Side ASide B
rule for appropriate behavior
behavior expected of certain status/ position
types of sanctions
formal: fine, jail, expulsion, etc
informal: ridicule, gossip
3 forms of norms
mores: govern serious behavior
folkways: norms govern mundane conduct
Laws: written and enforced...
carried out by rules and norms
NECESSARY for equilibrium in social relations
Characteristics of a norm
1)associated with roles 2) taught through socialization 3) accompanied by sanctions 4) tend...
consequences of social order
too much leads to more probs
no social order = chaos
3 types of variations in deviant behavior
4 ways to conceptualize deviance
1) absolutist definiton
2) Statistical definition
3) normative conception
certain actions qualify as deviant bc they have always been defined that way (Bible, Koran,...
behavior that is rare or strays from statistical average
leads to confusion bc logically the...
deviant behavior violates a norm
prob: there are so many norms, everyone...
"new conception". deviant behavior is labeled that way.
act = not important REACTION = important
interest groups promote personal set of moral values in attempt to control social life
Argument in Defining Deviance Down- DP Moynihan
moral standards have been altered to accommodate amount of deviance overtime. More things have...
Durkheim's ideas about crime
crime = normal phenomenon
"society of saints"
totality of beliefs and sentiments common to average citizens of same society
Kai Erikson's Wayward Puritan study
Mass. Bay Colony- "witches"
group only has so many resources to deal w/ deviants and tries...
study of deviance in the academic community..
lower prestige field areas because 1) not clearly defined/vast topic 2) deviance - kinda bizarre...
benefits and disadvantages of qualitative method
pros: deeper understanding, observe subtle comm, looks for meaningcons: hard to interview deviants,...
Robert Merton- deviant behavior repsonse to structural conditions (nurture)goals-means gap5...
5 adaptations to anomie
1) conformity 2) innonvation 3) Ritualism 4) Retreatism 5) Rebellion
conventional goals and means
accept goals, reject means
going through motion by means, no goals in sight
reject goals and means
alternative set of goals and means
SOcial Learnin theory
(integrated theory) deviance is LEARNED in context of primary groups3 componentsR2 = .48 (ron...
3 components of social learning theory
differntial associationdifferential reinforcementdefinitions
socialized by grop of ppl who engage in deviance (techniques and mind set)
balance of actual and anticipated rewardssocial (praise) and no -social (effects of drugs/alcohol)
attitudes and meanings that a person attatches to behavioracceptable/ unacceptable
(richard quinney) class struggles occur in capitalist society2 types of deviance (crimes):1)crimes...
crimes of domination and oppression
committed by capatalists to keep superiority
crimes of resistance and accomodation
offenses committed by working class as reaction to oppression
(Howard Becker) nothing is inherentppl are labeled deviant3 neg consequencesprimary and...
3 neg consequences of being labeled
1) restricted opportunities2) Damaged Intrerpersonal relationships3) Diminished self-concept
original norm violations. considered undetected by others.detection can start labeling process
committed as a result of the labeling process"career deviance"
Social Bond Theory
"control theory" (Travis Hirschi) R2 = .14natural inclination to engage in deviant acts4...
4 elements of social bond theory
Attatchment - (works with young) school, family, churchCommitment- (legit) (long-term) stakes...
Akers criteria for judging a theory
1.personal beliefs 2. empirical validity 3. scope (R2) 4. parsimony (how clear) 5. testability
functions of deviance
1. strengthen the group (reactions) 2. highlights normss 3. catalyst for change 4. entertainment
medicalaization of deviance
deviance = medical problem. Bad -> Sick.ex's: addictive behavior, eating disorder, ADHD/ADD,...
Assumptions of medical model
caused by physical/ biological defectqualitative difference btwn deviants and normalsneed...
advantage of medical model
humanitarian benefitsless condemnation of deviants
disadvnatages of medical model
1) expert domination (medical social control)2)individualizing social problems/ alleviates...
myth of mental illnesscauses lablelingits a psychosocial deviation not a disease
The Rosenhan Study
fake patients admitted into mental hospital "hearing voices"results: all but 1 admitted. nobody...
criticisms of Rosenhan study
"logic in remission"hearing voices called for no other action but to admit them