SOCI210 FINAL

Sociological Perspectives
Created May 31, 2012
by cmac36
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Side ASide B
Dr. Samuel George Morton
collected and measured human skulls and "found" races in highest social hierarchy has biggest...
Prof Peter Sandifrod
provided IQ tests to support immigration policy of turning away minorities and called those...
prejudice
an attitude that judges someone on their group's real or imagined characteristics
discrimination
unfair treatment of people because of their group membership
race
social construct used to distinguish people in terms of physical markers
scapegoat
a disadvantaged person or category of people whom others blame for their own problems
ethnic group
comprises people whose perceived cultural markers are deemed socially significant; groups differ...
Vicious Cycle of Racism
1. physical markers distinguish and create social inequality2. different social conditions...
John Porter
believed retention of ethnic culture a big prob for CAN b/c it impaired upward mobility of...
multiculturalism
policy emphasizing tolerance of ethnic and racial differences (ex. CAN)
melting pot ideology
values the disappearance of ethnic and racial differences (ex. US)
Symbolic Interactionist Approachsymbolic ethnicity
ethnic identity is formed by outsiders labelling insiders which shape and continuously reshape...
racism
belief that a visible characteristic of a group indicates group inferiority and justifies discrimination
Conflict TheoriesInternal Colonialismexpulsiongenocideconquestslavery
internal colonialism - involves one race or ethnic group subjugating another in the same country...
Conflict TheoriesTheory of Split Labour Market
theory of split labour market - holds that where low-wage workers of one race and high-wage...
Advantages of Ethnicity
1. economic advantages - rely on members of ethnic group to help find jobs and housing2. political...
Pluralism
the retention of racial and ethnic culture combined with equal access to basic social resources
affirmative action or employment equity
policy that gives preference to members of minority groups if equally qualified people are...
CHAPTER 11
SEXUALITIES AND GENDER STRATIFICATION
intersexed
babies born with ambiguous genitals because of a hormone imbalance or other complications-...
gender1. sexuality2. gender identity3. gender role
feelings, attitudes, desires, and behaviours associated with a particular sexual category1....
sex
depends on whether you are born with distinct male or female genitals and genetic programming...
heteronormativity
belief that sex is binary (one must be male OR female) and that sex ought to be perfectly aligned...
heterosexuality
the preference for members of the opposite sex as sexual partners
Essentialism
school of thought that views gender difference as a reflection of biological difference between...
Critique of Essentialism (Conflict and Feminist Views)
1. ignores historical and cultural variability of gender and sexuality which deflates the idea...
Symbolic Interactionist and Social Constructionism Theory
argue that apparently natural or innate feature of gender is actually sustained by social processes...
transgendered
people berak society's gender norms by defying the rigid distinction between male and female
transexuals
believe they were born with the "wrong" body and identify with and want to live fully as a...
homosexuals
people who prefer sexual partners of the same sex
bisexuals
people who enjoy sexual partners of both sexes
homophobic
people afraid of homosexuals
origins of gender inequality
1. long-distance warfare and conquest- women and men equal until Europe invaded2. Plow Agriculture-...
Earnings Gap
4 Reasons1. gender discrimination - rewarding men and women differently for the same work2....
hostile environment sexual harrassment
sexual jokes, comments, and touching that interferes with work or creates an unfriendly work...
equal pay for equal work
the equal dollar of different jobs comparing jobs in terms of education and experience needed...
2 Waves of Women's Movement
1. 1920s right to vote and considered people2. mid-1960s civil rights and equal rights with...
3 Feminist Streamsliberal feminismsocialist feminismradical feminism
- liberal feminism - believe main source of women's subordination are learning gender roles...
CHAPTER 13
WORK AND ECONOMY
economyprimary, secondary, tertiary sectors
the institution that organizes the production, distribution, and exchange of goods and services-...
Deskilling ThesisHarry BravermanFordismscientific management (Taylorism)
argued that owners organize work to maximize profits and one way to do this is to break down...
