Soc. Exam 2

163 cards

Chapters 8-14


 
  
Created Dec 7, 2006
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1
Multinational Corporations
 
companies that operate across national borders
2
neocolonialism
 
the econmonic aqnd political dominaqnce of the least industrialized nations by the most industrialized...
3
culture of poverty
 
the assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor make them funadmentally different...
4
continuity theory
 
how people adjust to retirement by continuing aspects of their earlier lives
5
dependency ratio
 
the number of workers required to support each dependent person- those 65 and older and those...
6
ageism
 
prejudice, discrimination, and hostility directed against people becuase of their age; can...
7
activity theory
 
the view that satisfaction during old age is related to a person's amount and quality of activity
8
hospice
 
a place or services brougt into someone's home, for the purpose of bringing comfort and dignity...
9
age cohort
 
people born at roughly the same time who pass through the life course together
10
disengagement theory
 
the view that society prevents disruption by having the elderly vacate their positions of responsibility...
11
gerontocracy
 
a society run the the elderly
12
gender age
 
the relative value placed on men's and women's ages
13
genocide
 
the systematic annihilation or attempted annihilation of a people based on their resumed race...
14
race
 
physcial characteristics that distinguish one group from another
15
life span
 
the maximum length of life of a species; for humans, the longest that a human has ever lived
16
life expectancy
 
the number of years that an average person at any age, including new borns, can expect to live
17
graying of america
 
refers to the growing percentage of older people in the U.S. population
18
ethnicity
 
having distinctive cultural characteristics
19
leisure
 
time not taken up by work or required
20
class system
 
a form of social stratification based primarily on the possession of money or material possessions
21
bourgeosis
 
Marx's term for capitalists, those who own the means of production
22
caste system
 
a form of social stratification in which one's status is determined by birth and is lifelong
23
means of production
 
the tools factories, land, and investment capital used to produce wealth
24
social mobility
 
movement up or down the social class ladder
25
false consciousness
 
Marx's term to refer to workers identifying with the interests of capitalists
26
proletariat
 
Marx's term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production
27
ideology
 
beliefs about the way things out to be that justify social arrangements
28
compartmentalize
 
to separate acts from feelings and attidudes
29
globalization of capitalism
 
capitalism becoming the globe's dominant economic system
30
apartheid
 
the seperation of racial-ethnic groups as was practiced in south africa
31
economy
 
a system of distribution of goods and services
32
colonialism
 
the process by which one nation takes over another nation, usually for the purpose of exploiting...
33
class consciousness
 
Marx's term for awareness of a common identity based on one's position in the means of production
34
estate stratification system
 
the stratification system of medieval Europe, sonsisting of 3 gropus or estates: the nobility,...
35
slavery
 
a form of social stratification in which some people own other people
36
reserve labor force
 
the unemployed are though of as being "in reserve", they are taken "out of reserve" during...
37
meritocracy
 
a form of social stratification in which all positions are awarded on the basis of merit
38
divine right of kings
 
the idea that the king's authority comes directly from God
39
world system theory
 
economic and political connections that tie the world's countries together
40
endogamy
 
the practice of marrying within one's own group
41
discrimination
 
an act of unfair treatment directed against an individual or a group
42
individual discrimination
 
the negative treatment of one person by another on the basis of that person's preceived characteristics
43
melting pot
 
the view that Americans of various backgrounds would blend into a sort of ethnic stew
44
racism
 
prejudice and discrimination on basis of race
45
scapegoat
 
an individual or grop unfairly blamed for someone else's troubles
46
prejudice
 
an attitude of prejudging, usually in a negative way
47
ethnic work
 
activities designed to discover, enhance, or maintain ethnic and racial identification
48
insitutional discrimination
 
negative treatment of a minority gropu that is built into a soceity's institutions
49
dominant group
 
the group with the most power, greatest privleges, and higest social status
50
minority group
 
people who ar e singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collective...
51
split labor market
 
workers split along racial, thenic, gender, age, or any other lines; this split is exploited...
52
selective perception
 
seeing certain features of an object or situation, but remaining blind to others
53
bonded labor/indentured service
 
a system in which someone selss his/her body (services) for a specified period of time in an...
54
authoritarian personality
 
