Soc. Exam 2

Chapters 8-14
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Multinational Corporations
companies that operate across national borders
the econmonic aqnd political dominaqnce of the least industrialized nations by the most industrialized nations
culture of poverty
the assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor make them funadmentally different from other people, and that these characteristics are passed on to children from parents
continuity theory
how people adjust to retirement by continuing aspects of their earlier lives
dependency ratio
the number of workers required to support each dependent person- those 65 and older and those 15 and under
prejudice, discrimination, and hostility directed against people becuase of their age; can be directed towards any age group (youth)
activity theory
the view that satisfaction during old age is related to a person's amount and quality of activity
a place or services brougt into someone's home, for the purpose of bringing comfort and dignity to a dying person
age cohort
people born at roughly the same time who pass through the life course together
disengagement theory
the view that society prevents disruption by having the elderly vacate their positions of responsibility so the younger generatioin can step into their shoes
a society run the the elderly
gender age
the relative value placed on men's and women's ages
the systematic annihilation or attempted annihilation of a people based on their resumed race or ethnic group
physcial characteristics that distinguish one group from another
life span
the maximum length of life of a species; for humans, the longest that a human has ever lived
life expectancy
the number of years that an average person at any age, including new borns, can expect to live
graying of america
refers to the growing percentage of older people in the U.S. population
having distinctive cultural characteristics
time not taken up by work or required
class system
a form of social stratification based primarily on the possession of money or material possessions
Marx's term for capitalists, those who own the means of production
caste system
a form of social stratification in which one's status is determined by birth and is lifelong
means of production
the tools factories, land, and investment capital used to produce wealth
social mobility
movement up or down the social class ladder
false consciousness
Marx's term to refer to workers identifying with the interests of capitalists
Marx's term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production
beliefs about the way things out to be that justify social arrangements
to separate acts from feelings and attidudes
globalization of capitalism
capitalism becoming the globe's dominant economic system
the seperation of racial-ethnic groups as was practiced in south africa
a system of distribution of goods and services
the process by which one nation takes over another nation, usually for the purpose of exploiting its labor and natural resources
class consciousness
Marx's term for awareness of a common identity based on one's position in the means of production
estate stratification system
the stratification system of medieval Europe, sonsisting of 3 gropus or estates: the nobility, clergy, and commoners
a form of social stratification in which some people own other people
reserve labor force
the unemployed are though of as being "in reserve", they are taken "out of reserve" during times of high production and then layed off when they are no longer needed
a form of social stratification in which all positions are awarded on the basis of merit
divine right of kings
the idea that the king's authority comes directly from God
world system theory
economic and political connections that tie the world's countries together
the practice of marrying within one's own group
an act of unfair treatment directed against an individual or a group
individual discrimination
the negative treatment of one person by another on the basis of that person's preceived characteristics
melting pot
the view that Americans of various backgrounds would blend into a sort of ethnic stew
prejudice and discrimination on basis of race
an individual or grop unfairly blamed for someone else's troubles
an attitude of prejudging, usually in a negative way
ethnic work
activities designed to discover, enhance, or maintain ethnic and racial identification
insitutional discrimination
negative treatment of a minority gropu that is built into a soceity's institutions
dominant group
the group with the most power, greatest privleges, and higest social status
minority group
people who ar e singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination
split labor market
workers split along racial, thenic, gender, age, or any other lines; this split is exploited by owners to weaken the bargaining power of workers
selective perception
seeing certain features of an object or situation, but remaining blind to others
bonded labor/indentured service
a system in which someone selss his/her body (services) for a specified period of time in an arrangement very close to slavery, except that it is voluntarily entered into
authoritarian personality
Theodor Adorno's term for people who are prejudiced and rank high on scales of conformity intolerance, insecurity, respect for authority, and submissiveness to superiors
the violation of erules or norms
the violation of norms written into law
"blemishes" that discredit a person's claim to a "normal" identity
social order
a group's usual and customary social arrangements, on which its memebers depend and on which they base their lives
social control
a grou's formal and informal means of enforcing its norms
negative sanction
an expression of disapproval for breaking a norm. ranging from a mild, informal reaction such as a frown to a formal reaction such as a prison sentence or an execution
poisitive sanction
a reward or positive reaction for following norms, ranging from a smile to a prize
degradation ceremony
a term coined by Harold Garfinkel to descrive an attempt to remake the self by stipping away an inficidual's self-identity and stamping a new identity in its place
gentic predisposition
inborn tendencies; in this context, to commit deviant acts
street crime
crimes such as mugging, rape, and burgarly
personality disorders
the view that a presonality disturbance of some sort causes an individual to violate social norms
differential association
Edwin Sutherland's term to indicate that associating with some groups results in learning an "excess of definitions" of deviance, and, by extension, in a greater likelihood that one will become deviant
control theory
the idea that two control systems-inner controls and outer controls- work against our tendencies to deviate
labeling theory
the view, develiped by symbolic interactions, that the labels people are given affect their own and others' perctions of them, thus channeling their behavior either into deviance or into conformity.
