sociological perspectives
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Dr. Samuel George Morton
collected and measured human skulls and "found" races in highest social hierarchy has biggest brains and are therefore smarter but invalid because:
1. sorting between races invalid
2. unrepresentative sample
3. incomparable with respect to gender
Prof Peter Sandifrod
provided IQ tests to support immigration policy of turning away minorities and called those that did well "exceptions"
an attitude that judges someone on their group's real or imagined characteristics
unfair treatment of people because of their group membership
social construct used to distinguish people in terms of physical markers
a disadvantaged person or category of people whom others blame for their own problems
ethnic group
comprises people whose perceived cultural markers are deemed socially significant; groups differ in terms of language, religion, customs, values, ancestors, etc.
Vicious Cycle of Racism
1. physical markers distinguish and create social inequality
2. different social conditions between subordinates and superordinate create behavioural differences
3. perceptions of behavioural differences create racial stereotypes that get embedded in culture
John Porter
believed retention of ethnic culture a big prob for CAN b/c it impaired upward mobility of immigrants and were therefore unsuccessful due to lack of opportunities and resources
policy emphasizing tolerance of ethnic and racial differences (ex. CAN)
melting pot ideology
values the disappearance of ethnic and racial differences (ex. US)
Symbolic Interactionist Approach

symbolic ethnicity
ethnic identity is formed by outsiders labelling insiders which shape and continuously reshape a person's racial and ethnic identity
- symbolic ethnicity - nostalgic allegiance to the culture of the immigration generations or that of the old country that is not usually incorporated in everyday behaviour
belief that a visible characteristic of a group indicates group inferiority and justifies discrimination
Conflict Theories
Internal Colonialism

internal colonialism - involves one race or ethnic group subjugating another in the same country which prevents assimilation by segregating the subordinate group in terms of jobs, housing, and social contacts

- expulsion - the forcible removal of population from territory claimed by another population
- genocide - the intentional extermination of an entire population defined as a race or people
- conquest - forcible capture of land and economic and political domination of its inhabitants
- slavery - ownership and control of people
Conflict Theories
Theory of Split Labour Market
theory of split labour market - holds that where low-wage workers of one race and high-wage workers of another race compete for the same jobs leading high-wage workers to resent the presence of low-wage workers
Ex. Chinese railroad workers (28,000 deported due to unemployment rates)
Advantages of Ethnicity
1. economic advantages - rely on members of ethnic group to help find jobs and housing
2. political advantages - political tool for achieving increased access to resources
3. emotion support - sharing elements of a nation's culture is comforting in a different enviro.

- transnational communities - community boundaries that extend between or among countries
the retention of racial and ethnic culture combined with equal access to basic social resources
affirmative action or employment equity
policy that gives preference to members of minority groups if equally qualified people are available for a position, encourages gov. subsidized jobs, training, child care, improvements in public ed. and creation of upgrade training courses for immigrants
babies born with ambiguous genitals because of a hormone imbalance or other complications
- Dr. John Money claimed he could assign babies a male or female identity which failed in the case of Bruce/Brenda/David

1. sexuality
2. gender identity
3. gender role
feelings, attitudes, desires, and behaviours associated with a particular sexual category