Theodor Adorno's term for people who are prejudiced and rank high on scales of conformity intolerance,...
55
deviance
 
the violation of erules or norms
56
crime
 
the violation of norms written into law
57
stigma
 
"blemishes" that discredit a person's claim to a "normal" identity
58
social order
 
a group's usual and customary social arrangements, on which its memebers depend and on which...
59
social control
 
a grou's formal and informal means of enforcing its norms
60
negative sanction
 
an expression of disapproval for breaking a norm. ranging from a mild, informal reaction such...
61
poisitive sanction
 
a reward or positive reaction for following norms, ranging from a smile to a prize
62
degradation ceremony
 
a term coined by Harold Garfinkel to descrive an attempt to remake the self by stipping away...
63
gentic predisposition
 
inborn tendencies; in this context, to commit deviant acts
64
street crime
 
crimes such as mugging, rape, and burgarly
65
personality disorders
 
the view that a presonality disturbance of some sort causes an individual to violate social...
66
differential association
 
Edwin Sutherland's term to indicate that associating with some groups results in learning an...
67
control theory
 
the idea that two control systems-inner controls and outer controls- work against our tendencies...
68
labeling theory
 
the view, develiped by symbolic interactions, that the labels people are given affect their...
69
cultural goals
 
the legitimate objectives held out to the members of a society
70
institutionalized means
 
approved ways of reaching cultural goals
71
institutionalized means
 
approved ways of reaching cultural goals
72
institutionalized means
 
approved ways of reaching cultural goals
73
strain theory
 
Robert Merton's term for the strain engendered when a society socializes large numbers of people...
74
white collar crime
 
Edwin Sutherland's term for crimes committed by people of respectable and high social status...
75
coorporate crime
 
crimes committed by executives in order to benefit their corporation
76
criminal justice system
 
the sustem of police, courts and prisons set up to deal with people who are accused of having...
77
capitalist crime
 
the wealthy who own the means of production and buy the labor of the working class
78
working class
 
those people who sell their labor to the capitalist class
79
marginal working class
 
the most desperate memebers of the working class, who have few skills, little job security,...
80
capital punishment
 
the death penalty
81
recidivism rate
 
the proportion of realsed convicts who are rearrested
82
hate crime
 
crimes to which more sever penatlites are attached because they are motivated by hatred of...
83
police discretion
 
the practice of police, in the normal course of their duties to either arrest or ticket someone...
84
medicalization of deviance
 
to make deviance of medical matter, a symptom of some underlying illness that needs to be treated...
85
social stratification
 
the division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property,...
86
slavery
 
a form of social stratification in which some people own other people
87
social class
 
according to Weber, a large group of people who rank close to one another in wealth, power....
88
wealth
 
property and income
89
income
 
money recieved from a job, business, or assests
90
power
 
the ability to carry out your will, even over the resistance of others
91
power elite
 
C. Writh Mills' term for the top people in U.S. corporations, military and policies that make...
92
prestige
 
respect or regard
93
status consistency
 
ranking high or low on all three dimensions of social class
94
status inconsistency
 
ranking high on some dimensions of social class and low on others, also called status discrepancy
95
status
 
social ranking; the position that someone occupies in soceity or social group
96
anomie
 
Durkheim's term for a condition of society in which people become detached from the norms that...
97
contradictory class locations
 
Erik Wright's term for a position in the class stucture that generates contradictory intersts
98
underclass
 
a group of people for whom poverty persists year after year and across generations
99
intergenerational mobility
 
the change that gamily memebers make in social class from one generation to the next
100
upward social mobility
 
movement up the social class ladder
101
downward social mobility
 
movement down the social class ladder
102
downward social mobility
 
movement down the social class ladder
103
structural mobility
 
movement up or down the social class ladder that is due to changes in the structure of society,...
104
exchange mobility
 
about the same numbers of people moving up and down the social class ladder, such that, on...
105
poverty line
 
the official measure of peverty; calculated to include those incomes that are lesst han three...
106
(the) feminization of poverty
 
a trend in U.S. poverty whereby most poor families are headed by women
107
deferred gratification
 
forgoing something in the present in the hope of achieving greater gains in the future
108
Horatio Alger myth
 
the belif that due to limitless possibilities anoyone can get ahead if he or she tires hard...
109
gender stratification
 
males' and females' unequal access to power, prestige, and property on the basis of their sex
110
sex
 
