SOCI210 FINAL

133 cards

Sociological Perspectives


 
  
Created May 31, 2012
by
cmac36

 

 
Table View
 
Download
 
Print

Flashcard Set Preview

  Side A   Side B
1
Dr. Samuel George Morton
 
collected and measured human skulls and "found" races in highest social hierarchy has biggest...
2
Prof Peter Sandifrod
 
provided IQ tests to support immigration policy of turning away minorities and called those...
3
prejudice
 
an attitude that judges someone on their group's real or imagined characteristics
4
discrimination
 
unfair treatment of people because of their group membership
5
race
 
social construct used to distinguish people in terms of physical markers
6
scapegoat
 
a disadvantaged person or category of people whom others blame for their own problems
7
ethnic group
 
comprises people whose perceived cultural markers are deemed socially significant; groups differ...
8
Vicious Cycle of Racism
 
1. physical markers distinguish and create social inequality
2. different social conditions...
9
John Porter
 
believed retention of ethnic culture a big prob for CAN b/c it impaired upward mobility of...
10
multiculturalism
 
policy emphasizing tolerance of ethnic and racial differences (ex. CAN)
11
melting pot ideology
 
values the disappearance of ethnic and racial differences (ex. US)
12
Symbolic Interactionist Approach

symbolic ethnicity
 
ethnic identity is formed by outsiders labelling insiders which shape and continuously reshape...
13
racism
 
belief that a visible characteristic of a group indicates group inferiority and justifies discrimination
14
Conflict Theories
Internal Colonialism

expulsion
genocide
conquest
slavery
 
internal colonialism - involves one race or ethnic group subjugating another in the same country...
15
Conflict Theories
Theory of Split Labour Market
 
theory of split labour market - holds that where low-wage workers of one race and high-wage...
16
Advantages of Ethnicity
 
1. economic advantages - rely on members of ethnic group to help find jobs and housing
2....
17
Pluralism
 
the retention of racial and ethnic culture combined with equal access to basic social resources
18
affirmative action or employment equity
 
policy that gives preference to members of minority groups if equally qualified people are...
19
CHAPTER 11
 
SEXUALITIES AND GENDER STRATIFICATION
20
intersexed
 
babies born with ambiguous genitals because of a hormone imbalance or other complications
-...
21
gender

1. sexuality
2. gender identity
3. gender role
 
feelings, attitudes, desires, and behaviours associated with a particular sexual category

1....
22
sex
 
depends on whether you are born with distinct male or female genitals and genetic programming...
23
heteronormativity
 
belief that sex is binary (one must be male OR female) and that sex ought to be perfectly aligned...
24
heterosexuality
 
the preference for members of the opposite sex as sexual partners
25
Essentialism
 
school of thought that views gender difference as a reflection of biological difference between...
26
Critique of Essentialism (Conflict and Feminist Views)
 
1. ignores historical and cultural variability of gender and sexuality which deflates the idea...
27
Symbolic Interactionist and Social Constructionism Theory
 
argue that apparently natural or innate feature of gender is actually sustained by social processes...
28
transgendered
 
people berak society's gender norms by defying the rigid distinction between male and female
29
transexuals
 
believe they were born with the "wrong" body and identify with and want to live fully as a...
30
homosexuals
 
people who prefer sexual partners of the same sex
31
bisexuals
 
people who enjoy sexual partners of both sexes
32
homophobic
 
people afraid of homosexuals
33
origins of gender inequality
 
1. long-distance warfare and conquest
- women and men equal until Europe invaded
2. Plow...
34
Earnings Gap
 
4 Reasons
1. gender discrimination - rewarding men and women differently for the same work
2....
35
hostile environment sexual harrassment
 
sexual jokes, comments, and touching that interferes with work or creates an unfriendly work...
36
equal pay for equal work
 
the equal dollar of different jobs comparing jobs in terms of education and experience needed...
37
2 Waves of Women's Movement
 
1. 1920s right to vote and considered people
2. mid-1960s civil rights and equal rights...
38
3 Feminist Streams

liberal feminism
socialist feminism
radical feminism
 
- liberal feminism - believe main source of women's subordination are learning gender roles...
39
CHAPTER 13
 
WORK AND ECONOMY
40
economy

primary, secondary, tertiary sectors
 
the institution that organizes the production, distribution, and exchange of goods and services
-...
41
Deskilling Thesis
Harry Braverman