cultural goals
the legitimate objectives held out to the members of a society
institutionalized means
approved ways of reaching cultural goals
institutionalized means
approved ways of reaching cultural goals
institutionalized means
approved ways of reaching cultural goals
strain theory
Robert Merton's term for the strain engendered when a society socializes large numbers of people to desire a cultural goal(such as success) but withholds from many the approved means to reach that goal
white collar crime
Edwin Sutherland's term for crimes committed by people of respectable and high social status in the course of their occupations; for example bribery of public offficials
coorporate crime
crimes committed by executives in order to benefit their corporation
criminal justice system
the sustem of police, courts and prisons set up to deal with people who are accused of having committed a crime
capitalist crime
the wealthy who own the means of production and buy the labor of the working class
working class
those people who sell their labor to the capitalist class
marginal working class
the most desperate memebers of the working class, who have few skills, little job security, and are often unemployed
capital punishment
the death penalty
recidivism rate
the proportion of realsed convicts who are rearrested
hate crime
crimes to which more sever penatlites are attached because they are motivated by hatred of someone's race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientaion, disability, or national origin
police discretion
the practice of police, in the normal course of their duties to either arrest or ticket someone for an offense or to overlook the matter
medicalization of deviance
to make deviance of medical matter, a symptom of some underlying illness that needs to be treated by physicians
social stratification
the division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige; applies to both nations and to people within a nation, society or other group
a form of social stratification in which some people own other people
social class
according to Weber, a large group of people who rank close to one another in wealth, power. and prestige; according to Marx, one of two gropus: capitalists who own the means of production or workers whos ell their labor
property and income
money recieved from a job, business, or assests
the ability to carry out your will, even over the resistance of others
power elite
C. Writh Mills' term for the top people in U.S. corporations, military and policies that make the nation;s major decisions
respect or regard
status consistency
ranking high or low on all three dimensions of social class
status inconsistency
ranking high on some dimensions of social class and low on others, also called status discrepancy
social ranking; the position that someone occupies in soceity or social group
Durkheim's term for a condition of society in which people become detached from the norms that usually guide their behavior
contradictory class locations
Erik Wright's term for a position in the class stucture that generates contradictory intersts
a group of people for whom poverty persists year after year and across generations
intergenerational mobility
the change that gamily memebers make in social class from one generation to the next
upward social mobility
movement up the social class ladder
downward social mobility
movement down the social class ladder
downward social mobility
movement down the social class ladder
structural mobility
movement up or down the social class ladder that is due to changes in the structure of society, not to individual efforts
exchange mobility
about the same numbers of people moving up and down the social class ladder, such that, on balance, the social class system shows little change
poverty line
the official measure of peverty; calculated to include those incomes that are lesst han three times a low cost food budget
(the) feminization of poverty
a trend in U.S. poverty whereby most poor families are headed by women
deferred gratification
forgoing something in the present in the hope of achieving greater gains in the future
Horatio Alger myth
the belif that due to limitless possibilities anoyone can get ahead if he or she tires hard enough
gender stratification
males' and females' unequal access to power, prestige, and property on the basis of their sex
biological characteristics that distinguish females and males, consisting of primary and secondary sex characteristics
the behaviors and attitudes that a society considers proper for its males and females; masculinity or feminitity
a society or group in which men dominate women; authority is vested in males
a society in which women as a group dominate men as a group
the philosophy that men and women should be politically, economically, and socially equal; organized activites on behalf of this principle