1. sexuality - a person's capacity for erotic experiences and expressions
2. gender identity - person's sense of belonging to a particular sexual category
3. gender role - behaviour that conforms to widely shared expectations about how members of a particular sexual category are supposed to act
depends on whether you are born with distinct male or female genitals and genetic programming that releases male or female hormones to stimulate the development of your reproductive system
belief that sex is binary (one must be male OR female) and that sex ought to be perfectly aligned with gender
the preference for members of the opposite sex as sexual partners
school of thought that views gender difference as a reflection of biological difference between women and men
- functionalists claim that traditional gender roles help to integrate society by learning essential feature of each gender (men have instrumental traits and females have expressive traits)
Critique of Essentialism (Conflict and Feminist Views)
1. ignores historical and cultural variability of gender and sexuality which deflates the idea that they are "essential" b/c cultures vary
2. generalizes form the average and ignores variation within gender groups (there is considerable overlap in characteristics for men and women)
3. little/no evidence supports major claim that genes are the direct cause of traits
4. ignores the role of power b/c men are generally more powerful
Symbolic Interactionist and Social Constructionism Theory
argue that apparently natural or innate feature of gender is actually sustained by social processes that vary historically and culturally and symbolic ineractionists argue that people attach meaning to man or woman roles and these roles are maintained through social interaction
- gender ideologies - set of interrelated ideas about what constitutes ppropriate masculine/feminine behaviour
people berak society's gender norms by defying the rigid distinction between male and female
believe they were born with the "wrong" body and identify with and want to live fully as a member of the opposite sex
people who prefer sexual partners of the same sex
people who enjoy sexual partners of both sexes
people afraid of homosexuals
origins of gender inequality
1. long-distance warfare and conquest
- women and men equal until Europe invaded
2. Plow Agriculture
- men stronger so plows give them more power
3. Separation of Public and Private Spheres
- during industrialization, men became workers and females stayed home
Earnings Gap
4 Reasons
1. gender discrimination - rewarding men and women differently for the same work
2. women concentrated in low-wage occupations and industries
3. heavy domestic responsibilities
4. people consider work done by women less valuable b/c they think it involves less skill
hostile environment sexual harrassment
sexual jokes, comments, and touching that interferes with work or creates an unfriendly work enviro.
equal pay for equal work
the equal dollar of different jobs comparing jobs in terms of education and experience needed to do them and stress, responsibility, and working conditions associated with them
- its law but employers find loopholes
2 Waves of Women's Movement
1. 1920s right to vote and considered people
2. mid-1960s civil rights and equal rights with men for ed. and employment, elimination of sexual violence and control over reproduction
3 Feminist Streams

liberal feminism
socialist feminism
radical feminism
- liberal feminism - believe main source of women's subordination are learning gender roles ans denial of opportunities for women
- socialist feminist - regards women's relationship with economy the main source of male domination so working-class women are too poor to take advantages of equal ed and work opportunities
- radical feminism - believe idea of gender needs to be changed to eliminate male domination, reproductive technologies helps

primary, secondary, tertiary sectors
the institution that organizes the production, distribution, and exchange of goods and services
- primary sector - raw materials gathered (agricultural revolution)
- secondary sector - manufactured into goods (industrial revolution)
- tertiary sector - services bought and sold (postindustrial revolution)
Deskilling Thesis
Harry Braverman

scientific management (Taylorism)
argued that owners organize work to maximize profits and one way to do this is to break down complex tasks into simple routines for workers

- Fordism - method of industrial management based on assembly line methods of producing inexpensive, uniform, commodities at high volume (mass production)
- scientific management (Taylorism) - system for improving productivity by training workers to eliminate unnecessary actions
Critique of Deskilling Thesis
- not all jobs being deskilled and tends to be for jobs in old economy
- higher skills required for service sector
- creates new industries with good jobs (ex. computers)
labour market segmentation

primary LM
secondary LM
division of labour into distinct settings in which work is found in different ways and workers have different characteristics with only a slim chance of moving from one setting to another

- primary LM - comprises mainly of high-skilled well-educated workers employed in large corporations that have high levels of capital investment, employment is secure, earnings are high and generous benefits
- secondary LM - contains a disproportionately large # of women and members of ethnic minorities who tend to be unskilled and lack higher ed and they work in small firms with low capital investment and employment is insecure, earnings are low and benefits are not good
human relations school of management
challenges Taylorism by advocating less authoritarian leadership on shop floor, careful selection and training of personnel and greater attention to human needs and employee satisfaction