Fordism
scientific management (Taylorism)
 
argued that owners organize work to maximize profits and one way to do this is to break down...
42
Critique of Deskilling Thesis
 
- not all jobs being deskilled and tends to be for jobs in old economy
- higher skills required...
43
labour market segmentation

primary LM
secondary LM
 
division of labour into distinct settings in which work is found in different ways and workers...
44
human relations school of management
 
challenges Taylorism by advocating less authoritarian leadership on shop floor, careful selection...
45
union
 
organization of workers that week to defend and promote their members' interests (working conditions,...
46
internal labour markets
 
social mechanisms for controlling pay rates, hiring, and promotions within corporations while...
47
professionals
 
people with specialized knowledge acquired through extensive higher education
48
Barriers Between Primary and Secondary Labour Markets
 
1. few entry level positions in primary LM
2. workers often lack informal networks linking...
49
free market
 
prices determined only by supply and demand
* the freer the market the greater the social...
50
regulated market
 
various social forces limit capacity of supply and demand to determine prices
51
capitalism
 
dominant economic system in the world
1. private ownership
2. competition for profit
52
corporations
 
legal entities that can enter into contracts and own property; taxed at lower rate than individuals...
53
communism
 
social and economic system in which
1. property is owned by public bodies
2. gov. planning...
54
democratic socialism
 
1. public ownership of certain basic industries but most property is privately owned and business...
55
oligopoly
 
giant corporations that control part of economy that are fewer in # and tend not to compete...
56
conglomerate
 
large corporation that operates in several industries at the same time
57
interlocking directorates
 
formed when an individual sits on board of directors of two or more non-competing companies...
58
CHAPTER 17
 
EDUCATION
59
school functions
 
1. homogeneity by instructing all students in uniform curriculum
2. sorting of students...
60
Mass Education
 
1. printing press - reduced book costs and made books in languages people could read
2....
61
educational achievement
 
learning valuable skills and knowledge
62
educational attainment
 
# years of schooling successfully completed or certificates earned
63
Functionalism: Functions of Education
 
- latent: encouraged development of separate youth culture, marriage market, keep kids under...
64
Conflict Perspectives

meritocracy
social exclusion
credential inflation
professionalization
cultural...
 
- meritocracy - social hierarchy in which rank corresponds to individual capacities (rank determines...
65
Symbolic Interactionism

reproduce existing stratification system
 
reproduce existing stratification system - social processes that ensure that offspring enter...
66
Feminist Perspective
 
women lag behind men in certain field and levels
67
CHAPTER 15
 
FAMILIES
68
nuclear family

traditional nuclear family
 
- nuclear family - consists of cohabiting man and woman who maintain a socially approved sexual...
69
Functionalism and Nuclear Family Decline
 
argued nuclear family provides 5 main functions:
1. provides basis for regulated sexual...
70
polygamy
 
expands nuclear family horizontally by adding a spouse
71
extended family
 
expands nuclear family vertically by adding mom or dad's parents
72
marriage
 
a socially approved long-term sexual and economic union between a man and woman which involved...
73
Conflict Theory
 
Engels argued that traditional nuclear family emerged along with inequalities of wealth and...
74
Feminist Theory
 
patriarchy - male dominance and norms justifying is is more deep rooted and only gender revolution...
75
Mate Selection
 
1. resources
2. third parties
3. demographic variables
76
Marital Satisfaction
 
1. economic factors
2. divorce laws
3. family life cycle - fails easier at 5 years
4....
77
spouse abuse

common couple violence
intimate terrorism
violent resistence
 
- common couple violence - when one partner lashes out physically at another that does not...
78
CHAPTER 20
 
POPULATION AND UNBRANIZATION
79
the Malthusian Trap
 
facts:
1. people must eat
2. people driven by sexual urge
assumptions:
1. food...
80
Critiques of Malthus
 
- technological advances allowed for rapid growth of food production
- population growth...
81
Demographic Transition Theory
 
Preindustrial Period
- CDR up and CBR up
Early Industrial Period
- CDR down and CBR...
82
Chicago School and Industrial City

concentric zone model
 
concentric zone model
1. differentiation - process by which urban pop and their activities...
83
urbanism
 
way of life that involves increased tolerance but also emotional withdrawal and specialized,...
84
Chicago Critique
 
