Sociology Ch. 1-6

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Sociology Ch. 1-6

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Achieved Status
 
a status within a social structure occupied because of an individual's efforts
Adornments
 
things we do to our body to enhance our performance (ex. hairstyle)
Anomie
 
a social condition in which norms are weak, conflicting, or absent
Anticipatory Socialization
 
the process of preparing oneself for learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
Ascribed Status
 
a status within a social structure that is not earned or chosen, but is assigned
Auguste Comte
 
believed society could advance only if studied scientifically
Bourgeoisie
 
members of a society who own the means for producing wealth
C. Wright Mills
 
was a "humanist" who wrote 'The Sociological Imagination'
Causation
 
the idea that events occur in a predictable, non-random way and that one event leads to another
Characteristics of Bureaucracy
 
1. The organization has a division of labor based on the principle of specialization. 2. The organiztion has a hierarchy of authority. 3. Organizational affaris are based on a system of rules and procedures. 4. Members of the organization maintain written records of their organizational activities. 5. Statuses in the organization are considered full time jobs. 6. Relationships within the organization are impersonl, devoid of favoritism. 7. Employees of bureacratic organizations do not own their positions.
Charles Horton Cooley
 
sociologist who came up with the Looking Glass Self Theory
Coercion
 
social interaction in which individuals or groups are forced to give in to the will of other idividuals in the group
Conflict
 
a form of social interaction in which individuals or groups work against one another to obtain a larger share of the valuables
Conformity
 
behavior matching group expectations
Control Group
 
the group in an experiment that is not exposed to the experimental variable
Cooperation
 
a form of social interaction in which individuals or groups combine their efforts to reach some common goal
Control Variable
 
a variable that stays the same
Correlation
 
a statistical measure in which a change in one variable is associated with a change in another variable
Counterculture
 
a subculture that is deliberately and consciously opposed to certain central aspects of the dominant culture
Cultural Relavitism
 
the idea that any given aspect of a particular culture should be evaluated in relation to its place within the larger cultural context of which it is a part rather than according to some alleged universal standard that is applied across all cultures
Cultural Universalism
 
general cultural traits thought to exist in all known cultures
Culture
 
a peoples way of life--consisting of material objects as well as the patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving--that is passed down from generation to generation among members of society
Disadvantages of Bureaucracy
 
**the iron cage of rationality
Dyad
 
two individuals maintaining a sociologically significant relationship [the most intense, fragile, and intimate group]
Dysfunction
 
a negative consequence of some element of a society
Economic Determinism
 
the idea that the nature of a society is based on the society's economy
Erving Goffman
 
introduced dramaturgy, which is an approach that depicts human interaction as theatrical performance
Ethnocentrism
 
the tendency to judge others in relation to one's own cultural standards
Evolution of Societies
 
**the evolution of people; how we became what we are
Experiment
 
a laboratory procedure that attempts to eliminate all possible contaminating influences on the variables being studied
Experimental Group
 
the group in an experiment exposed to the experimental variable
Face Work
 
busy work to enhance our performance
Field Research
 
a research approach for studying aspects of social life that cannot be measured quantitatively and that are best understood within a natural setting
Folk Society
 
a society that rests on tradition, cultural and social consensus, family, personal ties, little division of labor, and an emphasis on the sacred
Folkways
 
norms without moral undertones
Formal Organization
 
a social structure deliberately created for the achievement of one or more goals
Formal Operations
 
The ability to think systematically about all the logical relations within a problem. Thinking about abstractions, ideals, and about the process of thinking itself. From age 12 and up.
Game Stage
 
according to Mead, the stage of development during which children learn to consider the roles of several people at the same time
Gemeinschaft
 
Tonnie's term for the type of society based on tradition, kinship, and intimate social relationships
Generalized Other
 
an integrated conception of the norms, vaues, and beliefs of one's community or society
George Herbert Mead
 
one of the originators of symbolic interractionalism
George Ritzer
 
the concept of McDonaldization
Gesellschaft
 
Tonnie's term for the type of society characterized by weak family ties, competition, and impersonal relationships
Goal Displacement
 
the situation that occurs when organizational rules and regulations become mor important than organizational goals
Group
 
a number of people who are in contact with one another; share some ays of thinking, feeling, and behaving; take one another's behavior into account; and have one or more interests or goals in common
Hawthorne Effect
 
an increase in worker productivity produced by the psychological stimulus of being singled out and made to feel important.
Harriet Martineau
 
first female sociologist
Hypothesis
 
a tentative, testable statement of a relationship between particular values
Impression Management
 
