Social Policy Exam #2

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The exam consists of material on:
Chapter 5: The Implementation Stage
Chapter 6: Inclusive Approaches to Policy-Making
Chapter 7: Influencing Policy From Outside the System
Chapter 8: Chalk & Cheese (Feminism)
Chapter 10: Policy-Making in Aboriginal Child and Family Services.
Chapter 5: The Implementation Stage
-This is the stage of policy making where policy and practice become inseparable.
-Practitioners or front line workers are integral in a policy's implementation.
Practitioners or front line workers have a variety of options for influencing a policy:
1) They can implement the policy as intended
2)They can enhance benefits for service users within their span of control.
3) Resist policy implementation through non-compliance or other means.
Clearance Points:
Policies encounter crucial junctures where opportunities exist to alter direction. The longer the chain from head to field offices, the vaguer the statement of policy objectives.
Top-Down Approach
An approach to implementation where head office takes charge of the process and proceeds down to field offices or front line staff.

Bottom-up or Backwards Mapping
Policy making as starting at the source of the problem, those most affected such as service users and practitioners and emanate up to the top or head offices.
Two Variables of Effective Implementation:
The Capacities and commitment of practitioners
The Centralization of power within the head office
(The greater distance between head & field offices, the greater autonomy of the latter)

Chapter 6: Inclusive Approaches to Policy-Making
There are benefits and risks to inclusive models of policy-making Risks:
- Does not ultimately guarantee inclusive or social justice frameworks
-Those with more power may still exercise control
---------In centralized policy making there is a lack of voice
There are benefits and risks to inclusive models of policy-making Benefits:
- Respect for Principle of Affected Interests

Vertical-Slice Approach
An inclusive approach to policy making consisting of gathering input from representatives of all levels within an organization. (May include service users)
4 Approaches or Models to Inclusive Policy-Making
1) Backward Mapping:
2) Shared Decision-Making Model
3) Policy Communities
4) Community Governance
Get your head into this, focus!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
In-depth view of the three key models...

Backward Mapping:
Starting from the source of the problem, or those who experience it foremost. Checking with affected to make sure the policy reflects their views and interests.
Shared Decision Making:
Inclusive approach to take into account the views of those strongly opposed to the project
-Round table discussions with a moderator
-Meant to clear up each groups misconceptions of the other

Policy Communities:
Loosely knit groups of individuals with interest in a policy area. -Can include politicians, civil servants and community agency representatives. Policy Communities in financially grounded sectors such as logging and oil development have more say than others
Community Governance:
- Devolution of governmental responsibility through community boards etc... ex: school boards, health councils

Community Governance (continued):
Four Principles: AAAL
Affinity: Right to have services available to diverse pop.
Affected Interests: Right to have a say in policies/services that affect you
Accessibility: Services available in the community
Low Levels of Bureaucratization
Community Governance (continued):
The Positives (+)
-Individuals have more respect for laws/services/policies that they had been consulted over.
-Projects which people have helped to set up and implement are preferred.
Community Governance (continued):
The Negatives (-)
-Acute Localitis: Community could become closed/isolated and intolerant of other views
-Could be perceived as a way for neo-liberal governments to cut costs by decentralization.
Chapter 7: Influencing Policy From Outside the System
This chapter looks at the roles of unions, professional associations, think tanks, social movements & advocacy groups.
- Often Involving the media & whistle blowing
Unions and Professional Associations in Policy-Making
Unions are instrumental in policy making and have been successful in pay equity, workload issues and working conditions
-Professional Associations help to regulate their industries.
Think Tanks
Organizations that do research on public/social issues
-Often have certain ideologies, for example:
Fraser Institute - focuses on free market approach to social policy-making
Social Movements & Policy Advocate Groups
Social movements such as the Independent Living Movement have significant influence on social policy. Using a broadly based network of organizations with common interests.
Focused on human rights legislation, embracing collective action and being critical of dominant values in society.
Whistle Blowing (3 Components)
1) Presence of Dissent (Awareness of wrongdoing)
2) Breach of Loyalty
3) Accusation (Complaint Registered)
Chapter 8: Chalk and Cheese (Feminism)
-Some argue feminist agenda has been accomplished, but many issues are still outstanding.
-Feminist thinking challenges conventional wisdom of equality.
Chapter 8: Chalk and Cheese (Feminism)
Only 22% of federal politicians are women
Inequality is analyzed in everyday life
Many institutions controlled by middle-aged men
World view needs to be deconstructed
Second wave of feminism (60s & 70s)
The Personal is Political:
Individual subjugation and disadvantages can be connected to informal and formal structures.
Feminism in Policy-Making
-Analysis of policies and their impacts on individual women
-Gender based analysis challenges that everyone is affected by policies in a similar way
-It is important to remember that not all women are affected the same. Women of lower socio-economic status are often affected more adversely
Historical Landmarks
The right to vote -1918
Women as persons - 1929
Royal Commission on Status of Women (1977) led to many policies and programs to address inequalities.
Neo-liberal ideologies challenge women's rights
International connections with other feminist groups to challenge adverse affects of globalization
Canadian Feminist Alliance for International Action
-Coalition of over 75 Canadian women's groups to further women's rights
Chapter 10: Policy-Making in Aboriginal Child and Family Services
The aboriginal context of policy-making and policy analysis is important to analyze:
1) Aboriginal people most marginalized
2) Aboriginal ways help us appreciate and consider different worldviews, values, etc...
3) Despite its many challenges aboriginals have strengths and resiliency which are important in moving forward
Two critical issues in Aboriginal policy-making
Jurisdictional control issues
Funding issues.
Funding is through Dept. of Indian and Northern Affairs.
One issue is funding on reserves where limited services are available.
Shared Decision-Making (In an aboriginal context)
Interaction between govt. and community is essential
Aim: Establish mutually acceptable policies and programs.
The process is to be collaborative or a partnership.

Creating policy communities and community governance:
Provincial initiative in Manitoba to restructure child welfare related to new aboriginal authorities who would assume responsibility for child welfare
-This transfer of jurisdiction to aboriginal community reflects a policy community approach

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