Sociology Chapter 14

Sociology Final Exam Fall 2011

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Side ASide B
what is race?
a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important
what is ethnicity
a shared cultural heritage
what is a minority?
any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinate
what is the scapegoat theory?
A theory that claims that prejudice results from frustration among people who are disadvantaged
What is the authoritarian personality theory?
A theory that claims that prejudice is a personality trait of certain individuals, especially those with little education and those raised by cold and demanding parents. 
What is the culture theory?
A theory that claims that prejudice is rooted in culture; we learn to feel greater social distance form some categories of people.
What is the conflict theory?
A theory that claims that prejudice is a tool used by powerful people to divide and control the population
What is prejudice?
A rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people
What is stereotype?
A simplified description applied to every person in some category
What is racism?
The belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another
what is a scapegoat?
a person or category of people, typically with little power, whom people unfairly blame for their own troubles
what is discrimination?
unequal treatment of various categories of people
what is institutional prejudice and discrimination?
bias built into the operation of society's institutions
what is pluralism?
a state in which people of all races and ethnicities are distinct but have equal social standing
what is assimilation?
the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture
what is miscegenation
biological reproduction by partners of different racial categories
what is segregation?
the physical and social separation of categories of people
what is genocide?
the systematic killing of one category of people by another
name the three broad categories of race
caucasoids, mongoloids and negroids
what is the social distance scale?
how closely people are willing to interact with members of some category
In what way is the United States Pluralistic and in what ways is it not?
It is pluralistic in that all ethnic categories of people are equal under the law and it is not pluralistic in that the categories are not socially equal
what is the purpose of assimilation
to escape prejudice and discrimination and to achieve upward social mobility
what is "de jure" segregation?
segregation by law
what is "de facto" segregation?
segregation that is evident in areas that are occupied by a single race such as neighborhoods
what is hypesegregation?
having little social contact with people beyond the local community
which is the largest US minority?
Latin Americans

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