Sociology 2

Sociology 2
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Politics
 
Power relations amoung people or other social actors
Authority
 
The justifiable right to exercise power
Charismatic Authority
 
Authority that rests in the superhuman appeal of an individual leader
Traditional Authority
 
Authority based on appeals to past tradition
Legal Rational Authority
 
A system of authority based on legal impersonal rules; the rules rule
Routinization
 
The clear rule-governed procedures used repeatedly for decision making
Rationalization
 
An ever-expanding process of ordering or organizing
Bureacracy
 
A legal rational organization or mode of administration that governs with reference to rules and roles and which emphasizes meritocracy
Specialization
 
Process of making work consist of specific delimited rules
Taylorism
 
Methods of labor management introduced by Fredrick Winslow Taylor to streamline the processes of mass production in which each worker repeatdly performs one specific task
Meritocracy
 
Society that bases status and mobility on individual attributes ability and achievement
Milgram Experiment
 
Experiment devised in 1961 by Stanely Milgram a psychologist at Yale University to see how far ordinary people would go to obey a scientific authority figure
Power
 
The ability to carry out ones own will despite resistance
Domination
 
Probablilty that a command with specific content will be obeyed by a given group of people
State
 
Weber " a human community claims the monopoly of the legitimate is of physical force within a given territory"
Coercion
 
The use of force to get others to do what you want
Paradox of Authority
 
State's authority derives from the implicit threat of physical force resorting to coercion strips that state of all legitimate authority
International State System
 
A system in which each state is recognized as territorially sovereign by fellow states
Welfare State
 
System in which the state is responsible for the well being of its citizens
Citizenship Rights
 
Rights gaurenteed to each law-abiding citizen in a nation-state
Political rights
 
Rights gaurenteeing a citizens ability to participate in politics including th right to vote and the right to hold an elected office
Social Rights
 
Rights gaurenteed a citizens protection by the state
Soft Power
 
Power attained by/ through the use of cultural attractiveness rather than the threat of coercive action
(hard power)
Democracy
 
System of government where in power theoritically lies with the people ; allowed to vote, speak freely, and participate as legal equals in social life
Dictatorship
 
Form of government that restricts the right to political participation to a small group or even to a single individual
Game Theory
 
Study of strategic decisions under conditions of uncertainty and interdependence
Collective Action Problem
 
Difficulty in organizing large groups because of the tendency of some individuals to free load or slack off
Political Party
 
Organization that seeks to gain power in a government generally by backing canidates for office who suscribe to the organizations political ideas
Interest Group
 
Organization that seeks to gain power in government and influence policy without direct-election or appointment to office
Political Participation
 
Activity that has the intent of effect or influencing government action
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