Critique of Deskilling Thesis
- not all jobs being deskilled and tends to be for jobs in old economy- higher skills required...
labour market segmentationprimary LMsecondary LM
division of labour into distinct settings in which work is found in different ways and workers...
human relations school of management
challenges Taylorism by advocating less authoritarian leadership on shop floor, careful selection...
union
organization of workers that week to defend and promote their members' interests (working conditions,...
internal labour markets
social mechanisms for controlling pay rates, hiring, and promotions within corporations while...
professionals
people with specialized knowledge acquired through extensive higher education
Barriers Between Primary and Secondary Labour Markets
1. few entry level positions in primary LM2. workers often lack informal networks linking them...
free market
prices determined only by supply and demand* the freer the market the greater the social inequality
regulated market
various social forces limit capacity of supply and demand to determine prices
capitalism
dominant economic system in the world1. private ownership2. competition for profit
corporations
legal entities that can enter into contracts and own property; taxed at lower rate than individuals...
communism
social and economic system in which1. property is owned by public bodies2. gov. planning determines...
democratic socialism
1. public ownership of certain basic industries but most property is privately owned and business...
oligopoly
giant corporations that control part of economy that are fewer in # and tend not to compete...
conglomerate
large corporation that operates in several industries at the same time
interlocking directorates
formed when an individual sits on board of directors of two or more non-competing companies...
CHAPTER 17
EDUCATION
school functions
1. homogeneity by instructing all students in uniform curriculum2. sorting of students into...
Mass Education
1. printing press - reduced book costs and made books in languages people could read2. Protestantism...
educational achievement
learning valuable skills and knowledge
educational attainment
# years of schooling successfully completed or certificates earned
Functionalism: Functions of Education
- latent: encouraged development of separate youth culture, marriage market, keep kids under...
Conflict Perspectivesmeritocracysocial exclusioncredential inflationprofessionalizationcultural...
- meritocracy - social hierarchy in which rank corresponds to individual capacities (rank determines...
Symbolic Interactionismreproduce existing stratification system
reproduce existing stratification system - social processes that ensure that offspring enter...
Feminist Perspective
women lag behind men in certain field and levels
CHAPTER 15
FAMILIES
nuclear familytraditional nuclear family
- nuclear family - consists of cohabiting man and woman who maintain a socially approved sexual...
Functionalism and Nuclear Family Decline
argued nuclear family provides 5 main functions:1. provides basis for regulated sexual activity2....
polygamy
expands nuclear family horizontally by adding a spouse
extended family
expands nuclear family vertically by adding mom or dad's parents
marriage
a socially approved long-term sexual and economic union between a man and woman which involved...
Conflict Theory
Engels argued that traditional nuclear family emerged along with inequalities of wealth and...
Feminist Theory
patriarchy - male dominance and norms justifying is is more deep rooted and only gender revolution...
Mate Selection
1. resources2. third parties3. demographic variables
Marital Satisfaction
1. economic factors2. divorce laws3. family life cycle - fails easier at 5 years4. division...
spouse abusecommon couple violenceintimate terrorismviolent resistence
- common couple violence - when one partner lashes out physically at another that does not...
CHAPTER 20
POPULATION AND UNBRANIZATION
the Malthusian Trap
facts:1. people must eat2. people driven by sexual urgeassumptions:1. food supply increases...
Critiques of Malthus
- technological advances allowed for rapid growth of food production- population growth does...
Demographic Transition Theory
Preindustrial Period- CDR up and CBR upEarly Industrial Period- CDR down and CBR upMature Industrial...
Chicago School and Industrial Cityconcentric zone model
concentric zone model1. differentiation - process by which urban pop and their activities become...
urbanism
way of life that involves increased tolerance but also emotional withdrawal and specialized,...
