Sociology Exam # 1 (Chapters 1-4)

Chapters 1-4
Created Feb 1, 2011
by meadowshl
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Sociology
the scientific study of society and human behavior
Sociological Perspective
opens a window into unfamiliar worlds and offers a fresh look at familiar ones
Sociological Mindfulnessaka?
("sociological imagination") Opening the mind to new and different ideas
Psychoscerlosis
mental condition that prevents deprives people the ability to accept new ideas
Global Purpose for Sociology
changes that incorporate us into a global network
Auguste ComteWhy sociology founded?
founder of sociologyfrench revolution
Herbert Spencersocial reform?
Second founder, coined phrase "survival of the fittest"no social reform
Karl Marxreform?
said the root of human misery is social classshould reform
Emile Durkheim(social integration)
human behavior studied by group interaction- suicide rates higher among people with weak community...
Max Weber(versenth)
religion is the central force in social change"grasp by insight"- best interpreter of human...
Jane Adams
founded the Hull House- one of first women studying sociologywanted social reform
WEB Dubois
first black man to get pHD from Harvardfounded NAACP
Harriet Martineau
hid writings under sewing when she had visitors, mainly known for converting Comte's ideas...
C. Wright Mills
encouraged social reform (encouraged people to get back to it)
Culture
patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving- also includes material objects passed down from...
Instinct
genetically inherited- appear among members of the same species
Reflexes
simple biological reactions to physical stimuli(humans)
Drives
impulse to reduce discomfort(ie- eating, sleeping patterns etc)
SHEPARD
"reflexes and drives don't determine how humans behave- culture does"
Language
set of symbols (our guide to reality) words and their rules
Linguistic Relativity
our perception of reality is at the mercy of words and the grammatical rules of our language
Values
those things considered good, desirable and beautiful by people who share a culture
GERHARD LINKSI
"technology has great power to shape a society"
Symbols
things that stand for something else (ie- applause)
Dimensions of Culture
normativecognitivematerial
Norms3 aspects of normative dimension?
rules defining appropriate behaviorfolkways, mores, laws
Folkways
customary ways of behaving, thinking, feeling(ie- patterns of sleep, eating habits)Violation...
Mores
have great moral significance- vital to the well being of society(ie- killing, respect the...
Laws
formally defined and enforcedviolation- sanctions enforced
Cognitive Dimension
how we think about and perceive things/situations- comes from who or what you are surrounded...
Material Dimension
material objects of a society- including some passed down for generations
Cultural Universals
a value, norm or other cultural trait that appears in every culture
Cultural Differences
type of involvement with cultural universals
Social Catagories
men, women, young, old, race, religion etc.
Subculture
cultural patterns that set apart a societys population
Counterculture
cultural patterns that oppose those that are widely held
ethnocentrism
judging another culture based on your own
Global Economy
flow of goods, information and people
Socialization
process by which people learn to participate in group life.
Gardners Study
thin dwarf children began to grow when adopted
Coley's looking glass self
self concept is based on our perception of what we think others judgements of us are


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