Sociology Ch. 1-6

103 cards

Use to study for 1st


 
  
Created Feb 20, 2010
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kdavis108

 

 
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1
Achieved Status
 
a status within a social structure occupied because of an individual's efforts
2
Adornments
 
things we do to our body to enhance our performance (ex. hairstyle)
3
Anomie
 
a social condition in which norms are weak, conflicting, or  absent
4
Anticipatory Socialization
 
the process of preparing oneself for learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
5
Ascribed Status
 
a status within a social structure that is not earned or chosen, but is assigned
6
Auguste Comte
 
believed society could advance only if studied scientifically
7
Bourgeoisie
 
members of a society who own the means for producing wealth
8
C. Wright Mills
 
was a "humanist" who wrote 'The Sociological Imagination'
9
Causation
 
the idea that events occur in a predictable, non-random way and that one event leads to another
10
Characteristics of Bureaucracy
 
1. The organization has a division of labor based on the principle of specialization. 2....
11
Charles Horton Cooley
 
sociologist who came up with the Looking Glass Self Theory
12
Coercion
 
social interaction in which individuals or groups are forced to give in to the will of other...
13
Conflict
 
a form of social interaction in which individuals or groups work against one another to obtain...
14
Conformity
 
behavior matching group expectations
15
Control Group
 
the group in an experiment that is not exposed to the experimental variable
16
Cooperation
 
a form of social interaction in which individuals or groups combine their efforts to reach...
17
Control Variable
 
a variable that stays the same
18
Correlation
 
a statistical measure in which a change  in one variable is associated with a change in...
19
Counterculture
 
a subculture that is deliberately and consciously opposed to certain central aspects of the...
20
Cultural Relavitism
 
the idea that any given aspect of a particular culture should be evaluated in relation to its...
21
Cultural Universalism
 
general cultural traits thought to exist in all known cultures
22
Culture
 
a peoples way of life--consisting of material objects as well as the patterns of thinking,...
23
Disadvantages of Bureaucracy
 
**the iron cage of rationality
24
Dyad
 
two individuals maintaining a sociologically significant relationship [the most intense, fragile,...
25
Dysfunction
 
a negative consequence of some element of a society
26
Economic Determinism
 
the idea that the nature of a society is based on the society's economy
27
Erving Goffman
 
introduced dramaturgy, which is an approach that depicts human interaction as theatrical performance
28
Ethnocentrism
 
the tendency to judge others in relation to one's own cultural standards
29
Evolution of Societies
 
**the evolution of people; how we became what we are
30
Experiment
 
a laboratory procedure that attempts to eliminate all possible contaminating influences on...
31
Experimental Group
 
the group in an experiment exposed to the experimental variable
32
Face Work
 
busy work to enhance our performance
33
Field Research
 
a research approach for studying aspects of social life that cannot be measured quantitatively...
34
Folk Society
 
a society that rests on tradition, cultural and social consensus, family, personal ties, little...
35
Folkways
 
norms without moral undertones
36
Formal Organization
 
a social structure deliberately created for the achievement of one or more goals
37
Formal Operations
 
The ability to think systematically about all the logical relations within a problem. Thinking...
38
Game Stage
 
according to Mead, the stage of development during which children learn to consider the roles...
39
Gemeinschaft
 
Tonnie's term for the type of society based on tradition, kinship, and intimate social relationships
40
Generalized Other
 
an integrated conception of the norms, vaues, and beliefs of one's community or society
41
George Herbert Mead
 
one of the originators of symbolic interractionalism
42
George Ritzer
 
the concept of McDonaldization
43
Gesellschaft
 
Tonnie's term for the type of society characterized by weak family ties, competition, and impersonal...
44
Goal Displacement
 
the situation that occurs when organizational rules and regulations become mor important than...
45
Group
 
a number of people who are in contact with one another; share some ays of thinking, feeling,...
46
Hawthorne Effect
 
 an increase in worker productivity produced by the psychological stimulus of being singled...
47
Harriet Martineau
 
first female sociologist
48
Hypothesis
 
a tentative, testable statement of a relationship between particular values
49
Impression Management
 
