Social Psychology Terms

Psych 3 At Sierra College Terms.
Created Nov 29, 2009
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What is a Theory?
1. *An integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events.2. Scientific...
What is a Hypothesis?
1. *A testable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between events.2. Allow...
What is field research?
1. *Research done in natural, real-life settings outside the laboratory.2. Everyday situations.
What is correlational research?
1. *The study of the naturally occuring relationships among variables.2.  Asking whether...
What is experimental research?
1. *Studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors...
What is an independent variable?
1. *The experimental factor that a researcher manipulates.2. Varying factors.
What is a dependent variable?
1. *The variable being measured, so-called because it may depend on manipulations of the independent...
What is random assignment?
1. *The process of assigning participants to the conditions of an experiment such that all...
What is mundane realism?
1 *Degree to which an experiment is superficially similar to everyday situations.2. Coined...
What is experimental realism?
1. *Degree to which an experiment absorbs and involves its participants.2. It should engage...
What is informed consent?
1. *An ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them...
What is hindsight bias?
1. *The tendency to exaggerate, after learning an outcome, one's ability to have forseen how...
What is social psychology?
1. *The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
What is a self-concept?
1. *A person's answers to the question, "Who am I?"
What is a self-schema?
1. *Beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information.2....
What is individualism?
1. *The concept of giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity...
What is collectivism?
1. *Giving prioriy to the goals of one's groups (often one's extended family or work group)...
What are dual attitudes?
1. *Differing implicit (automatic) and explicit (consciously controlled) attitudes toward the...
What is the self-reference effect?
1. *The tendency to process efficiently and remember well information related to oneself.2....
What is self-serving bias?
1. *The tendency to percieve oneself favorably.
What is the false consensus effect?
1. *The tendency to overestimate the commonality of one's opinions and one's undesirable or...
What is the false uniqueness effect?
1. *The tendency to underestimate the commonality of one's abilities and one's desirable or...
What is self-efficacy?
1. *A sense that one is competent and effective, distinguished from self-esteem, one's sense...
What is locus of control?
1. *The extent to which people percieve outcomes as internally controllable by their own efforts...
What is learned helplessness?
1. *The hopelessness and resignnation learned when a human or animal percieves no control over...
What is fundamental attribution error?
1. *The tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional...
What is the overconfidence phenomenon?
1. *The tendency to be more confident than correct - to overestimate the accuracy of one's...
What is the confirmation bias?
1. *A tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.
What is the availability heuristic?
1. *A cognitive rule that judges the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in...
What is illusory correlation?
1. *Perception of a relationship where none exists, or perception of a stronger relationship...
What is illusion of control?
1. *Perception of uncontrollable events as subject to one's control or as more controllable...
What is regression toward the average?
1. *The statistical tendency for extreme scores or extreme behavior to return toward one's...
What is self fulfiling prophecy?
1. *A belief that leads to its own fulfillment.
What is behavioral confirmation?
1. *A type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby people's social expectations lead them to behave...
What is an attitude?
1. *A belief and feeling that can predispose our response to something or someone.
What is a role?
1. *A set of norms that defines how people in a given social position ought to behave.
What is the foot-in-the-door phenomenon?
1. *The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a...
What is the low-ball technique?
1. *A tactic for getting people to agree to something. People who agree to an intial request...
What is cognitive dissonance theory?
1. *Tension that arises when one is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions. For...
What is self-perception theory?
1. *The theory that when we are unsure of our attitudes, we infer them much as would someone...
What is depressive realism?
1. *The tendency of mildly depressed people to make accurate rather than self-serving judgments,...
What is explanatory style?
1. *One's habitual way of explaining life events. A negative, pessimistic, depressive explanatory...
What is natural selection?
1. *The evolutionary process by which nature selects traits that best enable organisms to survive...
What is evolutionary psychcology?
1. *The study of the evolution of behavior using principles of natural selection.
What is culture?
1. *The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people...
What are norms?
1. *Rules for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior. (In a different...
What is personal space?
1. *The buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies. Its size depends on our familiarity...
What is gender?
1. *In psychology, the characteristics, whether biological or socially influenced, by which...
What is empathy?
1. *The vicarious experienceof another's feelings; putting onself in another's shoes.
What is aggression?
1. *Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone. In laboratory experiments, this might...
What is a gender role?
1. *A set of behavior expectatioins (norms) for males and females.
What is interaction?
1. *The effect of one factor (such as biology) depends on another factor (such as environment).
What is conformity?
1. *A change in behavior or belief to accord with others.
What is obedience?
1. *Acting in accord with a direct order.
What is persuasion?
1. *The process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors.
What is the central route to persuasion?
1. *Occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
What is the peripheral route to persuasion?
1. *Occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness.
What is credibility?
1. *Believability. A credible communicator is perceived as both expert and trustworthy.
What is the sleeper effect?
1. *A delayed impact of a message that occurs when an intitially discounted message becomes...
What is a cult?
1. *Also called New Religious Movement) A group typically characterized by 1. distinctive ritual...
What is attitude innoculation?
1. *Exposing people to weak attacks upon their attitudes so that when stronger attacks come,...
What are co-actors?
1. *Co-participants working individually on a noncompetitive activity.