Impression management is the deliberate 'bending' of the truth in order to make a favorable impression. Managing impression includes deliberate use of any or all of:
  • -Dress, make-up, hairstyle and other management of visual appearance.
  • -Manner and general behavior, such as being pleasant, assertive, and so on.
  • -Managing body language to conceal anxieties or untruths and show openness, etc.
  • -Being economic with the truth, not telling lies but also not revealing the whole truth.
  • -Exaggeration or complete fabrication of things that make you look good.
  • -Downplaying or denial of negative factors that make you look bad.
Independent Variable
 
a variable that causes something to happen
Dependent Variable
 
a variable in which a change (or effect) can be observed
Iron Law of Oligarchy
 
the principle that power tends to become concentrated in the hands of a few members of any organized group
Karl Marx
 
came up with the concept that history unfolds according to the outcome of class conflict
Law
 
a norm that formally defined and enforced by officials
Latent Function
 
any function of an institution or other social phenomenon that is unintentional and often unrecognized
Looking Glass Self
 
one's self concept based on perceptions of others' judgements
Macrosociology
 
the level of analysis that focuses on relationships among social structures without reference to the interaction of the people involved
Manifest Function
 
an intended and recognized consequence of some element of a society
Max Weber
 
explored the process of rationalization in the transition from traditional to industrial society; method of 'verstehen' assumed an understanding of human social behavior based on putting oneself in the place of others
McDonaldization
 
is the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as of the rest of the world
Mechanical Solidarity
 
social unity based on a consensus of values and norms, strong social pressure for conformity, and dependence on tradition and family
Microsociology
 
the level of analysis concerned with the study of people as they interact in daily life
Mores
 
norms that have great moral significance and that should be followed by the members of a society
Norms
 
rules defining appropriate and inappropriate behaviors
Obligations
 
roles informing individuals o the behavior others expect from them
Operational Definition
 
definition of an abstract concept in terms of simpler, observable procedures
Organic Solidarity
 
social unity based on a complex of highly specialized roles that makes members of a society depended on one another
Out-group
 
a group toward which one feels opposition, antagonism, or competition
Play Stage
 
according to Mead, the stage of development during which children take on the roles of individuals, one at a time
Population
 
all those people with the characteristics a researcher wants to study within the context of a particular research question
Preparatory Stage
 
the imitation stage
Primary Group
 
people who are emotionally close, know one another well, seek one another's company because they enjoy being together, and have a "we" feeling
Proletariat
 
members of a society who labor for the bourgeoisie at subsistence wages
Props
 
objects we use to enhance our performance
Random Sample
 
a sample selected on the basis of chance so that each member of a population has an equal opportunity of being selected
Reference Group
 
a group one uses to evaluate oneself, and from which one acquires attitudes, beliefs, values, and norms
Reliablity
 
the ability of a measurement technique to yield consistent results
Research Design
 
describes the procedures the researchers will follow for collecting and analyzing data
Resocialization
 
the process of learning to adopt new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
Rights
 
roles informing individuals of the behavior that can be expected from others
Role
 
rights and obligations associated with a status
Role Conflict
 
conflict between the performance of a role in one status with the performance of a role in another status
Role Performance
 
the actual conduct involved in putting a role into action
Role Strain
 
conflicting roles within a single status
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
 
our view of the world depends on the particular language we have learned. our perception of reality is at the mercy of the words and grammatical rules of our language, and because of perceptions are different, our worlds are different [called the hypothesis of linguistic relativity]
Sample
 
a limited number of cases drawn from a population
Scientific Method
 
refers to a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge
Secondary Group
 
a group that is impersonal and task oriented and involves only a segment of the lives and personalities of its members
Simmel
 
believes that a society exists ‘where a number of individuals enter into interaction which arises on the basis of certain drives or for the sake of certain purposes
Social Aggregate
 
a number of people who happen to be physically located together
Social Category
 
a group of persons who share a social characteristic
Social Network
 
a web of social relationships that joins a person to other people and groups
Socialization
 
the process of learning to participate in group life through the acquistion of culture
Sociological Imagination
 
the set of mind that allows indviduals to see the relationship between events in their personal lives and events in their society
Status
 
the position that a person occupies within a social structure
Subculture
 
a group that is part of the dominant culture but differs from it in some important respects
Survey
 
a research method in which people are asked to answer a series of questions
Taboo
 
a norm so important that its violation is considered repugnant
Total Institution
 
place in which residents are separated from the rest of society and are controlled and manipulated by those in charge
Triad
 
a group of three people
Validity
 
the ability of a measurement technique to actually measure what it is designed to measure
Values
 
broad cultural principles that most people in a society consider desirable
W.E.B. Dubois
 
conducted the first in depth study of a black community
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