Impression management is the deliberate 'bending' of the truth in order to make a favorable...
50
Independent Variable
 
a variable that causes something to happen
51
Dependent Variable
 
a variable in which a change (or effect) can be observed
52
Iron Law of Oligarchy
 
the principle that power tends to become concentrated in the hands of a few members of any...
53
Karl Marx
 
came up with the concept that history unfolds according to the outcome of class conflict  
54
Law
 
a norm that formally defined and enforced by officials
55
Latent Function
 
any function of an institution or other social phenomenon that is unintentional and often unrecognized
56
Looking Glass Self
 
one's self concept based on perceptions of others' judgements
57
Macrosociology
 
the level of analysis that focuses on relationships among social structures without reference...
58
Manifest Function
 
an intended and recognized consequence of some element of a society
59
Max Weber
 
explored the process of rationalization in the transition from traditional to industrial society;...
60
McDonaldization
 
is the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more...
61
Mechanical Solidarity
 
social unity based on a consensus of values and norms, strong social pressure for conformity,...
62
Microsociology
 
the level of analysis concerned with the study of people as they interact in daily life
63
Mores
 
norms that have great moral significance and that should be followed by the members of a society
64
Norms
 
rules defining appropriate and inappropriate behaviors
65
Obligations
 
roles informing individuals o the behavior others expect from them
66
Operational Definition
 
definition of an abstract concept in terms of simpler, observable procedures
67
Organic Solidarity
 
social unity based on a complex of highly specialized roles that makes members of a society...
68
Out-group
 
a group toward which one feels opposition, antagonism, or competition
69
Play Stage
 
according to Mead, the stage of development during which children take on the roles of individuals,...
70
Population
 
all those people with the characteristics a researcher wants to study within the context of...
71
Preparatory Stage
 
the imitation stage
72
Primary Group
 
people who are emotionally close, know one another well, seek one another's company because...
73
Proletariat
 
members of a society who labor for the bourgeoisie at subsistence wages
74
Props
 
objects we use to enhance our performance
75
Random Sample
 
a sample selected on the basis of chance so that each member of a population has an equal opportunity...
76
Reference Group
 
a group one uses to evaluate oneself, and from which one acquires attitudes, beliefs, values,...
77
Reliablity
 
the ability of a measurement technique to yield consistent results
78
Research Design
 
describes the procedures the researchers will follow for collecting and analyzing data
79
Resocialization
 
the process of learning to adopt new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
80
Rights
 
roles informing individuals of the behavior that can be expected from others
81
Role
 
rights and obligations associated with a status
82
Role Conflict
 
conflict between the performance of a role in one status with the performance of a role in...
83
Role Performance
 
the actual conduct involved in putting a role into action
84
Role Strain
 
conflicting roles within a single status
85
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
 
our view of the world depends on the particular language we have learned. our perception of...
86
Sample
 
a limited number of cases drawn from a population
87
Scientific Method
 
refers to a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or...
88
Secondary Group
 
a group that is impersonal and task oriented and involves only a segment of the lives and personalities...
89
Simmel
 
believes that a society exists ‘where a number of individuals enter into interaction which...
90
Social Aggregate
 
a number of people who happen to be physically located together
91
Social Category
 
a group of persons who share a social characteristic
92
Social Network
 
a web of social relationships that joins a person to other people and groups
93
Socialization
 
the process of learning to participate in group life through the acquistion of culture
94
Sociological Imagination
 
the set of mind that allows indviduals to see the relationship between events in their personal...
95
Status
 
the position that a person occupies within a social structure
96
Subculture
 
a group that is part of the dominant culture but differs from it in some important respects
97
Survey
 
a research method in which people are asked to answer a series of questions
98
Taboo
 
a norm so important that its violation is considered repugnant
99
Total Institution
 
place in which residents are separated from the rest of society and are controlled and manipulated...
100
Triad
 
a group of three people
101
Validity
 
the ability of a measurement technique to actually measure what it is designed to measure
102
Values
 
broad cultural principles that most people in a society consider desirable
103
W.E.B. Dubois
 
conducted the first in depth study of a black community


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