted with an unfamiliar way of life
culture
 
shared beliefs, values, and practices
diffusion
 
the spread of material and nonmaterial culture from one culture to another
discoveries
 
things and ideas found from what already exists
ethnocentrism
 
to evaluate another culture according to the standards of one's own culture
folkways
 
direct appropriate behavior in the day-to-day practices and expressons of a culture
formal norms
 
established, written rules
globalization
 
the intergration of international reade and finance markets
high culture
 
the cultural patters of a society's elite
ideal culture
 
consists of the standars a society would like to embrace and live up to
informal norms
 
casual behaviors that are generally and widely conformed to
innovations
 
new objects or ideas introduced to culture for the first time
inventions
 
a combinationof pieces of existing reality into new forms
language
 
a symbolic system of communication
material culture
 
the objects or belongings of a group of people
mores
 
the moral views and principles of a group
nonmaterial culture
 
the ideas, attitudes, and beliefs of a society
norms
 
the visible and invisible rules of conducts through wich societies are structured
popular culture
 
mainstream, widespread patterns among a society's population
real culture
 
the way a society really is based on what actually occurs and exists
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
 
people understand the world based on their form of language
sanctions
 
a way to authorize of formally disapprove of certain behaviors
social control
 
a way to encourage confomity to cultural norms
society
 
people who live in a definable community and who share a culture
subcultures
 
groups that shrare a specific identification, aprart from a society's majority, even as the memebers exist within a larger society
symbols
 
gestures of objects that have meanings associated with them that are recognized by people who share a culture
values
 
a culture's standard for dicerning what is good and just in society
xenocentrism
 
a belief that another culture is superior to one's own
achieved status
 
a status a person chooses, such as a level of education or income
agricultural societies
 
societies that rely on famring as a way of life
alienation
 
an individual's isolation from his society, his work, and his sense of self
anomie
 
a situation in which society no longer has the support of a firm collective consciousnesss
ascribed status
 
the status outside of an individual's control, such as sex or race
burgeoisie
 
the owners of the means of production in a society
class consiousness
 
awareness of one's rank in society
collective conscience
 
the communial beliefs, morals, and attitudes of a society
false consciousness
 
a person's beliefs and ideology are in conflisct with her best intersts
feudal societies
 
societies that operate on a strict hierarchial system of power based around land
habitualization
 
the idea that society is constructed by us and those before us, and it is followed like a habit
horticultural societies
 
societies based around the cultivation of plants
hunter-gatherer societies
 
societies that depend on hunting wild animals and gathering uncultivated plants for survival
industrial societies
 
societies characterized by a reliance on mechanized labor to create material goods
information societies
 
societies based on the production of nonmaterial goods and services
institutionalization
 
the act of implanting a convention or norm into society
iron cage
 
a situation in whicn an individual is trapped by social institutions
looking-glass self
 
our reflection of how we think we appear to others
mechanical solidarity
 
a type of social order maintained by the sollective consicousness of a culture
organic solidarity
 
a type of social order based around an acceptance of exonomic and social differences
pastorial societies
 
societies based around the domestication of animals
proletariat
 
the laborers in a society
rationalization
 
a belief that modern society should be built around logic and efficientcy rather than morality or tradition
role conflict
 
when one or more of an individual's roles clash
role performance
 
the expression of a role
role strain
 
stress that occurs when too much is required of a single role
role-set
 
an array of roles attached to a particular status
roles
 
patterns of behavior that are representative of a person's social status
self-fulfilling prophecy
 
an idea that becomes true when acted upon
social integration
 
how strongly a person is connected to his or her social group
status
 
the responsibilities and benefits that a person experiences according to their rand and role in society
Thomas theorem
 
how a subjective reality can drive events to develop in accordance with that reality, despite being originally upsupported by objective reality
anticipatory socialization
 
when we prepare for future life roles
degradation ceremony
 
the process by which new members of a total institution lose aspects of their old identity and are given new ones
generalized other
 
the common behavioral expectations of general society
hidden curriculum
 
the informal teching done in schools that socalizes children to social norms
moral development
 
the way people learn what is "good" and "bad"
nature
 
the influence of our genetic makeups on self-development
nurture
 
the role that our social environment plays in self-development
peer group
 
a group made up of people who are similar in age and social status and who share interests
resocialization
 
the process by which old behaviors are removed and nre behaviors are learned in their place
self
 
a person's distinct sense of identity as developted through social interaction
socializaion
 
the process wherein people come to understand societal norms and expectation, to accept society'sbeliefs, and to be aware of societal values

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