Sociology Exam # 1 (Chapters 1-4)


Chapters 1-4
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Sociology
 
the scientific study of society and human behavior
Sociological Perspective
 
opens a window into unfamiliar worlds and offers a fresh look at familiar ones
Sociological Mindfulness

aka?
 
("sociological imagination") Opening the mind to new and different ideas
Psychoscerlosis
 
mental condition that prevents deprives people the ability to accept new ideas
Global Purpose for Sociology
 
changes that incorporate us into a global network
Auguste Comte

Why sociology founded?
 
founder of sociology

french revolution
Herbert Spencer

social reform?
 
Second founder, coined phrase "survival of the fittest"

no social reform
Karl Marx

reform?
 
said the root of human misery is social class

should reform
Emile Durkheim

(social integration)
 
human behavior studied by group interaction- suicide rates higher among people with weak community ties
*degree to which people are tied to their social group
Max Weber

(versenth)
 
religion is the central force in social change

"grasp by insight"- best interpreter of human behavior is someone who has been there
Jane Adams
 
founded the Hull House- one of first women studying sociology
wanted social reform
WEB Dubois
 
first black man to get pHD from Harvard

founded NAACP
Harriet Martineau
 
hid writings under sewing when she had visitors, mainly known for converting Comte's ideas from german to english
C. Wright Mills
 
encouraged social reform (encouraged people to get back to it)
Culture
 
patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving- also includes material objects passed down from previous generations
Instinct
 
genetically inherited- appear among members of the same species
Reflexes
 
simple biological reactions to physical stimuli

(humans)
Drives
 
impulse to reduce discomfort
(ie- eating, sleeping patterns etc)
SHEPARD
 
"reflexes and drives don't determine how humans behave- culture does"
Language
 
set of symbols (our guide to reality) words and their rules
Linguistic Relativity
 
our perception of reality is at the mercy of words and the grammatical rules of our language
Values
 
those things considered good, desirable and beautiful by people who share a culture
GERHARD LINKSI
 
"technology has great power to shape a society"
Symbols
 
things that stand for something else (ie- applause)
Dimensions of Culture
 
normative
cognitive
material
Norms

3 aspects of normative dimension?
 
rules defining appropriate behavior

folkways, mores, laws
Folkways
 
customary ways of behaving, thinking, feeling
(ie- patterns of sleep, eating habits)
Violation has only a minor consequence
Mores
 
have great moral significance- vital to the well being of society
(ie- killing, respect the flag)
Laws
 
formally defined and enforced

violation- sanctions enforced
Cognitive Dimension
 
how we think about and perceive things/situations- comes from who or what you are surrounded by
Material Dimension
 
material objects of a society- including some passed down for generations
Cultural Universals
 
a value, norm or other cultural trait that appears in every culture
Cultural Differences
 
type of involvement with cultural universals
Social Catagories
 
men, women, young, old, race, religion etc.
Subculture
 
cultural patterns that set apart a societys population
Counterculture
 
cultural patterns that oppose those that are widely held
ethnocentrism
 
judging another culture based on your own
Global Economy
 
flow of goods, information and people
Socialization
 
process by which people learn to participate in group life.
Gardners Study
 
thin dwarf children began to grow when adopted
Coley's looking glass self
 
self concept is based on our perception of what we think others judgements of us are
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