Social Psychology - David G Myers (10th edition) chapter 5-9

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Social Psychology - David G Myers (10th edition) chapter 5-9  - Genes, Gender, & Culture - conformity - social influence  - persuasion - groups 


 
  
Created Mar 29, 2012
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apalladino

 

 
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1
natural selection * 
Evolutionary psychology 
 
the study of evolution of cognition and behavior using principles of natural selection 
2
norms 
 
Standards for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior. ( what others...
3
personal space 
 
the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies - size depends on our familiarity with...
4
gender 
 
characteristics, whether biological or socially influenced by which people define male and...
5
empathy 
 
vicarious experience of anothers feelings; putting oneself in another's shoes 
6
aggression 
 
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone - in lab experiments it may mean delivering...
7
androgynous 
 
from andro(man) + gyn(woman) - thus mixing both masculine and feminine characteristics 
8
gender role
 
set of behavior expectations (norms) for males and females
9
interaction 
 
a relationship in which the effect of one factor (such as biology) depends on another factor...
10
conformity
 
change in behavior or belief as the result of real or imagines group pressure Asch's research...
11
compliance
 
conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with an implied or explicit request while...
12
obedience 
 
acting in accord with a direct order or command 
13
acceptance 
 
conformity that involves both acting and believing in accord with social pressure 
14
autokinetic phenomenon 
 
self (auto) motion (kinetic) - the apparent movement of stationary point of light in the dark...
15
cohesiveness 
 
"we feeling" ; the extent to which members of a group are bound together, such as by attraction...
16
normative influence 
 
conformity based on a persons desire to fulfill others expectations, often gain acceptance 
17
informational influence 
 
conformity occurring when people accept evidence about reality provided by other people 
18
reactance 
 
a motive to protect or restore one's sense of freedom. reactance arises when someone threatens...
19
persuasion 
 
the process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors 
20
central route to persuasion 
 
occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts 
21
peripheral route to persuasion
 
occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as speaker's attractiveness 
22
credibility 
 
believability. a credible communicator is perceived as both expert and trustworthy 
23
sleeper effect 
 
delayed impact of a message that occurs when an initially discounted message become effective,...
24
attractiveness 
 
having qualities that appeal to an audience. an appealing communicator (often someone similar...
25
primary effect 
 
other things being equal information presented first usually has the most influence 
26
recency effect 
 
information presented last sometimes has the most influence. recency effects are less common...
27
channel of communication 
 
the way the message is delivered - whether face-to-face, in writing, on film, or in some other...
28
two-step flow of communication 
 
process by which media influence often occurs through opinion leaders, who in turn influence...
29
need for cognition 
 
motivation to think and analyze. assessed by agreement with items such as "The notion of thinking...
30
cult
 
group typically characterized by 1. distinctive ritual and beliefs related to its devotion...
31
attitude inoculation 
 
exposing people to weak attacks upon their attitudes so that when stronger attacks come, they...
32
group 
 
two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence one another...
33
co-actors 
 
co-participants working individually on a noncompetitive activity 
34
social facilitation 
 
1. tendency to perform simple or well- learned tasks better wen others are present  2....
35
evaluation apprehension 
 
concern for how others are evaluating us 
36
social loafing 
 
the tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal...
37
free riders 
 
people who benefit from the group but give little in return 
38
deindividuation 
 
loss of self-awareness and evaluations apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster...
39
group polarization 
 
group-produced enhancement of members' preexisting tendencies; a strengthening of the members'...
40
pluralistic ignorance 
 
false impression of what most other people are thinking or feeling, or how they are responding 
41
social comparison 
 
evaluating ones opinions and abilities by comparing oneself with others 
42
groupthink 
 
concurrence - seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tends to override...
43
leadership 
 
the process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group 
44
task leadership 
 
leadership that organizes work, sets standards, and focuses on goals 
45
social leadership 
 
leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support 
46
transformational leadership 
 
leadership that, enabled by a leader's vision and inspiration, exerts significant influence 
47
cultural diversity 
 
the diversity of languages, customs, and behaviors between cultures 
48
culturual similarity 
 
- "essential universality" between cultures (incest taboo) 
49
gender difference in age preference of a mate 
 
woman marry older men marry younger women (except teenage men) 
50
evolutionary theory 
 
cultures study: across cultures, men value youth/beauty women value earning potential/resources 
51
social role theory 
 
find women's economic power accounts for variations in sex differences in mate preference 
52
critique of evolutionary approach 
 
hindsight? lack of experimental data 
53
evolutionary perspective 
 
seeks to understand behaviors in their evolutionary contexts
54
cultural perspective
 
seeks to understand behavor in a cultural context - socially programmed (diversity and similarity) 
55
social influence happens when...
 
you know something is wrong, factually or morally when you are under the pressure to do...
56
Ciadini's 6 compliance principles 
 
reciprocation commitment/consistencyauthoritysocial validationscarcityliking/friendship 
57
reciprocation
 
A social norm – gift giving and receiving Obligation of repayment Discovered in...
58
commitment/consistency 
 
We tend to act in ways consistent with past behaviorDoor-to-door sales: –problem...
59
authority 
 
More likely to comply with someone in authority (real or imagined)
60
social validation 
 
Do things when we see others doing them (normative social influence).  Buy...
61
scarcity 
 
Things that are in short supply seem more valuable.
62
liking 
 
People are more likely to say yes to people they know and like. Compliments: an...
63
obedience 
 
changing one’s behavior in response to a directive from an authority figure...
64
Factors that Affect social influence
 
- group size - unanimity or consensus- uncertainty of the situation - status-public...


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