1. social isolation, emotional withdrawal, stress may be just as common in rural areas and...
85
new urban sociology
 
emerged in 1970s and stressed that city growth is a process rooted in power relations and urge...
86
corporate city
 
growing post WWII perception and organization of the NA city as a vehicle for capitalist accumulation
87
suburbism
 
way of life outside city centres that is organized mainly around needs for children and involved...
88
census metropolitan area (CMA)
 
large urban area with adjacent urban areas (fringes) that are highly integrated into the urban...
89
postmodern city
 
1. privatized - access to formally publicly owned spaces limited (gated communities)
2....
90
CHAPTER 19
 
HEALTH AND MEDICINE
91
social causes of illness and death
 
1. human-environmental factors
2. lifestyle factors
3. factors related to public health...
92
class inequalities and health care
 
1. high stress and not being able to cope
2. difference in early development
3. lack...
93
Conflict Perspective on Comparative Health
 
rich countries spend more $ on health care and are therefore healthier
- socialized medicine...
94
Symbolic Interaction Labelling and Medicalization of Deviance
 
medicalization of deviance - tendency for medical definitions of deviant behaviour to become...
95
Political Sociology of Mental Health
 
4 reasons that there are more mental illnesses
1. more stress and depression now
2. powerful...
96
sick role
 
involve the non-deliberate suspension of routine responsibilities, wanting to be well, seeing...
97
CHAPTER 14
 
POLITICS
98
power
 
ability to impose one's will on others
99
authority

Max Weber's 3 ideal
 
legit, institutionalized power

1. traditional authority
2. legal-rational authority
3....
100
political revolution
 
the overthrow of political institutions by an opposition movement and its replacement by new...
101
state
 
consists of the institutions responsible for formulating and carrying out a country's laws...
102
civil society
 
private sphere of social life
103
authoritarian
 
states sharly restrain citizen control of state
104
totalitarian
 
citizens lack almost any control over state
105
democracy
 
citizens exercise a high degree of social control over state by choosing representatives in...
106
lobbies
 
organizations formed by special interest groups to advise and influence politicians
107
social movements
 
collective attempts to change all or part of political or social order by means of rioting,...
108
Pluralist Theory (Functionalist)
 
holds that power is widely dispersed and as result, no group enjoys disproportionate influence...
109
Elite Theory (Conflict)
 
holds that small groups occupying the command of most influential institutions make important...
110
Elitist Critique of Pluralism
 
John Porter
disproportionately large # of ppl in political come from upper or middle class...
111
Marxist Regimes (Conflict)
 
instrumentalists - argue elite enjoy more power but that big businesses dominate elites by...
112
Power Resource Theory (Conflict)
 
holds that the distribution of power among major classes partly accounts for the successes...
113
State-Centred Theory (Conflict)
 
holds that the state itself can structure political life to some degree independently of the...
114
formal democracy
 
regular, competitive elections
115
liberal democracy
 
country whose citizens enjoy regular, competitive elections and freedoms and constitutional...
116
Preconditions for Democracy
 
1. pro-democratic supportive foreign states
2. strong middle and working classes
117
Postmaterialism
 
holds that growing equality and prosperity in rich industrialized countries have results in...
118
war
 
violent armed conflict between politically distinct groups who fight to protect or increase...
119
Terrorism
 
3 main reasons:
1. decolonization - doubled # independent states many of which are weak
2....
120
CHAPTER 21
 
COLLECTIVE ACTION AND SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
121
collective action
 
occurs when people in unison act to bring about or resist political, economic, or social change
122
breakdown theory
 
social movements emerge when traditional norms and patterns of social organizations are disrupted

3...
123
Assessing Breakdown Theory
 
- social marginality invalid b/c people need to be deeply concerned to participate in the first...
124
Solidarity Theory (Conflict)
 
social movements are social organizations that emerge when potential members can:
1. mobilize...
125
Frame Alignment (Symbolic Interactionist)
 
process by which individual interests, beliefs, values become congruent and complementary with...
126
civil citizenship
 
recognizes the right to free speech, freedom of religions and justice before the law
127
political citizenship
 
recognizes the right to run for office and vote
128
social citizenship
 
recognizes the right to certain level or economic security and full participation in social...
129
new social movements
 
promote rights for humanity as whole and participants well-educated
130
universal citizenship
 
recognizes the right of marginal groups to full citizenship and the rights of humanity as w...
131
CHAPTER 18
 
MASS MEDIA
132
media imperialism
 
domination of mass medium by a single national culture and the undermining of other national...
133
media convergence
 
the blending of world wide web, TV, and other communication media as a new hybrid media form


Upgrade and get a lot more done!
Upgrade    Cancel