biological characteristics that distinguish females and males, consisting of primary and secondary...
111
gender
 
the behaviors and attitudes that a society considers proper for its males and females; masculinity...
112
patriarchy
 
a society or group in which men dominate women; authority is vested in males
113
matriarchy
 
a society in which women as a group dominate men as a group
114
feminism
 
the philosophy that men and women should be politically, economically, and socially equal;...
115
glass ceiling
 
the mostly invisible barrier tha tkeeps women from advancing to the top levels at work
116
glass escalator
 
the mostly invisible accelerators that push men into higher-level positions, more desirable...
117
sexual harrassment
 
the abuse of one's positions of authority to force unwanted sexual demands on someone
118
population transfer
 
forcing a minority group to move
119
ethnic cleansing
 
a policy of pupulation elminination, including forcible explusion and genocide
120
internal colonialism
 
the policy of econmically exploiting minority groups
121
segregation
 
the policy ofkeeping racial or ethnic groups apart
122
assimilation
 
the process of b eing absorbed into the mainstram culture
123
multiculturalism
 
a philosophy or political policy that permits or encourages ethnic difference
124
WASP
 
white anglo-saxon protestant; narrowly, an American of english descent; broadly, an American...
125
white ethnics
 
white immigrants to the Unted States whose cultures differ from that of WASPs
126
rising expectations
 
the sense that better conditions are soon to follow, which, if unfulfilled, increases frustration
127
pan- Indianism
 
a movement that focuses on common elements in the cultures of Native Americans in order to...
128
subsistence economy
 
a type of economy in which human groups live off the land and have little or no surplus
129
conspicuous consumption
 
Thorstein Veblen's term for a change from the Protestant ethic to an eagerness to show off...
130
medium of exchange
 
the means by which people place a value on goods and servies in order to make an exchange,...
131
barter
 
the direct exchange of one item for another
132
money
 
any item that serves as a medium of exchange; today, currency is the most common form
133
deposit receipts
 
a receipt stating that a certain amount of goods is on deposit in a warehaouse or bank; the...
134
currency
 
paper money
135
stored
 
the goods that are storied and held in reserve that back up a currency
136
gold standard
 
paper money backed by gold
137
fiat money
 
currency issued by a government that is not backed by stored value
138
gross domestic product (GDP)
 
the amount of goods and servies produced by a nation
139
inflation
 
an increase in prices
140
credit card
 
a device that allows its owner to purchase goods and to be billed later
141
debit card
 
a device that allows its owner to charge purchases against his or her bank account
142
e-cash
 
digital money that is stored on computers
143
capitalism
 
an economic system characterized by the private ownership of the means of production, the pursuit...
144
laissez-faire capitalism
 
unrestrained manufacture and trade
145
welfare capitalism
 
an economic system in which individuals own the means of production but the state regulates...
146
market restraints
 
laws and regulations that limit the capacity to manufacture and sell products
147
monopoly
 
the control of an entire industry by a single company
148
socialism
 
an economic system characterized by the public ownership of the means of production, central...
149
market forces
 
the law of supply and demand
150
democratic socialism
 
a hybrid economic system in which capitalism is mixed with state ownership
151
underemployment
 
the condition of having to work at a job beneath one's level of training and ablilities, or...
152
convergence theory
 
the view as capitalist and socialist economic systems each adopt features of the other, a hybrid...
153
mechanical solidarity
 
Durkheim's term for the unity for the unity that people feel as a result of perfomring the...
154
organic solidarity
 
Durkheim's term for the interdependence that results from the division of labor; people needing...
155
corporation
 
the joint owndership of a business enterprise, whose liabilities and obligations are separate...
156
corporate capitalism
 
the domination of the economic system by giant corporations
157
stockholders' revolt
 
the refusal of a corporation's stock holders to rubber-stamp decisions made by its managers
158
multinational corporations
 
companies that operate across national boundaries; also called transnational corporations
159
oligopoly
 
the control of an entire industry by several large companies
160
interlocking diectorates
 
the same people serving on the board of directors of several companies
161
quiet revolution
 
the fundamental changes in society that follow when vast numbers of women enter the work force
162
underground economy
 
exchanges of goods and services that are not reported to the government and thereby escape...
163
leisure
 
time not taken up by work or required activities


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