- quality of work life movement - small groups of workers and manager collaborate to improve quality of goods produced and communication between workers and managers
- codetermination - German style of worker participation that allows workers to formulate overall business strategy by having councils reviews and influence management policies
organization of workers that week to defend and promote their members' interests (working conditions, wages, decision-making)
internal labour markets
social mechanisms for controlling pay rates, hiring, and promotions within corporations while decreasing competition between a firm's workers and external labour supplies
people with specialized knowledge acquired through extensive higher education
Barriers Between Primary and Secondary Labour Markets
1. few entry level positions in primary LM
2. workers often lack informal networks linking them to good jobs
3. workers often lack required training and certification for primary LM
free market
prices determined only by supply and demand
* the freer the market the greater the social inequality
regulated market
various social forces limit capacity of supply and demand to determine prices
dominant economic system in the world
1. private ownership
2. competition for profit
legal entities that can enter into contracts and own property; taxed at lower rate than individuals and not liable for debt or harm
social and economic system in which
1. property is owned by public bodies
2. gov. planning determines production and distribution
democratic socialism
1. public ownership of certain basic industries but most property is privately owned and business for profit
2. substantial gov intervention in market
giant corporations that control part of economy that are fewer in # and tend not to compete but instead set prices at levels profitable for them
- western countries have antitrust laws against this
large corporation that operates in several industries at the same time
interlocking directorates
formed when an individual sits on board of directors of two or more non-competing companies that allows for exchange of valuable info and formation of alliances
school functions
1. homogeneity by instructing all students in uniform curriculum
2. sorting of students into paths that terminate in different social classes
Mass Education
1. printing press - reduced book costs and made books in languages people could read
2. Protestantism - believed Bible was how they should act so needed to be literate to read it
3. democracy - free education for everyone
4. industrialization - required education for jobs
educational achievement
learning valuable skills and knowledge
educational attainment
# years of schooling successfully completed or certificates earned
Functionalism: Functions of Education
- latent: encouraged development of separate youth culture, marriage market, keep kids under surveillance so parents could work
- create solidarity and cultural homogeneity by teaching civic responsibility, pride in nation , follow laws, democracy
Conflict Perspectives

social exclusion
credential inflation
cultural capital
pedagogic violence
- meritocracy - social hierarchy in which rank corresponds to individual capacities (rank determines opportunities and therefore ed level)
- social exclusion - achieved by creating barriers that restrict certain opportunities or positions to members of one group
- credential inflation - takes even more certificates to qualify to do a job (for new technology or as a selection process)
- professionalization - certain levels and types of schooling are established as certain criteria for gaining success which ensures standard and high earnings
- cultural capital - stock of learning and skills the increases good job
- pedagogic violence - application by teachers of punishment intended to discourage deviation from dominant culture
Symbolic Interactionism

reproduce existing stratification system
reproduce existing stratification system - social processes that ensure that offspring enter a rank similar or equal to that of their parents

3 mechanisms:
1. hidden curriculum - school teaches authority and upper class better at this
2. testing and tracking - maintains social inequalities
3. self-fulfilling prophecies - expectations that help cause something
Feminist Perspective
women lag behind men in certain field and levels
nuclear family

traditional nuclear family
- nuclear family - consists of cohabiting man and woman who maintain a socially approved sexual relationship and have at least 1 kid
- traditional nuclear family - nuclear family in which the father works for wage/salary and mother works at home for free
Functionalism and Nuclear Family Decline
argued nuclear family provides 5 main functions:
1. provides basis for regulated sexual activity
2. economic cooperation
3. reproduction
4. socialization
5. emotional support

1. ignores that nuclear family based on gender inequality
2. ignores ways that power relations between men and women have already altered family structure
expands nuclear family horizontally by adding a spouse
extended family
expands nuclear family vertically by adding mom or dad's parents
a socially approved long-term sexual and economic union between a man and woman which involved reciprocal rights and obligations between spouses and between parents and children
Conflict Theory
Engels argued that traditional nuclear family emerged along with inequalities of wealth and believed only communism would bring an end to gender inequality
Feminist Theory
patriarchy - male dominance and norms justifying is is more deep rooted and only gender revolution can fix it
Mate Selection
1. resources
2. third parties
3. demographic variables
Marital Satisfaction
1. economic factors
2. divorce laws
3. family life cycle - fails easier at 5 years
4. division of labour - best when shared equally
5. sexual relations - if good then willing to work at relationship
spouse abuse

common couple violence
intimate terrorism
violent resistence
- common couple violence - when one partner lashes out physically at another that does not happen often or escalate over time (bother genders likely)
- intimate terrorism - one partner controls the other, likely to get worse over time and be repetitive and mostly men
- violent resistence - self-defense from abusive partner, mostly women
the Malthusian Trap
1. people must eat
2. people driven by sexual urge
1. food supply increases arithmetically
2. population increases geometrically