What is social facilitation?
1. *1)Original meaning - the tendencyof people to perform simple or well-learned tasks better...
What is evaluation apprehension?
1. *Concern for how others are evaluating us. 
What is social loafing?
1. *The tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common...
What are free riders?
1. *People who benefit from the group but give little in return.
What is deindividuation?
1. *Loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster...
What is group polarization?
1. *Group-produced enhancement of members' preexisting tendencies; a strengthening of the members'...
What is social comparison?
1. *Evaluating one's opinions and abilities by comparing oneself to others.
What is groupthink?
1. *"The mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence-seeking becomes so dominant...
What is reactance?
1. *A motive to protect or restore one's sense of freedom. Reactance arises when someone threatens...
What is leadership?
1. *The process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group.
What is transformational leadership?
1. *Leadership that, enabled by a leader's vision and inspriation, exerts significant influence.
What is prejudice?
1. *A negative prejudgment of a group and its individual members.
What is a stereotype?
1. *A belief about the personal attributes of a group of people. Stereotypes are sometimes...
What is discrimination?
1. *Unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members.
What is racism?
1. *1)An individual's prejudicial attitudes discriminatory behavior toward people of a given...
What is sexism?
1. *1) An individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a...
What is stereotype threat?
1. *A disruptive concern, when facing a negative stereotype, that one will be evaluated based...
What is social identity?
1. *The "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to  "Who am I?" that comes...
What is an ingroup?
1. *"Us" - a group of people who share a sense of of belonging, a feeling of common identity.
What is an outgroup?
1. *"Them" - A group that people perceive as distinctively different  from or apart from...
What is ingroup bias?
1. *The tendency to favor one's own group.
What is realistic group conflict theory?
1. *The theory that prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources.
What is ethnocentric?
1. *Believing in the superiority of one's own ehtnic and cultural group, and having a corresponding...
What is the outgroup homogeneity effect?
1. *Perception of outgroup members as more similar to one another than are ingroup members....
What is just-world phenomenon?
1. *The tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what...
What is aggression?
1. *Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone.
What is instrumental aggression?
1. *Aggression that is a means to some other end.
What is frustration?
1. *The blocking of goal-directed behavior.
What is displacement?
1. *The redirection of aggression to a target other than the source of the frustration. Generally,...
What is social learning theory?
1. *The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded...
What is crowding?
1. *A subjective feeling that there is not enough space per person.
What is catharsis?
1. *Emotional release. The catharsis view of aggression is that aggressive drive is reduced...
What is prosocial behavior?
1. *Positive, constructive, helpful social behavior; the opposite of anti-social behavior.
What is proximity?
1. *Geographica nearness. Proximity (more precisely, "functional distance") powerfully predicts...
What is the mere-exposure effect?
1. *The tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more or ratedmore positively after the rater...
What is the matching phenomenon?
1. *The tendency for men and women to choose as partners those who are a "good match" in attractiveness...
What is the physical-attractiveness stereotype?
1. *The presumption that physically attractive people possess other socially desirable traits...
What is complementarity?
1. *The popularly supposed tendency, in a relationship between two people, for each to complete...
What is the need to belong?
1. *A motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing, positive interactions.
What is passionate love?
1. *A state of intense longing for union with another. Passionate lovers are absorbed in eachother,...
What is the two-factor theory of emotion?
1. *Emotional experience is a product of physiological arousal and how we cognitively label...
What is companionate love?
1. *The affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply intertwined.
What is equity?
1. *A condition in which the outcomes people recieve from a relationship are porportional to...
What is self-disclosure?
1. *Revealing intimate aspects of onself to others.
What is disclosure reciprocity?
1. *The tendency for one person's intimacy of self-disclosure to match that of a conversational...
What is conflict?
1. *A perceived imcompatibility of actions or goals.
What is a social trap?
1. *A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing its self interest,...
What are non-zero-sum games?
1. *Games in which outcomes need not sum to zero. With cooperation, both can win; with competition,...
What are mirror-image perceptions?
1. *Reciprocal views of one another often held by parties in conflict; for example, each may...
What is equal-status contact?
1. *Contact on an equal basis. Just as a relationship between people of unequal status breeds...
What is superordinate goal?
1. *A shared goal  that necessitates cooperative effort; a goal that overrides people's...
What is bargaining?
1. *Seeking an agreement to a conflict through direct negotiation between parties.
What is mediation?
1. *An attempt by a neutral third party to resolve a conflict by facilitating communication...
What is arbitration?
1. *Resolution of a conlict by a neautral third party who studies both sides and imposes a...
What are integrative agreements?
1. *Win-win agreements that reconcile both parties' interests to their mutual benefit.
What is GRIT?
1. *Acronym from "graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension reduction" - a strategy...
What is altruism?
1. *A motive to increase another's welfare without conscious regard for one's self-interests.
What is reciprocity norm?
1. *An expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
What is social-responsibility norm?
1. *An expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.
What is the bystander effect?
The finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders.
What is adaptation-level phenomenon?
1. *The tendency to adapt to a given level of stimulation and thus to notce and react to changes...
What is social comparison?
1. *Evaluating one's abilities and opinions by comparing oneself with others.

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