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Piaget's Stages (ages)
Sensorimotor (birth - 2 yrs); Preoperational (2 - 7 yrs); Concrete Operational (7 - 11 yrs);...
Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Devel (ages)
Oral (birth to 1 yr); Anal (1 - 3 yrs); Phallic (3 - 6 yrs); Latency (6 - 12 yrs); Genital...
Erikson's Final Two Stages (ages)
Generativity v. Stagnation (mid-adulthood); Integrity v. Despair (old age)
Erikson's First Three Stages (ages)
Trust v. Mistrust (infancy); Autonomy v. Shame and Doubt (toddler); Initiative v. Guilt (early...
Erikson Stages 4 - 6 (ages)
Industry v. Inferiority (school age); Identity v. Role Confusion (teens); Intimacy v. Isolation...
Flight of Ideas (MSE)
Thoughts not associated by logic
Tangential Speech (MSE)
Answers don't follow question
Loose Associations (MSE)
Ideas slip off the track on to another which is obliquely related or unrelated.
Circumstantial Speech (MSE)
Speech very delayed at reaching its goal. Excessive long windedness/detail.
Mental Retardation (DSM)
IQ < or = 70; impaired functioning; onset before 18.
Rett's D/O (DSM)
Females only; head growth decel; lost coordination; social probs.
Eating non-food (e.g., dirt)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (keywords)
Schemas; core beliefs; automatic thoughts; cognitive distortions; thought record; downward...
Freud's Structural Personality Theory
Id (pleasure principle; primary process thinking); Ego (reality principle; secondary process...
Object Relations Phases
Normal autism (1st month); Symbiotic (2 - 8 mos); Differentiation (7m - 2y); Integration/Rapproachment...
Id's drives out of conscious into unconsious
Retreat to earlier stage
Unacceptable needs/drives attributed to other
Express opposite of anxiety-forming instinct
Transfer instinct to less threatening target (e.g., angry at dad, mom yells at kid)
Impulses diverted into socially acceptable outlet (e.g., work, art)
Ignore personal relevance or deny existence of an anxiety-provoking impulse
Ascribe thoughts/bx of others to oneself.
Interpret own bx as rational/acceptable
Bx to undo effect of past action
Structural Family Therapy (keywords)
alignments; heirarchies; subsystems; boundaries; enmeshment; joining; mimesis; family map;...
Strategic Family Therapy (keywords)
social/problem/interaction/goal-setting stages; communication; interpersonal phenom; prob solving;...
Milton Erickson/Strategic Family Therapy: restraning (don't change); positioning (exag sx);...
Existential Therapy (keywords)
death; isolation; freedom; meaninglessness; experience; phenomenology; Yalom; Franl
Person-Centered Therapy (keywords)
unconditional positive regard; accurate empathy; genuineness; dx = label; incongruence; Carl...
Narrative Therapy (keywords)
ambiguous experience; externalizing; influence mapping; reauthoring; deconstruction
Gestalt Therapy (keywords)
awareness; Fritz Perls; boundary disturbances; "I" language; empty chair; here & now; body...
Boundary Disturbances (Gestalt)
Introjection (swallow w/out understanding); Projection (disowning self); Retroflection (eg...
Reflect expressed and implied content (e.g. “I have the impression that ...”)
Reflection - accurate understanding, non-additive.
Reflection Errors (4)
Timing (over/under reflection); Stereotyping (SW=robot); Depth (+/-); Language (eg slang)
Jumble of incoherent speech
Speech driven by word sounds (e.g., rhyming or alliteration).
Formation of false memories, perceptions, or beliefs--usu. to cover memory loss (Alzheimer's...
Proxemics v. Kenesics v. Paralanguage
Proxemics = spatial bx; Kinesics = movement; Para = nonverbal vocal cues (e.g. vol, speed,...
Ideas of reference
Delusional belief that casual events, people's remarks, etc. are referring to oneself when,...
Generates an IQ score - WAIS (16+); WISC (6 - 16); WPPSI (@3- @7)
Interpretive/subjective personality tests (e.g., Rorschach, DAP (draw a person), sand tray,...
Commonly Used Intelligence Tests
WAIS, WISC, Vineland, Stanford-Binet, and elements of the MSE
Anorexia v. Bulimia (DSM Diff)
A.N. = low weight; psychotic flavor (re body); can include purge B.N. = binge/purge; normal...
OCD v. OCPD (DSM Diff)
OCD = ego dystonic; anxiety driven; rituals/obsessions; OCPD = ego syntonic; rigid; no obses/compuls....
Factitious D/O v. Malingering v. Somatoform D/O (DSM DIff)
Factitious = sick role Malingering = for goal (e.g., SSI) Somatoform = not faking
Personality Disorders (by cluster)
A ("weird"): Paranoid, Schizoid, Schizotypal B ("wild"): Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic,...
Loner; minimal rxs; prefers solitude; no pleasure or desire for social interaction; cold; detached
Eccentric/wild appearance & bx; odd beliefs (magical thinking, ideas of ref, so pho); short...
Distrust and suspiciousness; no trust; holds grudges; questions mate's fidelity; non-delusional
Violates rights of others; present since age 15; fights; irresponsibility; deceitfulness; lack...
Probs w/ rx, self-image, affect, impulsivity; idealize/devalue; abandonment fear; self-injurious;...
High emo, attention seeking; inappropriate seductiveness; use of appearance; impressionistic...
Grandiose, lack of empathy, hypersensitivity to eval; entitlement; exploitive; envious; fantasies...
Social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, hypersensitivity to eval; min rxs; poor self-image;...
Submissive, clinging, fear of separation; prob w/ solo decisions; no responsibility for self;...
Rigidity, perfectionism, control; preoc w/ rules, lists; stubborn, miserly, workaholic; moral/ethical...
Order of language acquisition
crying; cooing; echolalia; holophrastic speech; telegraphic speech; vocab growth; correct grammar;...
Child's imitation of speech sounds (after cooing, before holophrastic speech)
Child expresses sentence meaning with single word (e.g., "milk!")
Two or more words in sentence (e.g., "Milk now!")
Kohlberg's First Level of Moral Devel (and substages)
Preconventional Morality (Punishment & Obdience Orientation); Instrumental Hedonism)
Kohlberg's Second Level of Moral Devel (and substages)
Conventional Morality (Good Boy/Good Girl Orientation; Law & Order Orientation)
Kohlberg's Third Level of Moral Devel (and substages)
Postconventional Morality (Morality of Contract, Individual Rights, and Democratically Accepted...
Suicide Risk Factors
Hx of attempts; old age; males 70+, females 15-24; hopelessness; hx depression; caucasian;...
Four levels of acculturation (Berry)
Integration (+/+ new culture/o.g. culture); assimilation (+/-); separation (-/+); marginalization...