Chicago Critique
1. social isolation, emotional withdrawal, stress may be just as common in rural areas and...
new urban sociology
emerged in 1970s and stressed that city growth is a process rooted in power relations and urge...
corporate city
growing post WWII perception and organization of the NA city as a vehicle for capitalist accumulation
suburbism
way of life outside city centres that is organized mainly around needs for children and involved...
census metropolitan area (CMA)
large urban area with adjacent urban areas (fringes) that are highly integrated into the urban...
postmodern city
1. privatized - access to formally publicly owned spaces limited (gated communities)2. fragmented...
CHAPTER 19
HEALTH AND MEDICINE
social causes of illness and death
1. human-environmental factors2. lifestyle factors3. factors related to public health and health...
class inequalities and health care
1. high stress and not being able to cope2. difference in early development3. lack of knowledge4....
Conflict Perspective on Comparative Health
rich countries spend more $ on health care and are therefore healthier- socialized medicine...
Symbolic Interaction Labelling and Medicalization of Deviance
medicalization of deviance - tendency for medical definitions of deviant behaviour to become...
Political Sociology of Mental Health
4 reasons that there are more mental illnesses1. more stress and depression now2. powerful...
sick role
involve the non-deliberate suspension of routine responsibilities, wanting to be well, seeing...
CHAPTER 14
POLITICS
power
ability to impose one's will on others
authorityMax Weber's 3 ideal
legit, institutionalized power1. traditional authority2. legal-rational authority3. charismatic...
political revolution
the overthrow of political institutions by an opposition movement and its replacement by new...
state
consists of the institutions responsible for formulating and carrying out a country's laws...
civil society
private sphere of social life
authoritarian
states sharly restrain citizen control of state
totalitarian
citizens lack almost any control over state
democracy
citizens exercise a high degree of social control over state by choosing representatives in...
lobbies
organizations formed by special interest groups to advise and influence politicians
social movements
collective attempts to change all or part of political or social order by means of rioting,...
Pluralist Theory (Functionalist)
holds that power is widely dispersed and as result, no group enjoys disproportionate influence...
Elite Theory (Conflict)
holds that small groups occupying the command of most influential institutions make important...
Elitist Critique of Pluralism
John Porterdisproportionately large # of ppl in political come from upper or middle class families...
Marxist Regimes (Conflict)
instrumentalists - argue elite enjoy more power but that big businesses dominate elites by...
Power Resource Theory (Conflict)
holds that the distribution of power among major classes partly accounts for the successes...
State-Centred Theory (Conflict)
holds that the state itself can structure political life to some degree independently of the...
formal democracy
regular, competitive elections
liberal democracy
country whose citizens enjoy regular, competitive elections and freedoms and constitutional...
Preconditions for Democracy
1. pro-democratic supportive foreign states2. strong middle and working classes
Postmaterialism
holds that growing equality and prosperity in rich industrialized countries have results in...
war
violent armed conflict between politically distinct groups who fight to protect or increase...
Terrorism
3 main reasons:1. decolonization - doubled # independent states many of which are weak2. US,...
CHAPTER 21
COLLECTIVE ACTION AND SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
collective action
occurs when people in unison act to bring about or resist political, economic, or social change
breakdown theory
social movements emerge when traditional norms and patterns of social organizations are disrupted3...
Assessing Breakdown Theory
- social marginality invalid b/c people need to be deeply concerned to participate in the first...
Solidarity Theory (Conflict)
social movements are social organizations that emerge when potential members can:1. mobilize...
Frame Alignment (Symbolic Interactionist)
process by which individual interests, beliefs, values become congruent and complementary with...
civil citizenship
recognizes the right to free speech, freedom of religions and justice before the law
political citizenship
recognizes the right to run for office and vote
social citizenship
recognizes the right to certain level or economic security and full participation in social...
new social movements
promote rights for humanity as whole and participants well-educated
universal citizenship
recognizes the right of marginal groups to full citizenship and the rights of humanity as w...
CHAPTER 18
MASS MEDIA
media imperialism
domination of mass medium by a single national culture and the undermining of other national...
media convergence
the blending of world wide web, TV, and other communication media as a new hybrid media form


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