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natural selection * Evolutionary psychology
the study of evolution of cognition and behavior using principles of natural selection
Standards for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior. ( what others...
the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies - size depends on our familiarity with...
characteristics, whether biological or socially influenced by which people define male and...
vicarious experience of anothers feelings; putting oneself in another's shoes
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone - in lab experiments it may mean delivering...
from andro(man) + gyn(woman) - thus mixing both masculine and feminine characteristics
set of behavior expectations (norms) for males and females
a relationship in which the effect of one factor (such as biology) depends on another factor...
change in behavior or belief as the result of real or imagines group pressure Asch's research...
conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with an implied or explicit request while...
acting in accord with a direct order or command
conformity that involves both acting and believing in accord with social pressure
self (auto) motion (kinetic) - the apparent movement of stationary point of light in the dark...
"we feeling" ; the extent to which members of a group are bound together, such as by attraction...
conformity based on a persons desire to fulfill others expectations, often gain acceptance
conformity occurring when people accept evidence about reality provided by other people
a motive to protect or restore one's sense of freedom. reactance arises when someone threatens...
the process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors
central route to persuasion
occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
peripheral route to persuasion
occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as speaker's attractiveness
believability. a credible communicator is perceived as both expert and trustworthy
delayed impact of a message that occurs when an initially discounted message become effective,...
having qualities that appeal to an audience. an appealing communicator (often someone similar...
other things being equal information presented first usually has the most influence
information presented last sometimes has the most influence. recency effects are less common...
channel of communication
the way the message is delivered - whether face-to-face, in writing, on film, or in some other...
two-step flow of communication
process by which media influence often occurs through opinion leaders, who in turn influence...
need for cognition
motivation to think and analyze. assessed by agreement with items such as "The notion of thinking...
group typically characterized by 1. distinctive ritual and beliefs related to its devotion...
exposing people to weak attacks upon their attitudes so that when stronger attacks come, they...
two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence one another...
co-participants working individually on a noncompetitive activity
1. tendency to perform simple or well- learned tasks better wen others are present 2....
concern for how others are evaluating us
the tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal...
people who benefit from the group but give little in return
loss of self-awareness and evaluations apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster...
group-produced enhancement of members' preexisting tendencies; a strengthening of the members'...
false impression of what most other people are thinking or feeling, or how they are responding
evaluating ones opinions and abilities by comparing oneself with others
concurrence - seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tends to override...
the process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group
leadership that organizes work, sets standards, and focuses on goals
leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
leadership that, enabled by a leader's vision and inspiration, exerts significant influence
the diversity of languages, customs, and behaviors between cultures
- "essential universality" between cultures (incest taboo)
gender difference in age preference of a mate
woman marry older men marry younger women (except teenage men)
cultures study: across cultures, men value youth/beauty women value earning potential/resources
social role theory
find women's economic power accounts for variations in sex differences in mate preference
critique of evolutionary approach
hindsight? lack of experimental data
seeks to understand behaviors in their evolutionary contexts
seeks to understand behavor in a cultural context - socially programmed (diversity and similarity)
social influence happens when...
you know something is wrong, factually or morally when you are under the pressure to do...
Ciadini's 6 compliance principles
reciprocation commitment/consistencyauthoritysocial validationscarcityliking/friendship
A social norm – gift giving and receiving Obligation of repayment Discovered in...
We tend to act in ways consistent with past behaviorDoor-to-door sales: –problem...
More likely to comply with someone in authority (real or imagined)
Do things when we see others doing them (normative social influence). Buy...
Things that are in short supply seem more valuable.
People are more likely to say yes to people they know and like. Compliments: an...
changing one’s behavior in response to a directive from an authority figure...
Factors that Affect social influence
- group size - unanimity or consensus- uncertainty of the situation - status-public...