glass ceiling
the mostly invisible barrier tha tkeeps women from advancing to the top levels at work
glass escalator
the mostly invisible accelerators that push men into higher-level positions, more desirable work assignments, and higher salaries
sexual harrassment
the abuse of one's positions of authority to force unwanted sexual demands on someone
population transfer
forcing a minority group to move
ethnic cleansing
a policy of pupulation elminination, including forcible explusion and genocide
internal colonialism
the policy of econmically exploiting minority groups
the policy ofkeeping racial or ethnic groups apart
the process of b eing absorbed into the mainstram culture
a philosophy or political policy that permits or encourages ethnic difference
white anglo-saxon protestant; narrowly, an American of english descent; broadly, an American of western European ancestry
white ethnics
white immigrants to the Unted States whose cultures differ from that of WASPs
rising expectations
the sense that better conditions are soon to follow, which, if unfulfilled, increases frustration
pan- Indianism
a movement that focuses on common elements in the cultures of Native Americans in order to develop a cross-tribal self- identity and to work toward the welfare of all Native Americans
subsistence economy
a type of economy in which human groups live off the land and have little or no surplus
conspicuous consumption
Thorstein Veblen's term for a change from the Protestant ethic to an eagerness to show off wealth by the consumption of goods
medium of exchange
the means by which people place a value on goods and servies in order to make an exchange, for exmaple, currency, gold, and silver
the direct exchange of one item for another
any item that serves as a medium of exchange; today, currency is the most common form
deposit receipts
a receipt stating that a certain amount of goods is on deposit in a warehaouse or bank; the receipt is used as a form of money
paper money
the goods that are storied and held in reserve that back up a currency
gold standard
paper money backed by gold
fiat money
currency issued by a government that is not backed by stored value
gross domestic product (GDP)
the amount of goods and servies produced by a nation
an increase in prices
credit card
a device that allows its owner to purchase goods and to be billed later
debit card
a device that allows its owner to charge purchases against his or her bank account
digital money that is stored on computers
an economic system characterized by the private ownership of the means of production, the pursuit of profit, and market competition
laissez-faire capitalism
unrestrained manufacture and trade
welfare capitalism
an economic system in which individuals own the means of production but the state regulates many economic activites for the welfare of the population
market restraints
laws and regulations that limit the capacity to manufacture and sell products
the control of an entire industry by a single company
an economic system characterized by the public ownership of the means of production, central planning, and the distribution of goods without a profit motive
market forces
the law of supply and demand
democratic socialism
a hybrid economic system in which capitalism is mixed with state ownership
the condition of having to work at a job beneath one's level of training and ablilities, or of being able to to find only part-time work
convergence theory
the view as capitalist and socialist economic systems each adopt features of the other, a hybrid economic system term will emerge
mechanical solidarity
Durkheim's term for the unity for the unity that people feel as a result of perfomring the same or similar tasks
organic solidarity
Durkheim's term for the interdependence that results from the division of labor; people needing others to fulfill their jobs
the joint owndership of a business enterprise, whose liabilities and obligations are separate from those of its ownders
corporate capitalism
the domination of the economic system by giant corporations
stockholders' revolt
the refusal of a corporation's stock holders to rubber-stamp decisions made by its managers
multinational corporations
companies that operate across national boundaries; also called transnational corporations
the control of an entire industry by several large companies
interlocking diectorates
the same people serving on the board of directors of several companies
quiet revolution
the fundamental changes in society that follow when vast numbers of women enter the work force
underground economy
exchanges of goods and services that are not reported to the government and thereby escape taxation
time not taken up by work or required activities

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