- preventive measures (morally opposed) ex. abortion, infanticide, prostitution
- positive checks ex. war, pestilence, famine
Critiques of Malthus
- technological advances allowed for rapid growth of food production
- population growth does not always produce misery
- helping poor does not always lead to pop. increase
- contraceptives have been developed
Demographic Transition Theory
Preindustrial Period
- CDR up and CBR up
Early Industrial Period
- CDR down and CBR up
Mature Industrial Period
- CDR downa dn CBR down
- CBR down more below replacement rate
Chicago School and Industrial City

concentric zone model
concentric zone model
1. differentiation - process by which urban pop and their activities become more complex and heterogeneous over time
2. competition - struggle by different group for optimal locations to reside and run business
3. ecological succession - process by which a distinct urban group moves from one area to another and a second group comes in to replace the group that has moved out

way of life that involves increased tolerance but also emotional withdrawal and specialized, impersonal, and self-interested interaction (Louis Wirth)
- individualistic
Chicago Critique
1. social isolation, emotional withdrawal, stress may be just as common in rural areas and urban areas create subcultures and networks
2. limited applicability to Canada and not true for all times in history
3. presents urban growth as natural process but it includes political, historical, and economic influence
new urban sociology
emerged in 1970s and stressed that city growth is a process rooted in power relations and urge to profit therefore political interests and conflicts shape urbanization now
corporate city
growing post WWII perception and organization of the NA city as a vehicle for capitalist accumulation
way of life outside city centres that is organized mainly around needs for children and involved higher levels of conformity and sociability
census metropolitan area (CMA)
large urban area with adjacent urban areas (fringes) that are highly integrated into the urban core

- edge cities - clusters of malls, offices, and entertainment complexes that arise at the convergence point of major highways
- gentrification - process of middle-class people moving into rundown areas of inner city and restoring them
postmodern city
1. privatized - access to formally publicly owned spaces limited (gated communities)
2. fragmented - variety of lifestyles and cultures
3 globalized - centres of economic and financial decision-making
social causes of illness and death
1. human-environmental factors
2. lifestyle factors
3. factors related to public health and health care systems
- public health system - gov run programs that ensure access to clean drinking water, sewage, etc.
- health care system - clinics, hospitals, and health facilities
class inequalities and health care
1. high stress and not being able to cope
2. difference in early development
3. lack of knowledge
4. unequal access to health resources
5. environmental exposure
Conflict Perspective on Comparative Health
rich countries spend more $ on health care and are therefore healthier
- socialized medicine - national health insurance system (ex CAN) where gov provides financing and pays providers, guarantees to everyone, and some private care to ppl willing to pay

Symbolic Interaction Labelling and Medicalization of Deviance
medicalization of deviance - tendency for medical definitions of deviant behaviour to become more prevalent over time
- what used to be regarded as "badness" is now "sickness"
Political Sociology of Mental Health
4 reasons that there are more mental illnesses
1. more stress and depression now
2. powerful organizations can profit
3. culture makes it trendy
4. professional organizations promote them to get more patients (over diagnosis)
sick role
involve the non-deliberate suspension of routine responsibilities, wanting to be well, seeing competent help, and cooperating with care practitioners at all time (Parsons)
ability to impose one's will on others

