Social Psychology - David G Myers (10th Edition) Chapter 5-9

Social Psychology - David G Myers (10th Edition) Chapter 5-9 Social Psychology - David G Myers (10th Edition) Chapter 5-9  - Genes, Gender, & Culture
  
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natural selection *
Evolutionary psychology
 
the study of evolution of cognition and behavior using principles of natural selection
norms
 
Standards for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior. ( what others do- what is normal)
personal space
 
the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies - size depends on our familiarity with whoever is near us
gender
 
characteristics, whether biological or socially influenced by which people define male and female
empathy
 
vicarious experience of anothers feelings; putting oneself in another's shoes
aggression
 
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone - in lab experiments it may mean delivering a shock or saying something likely to hurt other person
androgynous
 
from andro(man) + gyn(woman) - thus mixing both masculine and feminine characteristics
gender role
 
set of behavior expectations (norms) for males and females
interaction
 
a relationship in which the effect of one factor (such as biology) depends on another factor (such as environment)
conformity
 
change in behavior or belief as the result of real or imagines group pressure Asch's research - line test - people faced with strong group consensus sometimes go along even though they think the others may be wrong
compliance
 
conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with an implied or explicit request while privately disagreeing (direct request) "please do it because its my birthday"
obedience
 
acting in accord with a direct order or command
acceptance
 
conformity that involves both acting and believing in accord with social pressure
autokinetic phenomenon
 
self (auto) motion (kinetic) - the apparent movement of stationary point of light in the dark (optical illusion)
cohesiveness
 
"we feeling" ; the extent to which members of a group are bound together, such as by attraction for one another
normative influence
 
conformity based on a persons desire to fulfill others expectations, often gain acceptance
informational influence
 
conformity occurring when people accept evidence about reality provided by other people
reactance
 
a motive to protect or restore one's sense of freedom. reactance arises when someone threatens our freedom of action
persuasion
 
the process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors
central route to persuasion
 
occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
peripheral route to persuasion
 
occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as speaker's attractiveness
credibility
 
believability. a credible communicator is perceived as both expert and trustworthy
sleeper effect
 
delayed impact of a message that occurs when an initially discounted message become effective, as we remember the message but forget the reason for discounting it
attractiveness
 
having qualities that appeal to an audience. an appealing communicator (often someone similar to the audience) is most persuasive on matters of subjective preference
primary effect
 
other things being equal information presented first usually has the most influence
recency effect
 
information presented last sometimes has the most influence. recency effects are less common than primary effects
channel of communication
 
the way the message is delivered - whether face-to-face, in writing, on film, or in some other way
two-step flow of communication
 
process by which media influence often occurs through opinion leaders, who in turn influence others
need for cognition
 
motivation to think and analyze. assessed by agreement with items such as "The notion of thinking abstractly is appealing to me" and disagreement with items such as "I only think as hard as i have to"
cult
 
group typically characterized by 1. distinctive ritual and beliefs related to its devotion to a god or person 2. isolation from surrounding "evil" culture 3. charismatic leader
attitude inoculation
 
exposing people to weak attacks upon their attitudes so that when stronger attacks come, they will have refutations available
group
 
two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence one another and perceive one another as "us"
co-actors
 
co-participants working individually on a noncompetitive activity
social facilitation
 
1. tendency to perform simple or well- learned tasks better wen others are present 2. strengthening of dominant (prevalent, likely) responses in the presence of others, weakening of non dominant tasks in the present of others
evaluation apprehension
 
concern for how others are evaluating us
social loafing
 
the tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable
free riders
 
people who benefit from the group but give little in return
deindividuation
 
loss of self-awareness and evaluations apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms, good or bad
group polarization
 
group-produced enhancement of members' preexisting tendencies; a strengthening of the members' average tendency, not a split within the group
pluralistic ignorance
 
false impression of what most other people are thinking or feeling, or how they are responding
social comparison
 
evaluating ones opinions and abilities by comparing oneself with others
groupthink
 
concurrence - seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action
leadership
 
the process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group
task leadership
 
leadership that organizes work, sets standards, and focuses on goals
social leadership
 
leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
transformational leadership
 
leadership that, enabled by a leader's vision and inspiration, exerts significant influence
cultural diversity
 
the diversity of languages, customs, and behaviors between cultures
culturual similarity
 
- "essential universality" between cultures (incest taboo)
gender difference in age preference of a mate
 
woman marry older men marry younger women (except teenage men)
evolutionary theory
 
cultures study: across cultures, men value youth/beauty women value earning potential/resources
social role theory
 
find women's economic power accounts for variations in sex differences in mate preference
critique of evolutionary approach
 
hindsight? lack of experimental data
evolutionary perspective
 
seeks to understand behaviors in their evolutionary contexts
cultural perspective
 
seeks to understand behavor in a cultural context - socially programmed (diversity and similarity)
social influence happens when...
 
you know something is wrong, factually or morally when you are under the pressure to do it anyway
Ciadini's 6 compliance principles
 
reciprocation commitment/consistencyauthoritysocial validationscarcityliking/friendship
reciprocation
 
A social norm – gift giving and receiving Obligation of repayment Discovered in all cultures of the worldreal world: Free gifts free samples
commitment/consistency
 
We tend to act in ways consistent with past behaviorDoor-to-door sales: –problem of cancellations –having customers complete sales forms themselves greatly reduced cancellation rate later on Foot-in-the-door: agreeing to small initial request leads to agreeing to larger related requests (Billboard study - Freedman & Fraser, 1966)
authority
 
More likely to comply with someone in authority (real or imagined)
social validation
 
Do things when we see others doing them (normative social influence). Buy things when we think it is popular.
scarcity
 
Things that are in short supply seem more valuable.
liking
 
People are more likely to say yes to people they know and like. Compliments: an effective strategy
obedience
 
changing one’s behavior in response to a directive from an authority figure (power status) E.g. soldiers take order from officers Milgrim's Shock experiment
Factors that Affect social influence
 
- group size - unanimity or consensus- uncertainty of the situation - status-public response

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