Max Weber's 3 ideal
legit, institutionalized power

1. traditional authority
2. legal-rational authority
3. charismatic authority
political revolution
the overthrow of political institutions by an opposition movement and its replacement by new insititutions
consists of the institutions responsible for formulating and carrying out a country's laws and public policies
civil society
private sphere of social life
states sharly restrain citizen control of state
citizens lack almost any control over state
citizens exercise a high degree of social control over state by choosing representatives in regular, competitive elections
organizations formed by special interest groups to advise and influence politicians
social movements
collective attempts to change all or part of political or social order by means of rioting, petitioning, striking, demonstrating and establishing lobbies, unions, and political parties
Pluralist Theory (Functionalist)
holds that power is widely dispersed and as result, no group enjoys disproportionate influence and decisions are usually reached through negotiation and compromise which helps society achieve collected goals and interests but because some groups are more powerful than others it can cause disequilibrium
Elite Theory (Conflict)
holds that small groups occupying the command of most influential institutions make important decisions that profoundly affect all members of society without much regard for elections or public opinion

- elites - small groups that control command posts of institutions
- ruling class - self-conscious, cohesive group of people in elite positions that act to advance their common interests and corporate executives lead them
Elitist Critique of Pluralism
John Porter
disproportionately large # of ppl in political come from upper or middle class families that attend $ schools and marry other elites
Marxist Regimes (Conflict)
instrumentalists - argue elite enjoy more power but that big businesses dominate elites by gaining control in 3 ways:
1. wealthy ppl occupy state positions
2. gov. officials rely mainly on reps from big businesses
3. political parties rely mainly on big businesses for $

structuralists - argue that capitalist state acts an arm of big business b/c it is constrained to do so by the nature
Power Resource Theory (Conflict)
holds that the distribution of power among major classes partly accounts for the successes and failures of different political parties over the long-term
State-Centred Theory (Conflict)
holds that the state itself can structure political life to some degree independently of the way power is distributed between classes and other groups at a given time
formal democracy
regular, competitive elections
liberal democracy
country whose citizens enjoy regular, competitive elections and freedoms and constitutional protections and make political participation and competition meaningful

non-liberal democracy - certain cultural, ethnic, racial, religious, or regional groups can't vote
Preconditions for Democracy
1. pro-democratic supportive foreign states
2. strong middle and working classes
holds that growing equality and prosperity in rich industrialized countries have results in a shift from class-based to value-based politics
violent armed conflict between politically distinct groups who fight to protect or increase their control of a territory

Risk factors:
1. type of gov.
2. GDP
3 main reasons:
1. decolonization - doubled # independent states many of which are weak
2. US, CAN, USSR, China, Cuba sent arms to domestic opponents
3. expansion of international trade
collective action
occurs when people in unison act to bring about or resist political, economic, or social change
breakdown theory
social movements emerge when traditional norms and patterns of social organizations are disrupted

3 causes:
1. group of people poorly integrated into society
2. norms are strained
3. inherent irrational control of group behaviour (contagion Le Bon)
Assessing Breakdown Theory
- social marginality invalid b/c people need to be deeply concerned to participate in the first place
- strain invalid b/c no levels of deprivation associated with collective action
- contagion invalid b/c they are well planned and organized
Solidarity Theory (Conflict)
social movements are social organizations that emerge when potential members can:
1. mobilize resources - low unemployment, high union membership, gov. generous welfare benefits
2. take advantage of new political opportunities - b/c parties unstable and groups divided
3. avoid high levels of social control by authorities
Frame Alignment (Symbolic Interactionist)
process by which individual interests, beliefs, values become congruent and complementary with the activities, goals and ideology of a social movement by:
1. movement leaders reach other to ppl they think will be sympathetic
2. activists can stress popular values
3. stress objectives and activities
civil citizenship
recognizes the right to free speech, freedom of religions and justice before the law
political citizenship
recognizes the right to run for office and vote
social citizenship
recognizes the right to certain level or economic security and full participation in social life of the country
new social movements
promote rights for humanity as whole and participants well-educated
universal citizenship
recognizes the right of marginal groups to full citizenship and the rights of humanity as w hole
media imperialism
domination of mass medium by a single national culture and the undermining of other national cultures
media convergence
the blending of world wide web, TV, and other communication media as a new hybrid media form

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