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What is a foodborne illness?
A disease that is carried or transmitted to people by food they have eaten.
What is a foodborne illness outbreak?
Incident in which two or more people experience the same the same illness after eating the same food.
What is the warranty of sale?
Rules for how the food must be handled.
What is a reasonable care defense?
Proving that you have done everything nedded in order to keep the food safe.
Name 4 populations ar High Risk for Foodborne Illness
1. Infants and preschool age children2. The elderly3. Pregnant women4. People with compromised immune systems
What do these populations have in common?
Lowered immune systems are weak or not as strong.
What are the 3 hazards caused by contamination?
1. Biological2. Chemical3. Physical
What are the CDC's 5 common factors responsible for foodborne illness?
1. Purchasing food from unsafe sources2. Failing to cook food adequately3. Holding food at improper temperatures4. Using contaminated equipment5. Poor personal hygiene
What are the 3 ways of time-temperature abuse?
1.Failing to hold or store food at the requires temperatures2.Failing to cook or reheat food to the temperature that kill microorganisms3. Failing to cool food properly
What is Cross-Contamination?
The transfer of pathogens from one surface or food to another.
What is are microorganisms?
Small, living organisms that can be seen only by a microscope.
What are pathogens?
Disease causing microorganisms.
What are toxins?
What are the 4 types of of microorganisms that can contaminate food?
1. Bacteria2. Viruses3. Parasites4. Fungi (yeast and mold)
What is the difference between spoilage organisms and pathogens?
Spoilage organisms are visable signs of contaminates. pathogens have no signs.
What is FAT TOM?
What microorganisms need to grow.
What does FAT TOM stand for?
Food: pathogens need energy to growAcidity: Pathogens grow best in little to no acidity ( pH of 4.6-7.5)Temperature: Pathogens grow best in temps. between 41o F and 135o F. Otherwise...
What are the foods most likely to become unsafe called?
Time-temperature Control for Safety Foods (TCS Foods)
What are the foods most likely to become unsafe?
Milk and dairy products, eggs, meat: beef, pork, and lamb, poultry, fish, shellfish and crustaceans, baked potatoes, heat treated plant food such as cooked rice, beans, and vegetables,...
What are Viruses?
Microorganisms that need a living organism to live.
What are the basic characteristics that viruses share?
They can survive refrigeration and freezer temperatures. They cannot grow in food, but once eaten, they grow inside a person's intestines. They can contaminate both food and water....
How can prevent the spread of viruses in your operation?
Keep foodhandlers who are vomiting or having diarrhea or jaundice from working. Make sure foodhandlers wash their hands. Minimize bare-hand contact with ready-to-eat foods.
What are the 2 major foodborne illnesses caused by viruses?
Hepatitis A and Norovirus gastroenteritis
Illness: Hepatitis AVirus: Hepatitis A
Food Commonly linked: Ready-to-eat food and shellfish from contaminated waterMost common symptoms: Fever, general weakness, nausea, abdominal pain, jaundice***Cooking does not destroy...
Illness: Norovirus gastroenteritisVirus: Norovirus
Foods commonly linked: Ready-to-eat foods and shellfish from contaiminated waterMost common symptoms: vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, abdominal cramps
What is the most important method for preventing these diseases?
Practicing good personal hygiene.
What are bacteria?
Living organisms that live off food.
What are some basic characteristics of bacteria?
Most bacteria are controlled by keeping food out of the temperature danger zone. Most will grow rapidly, if FAT TOM conditions are right. Some change into a different form, called spores,...
What are the 4 phases of bacteria growth?
Lag phase, log phase, stationary phase, and death.
What is a spore?
A dormant resistant form of bacteria.
Illness: Bacillus cerus garstoenteritisBacteria: Bacillus cereus
Food commonly linked: Diarrhea illness; cooked vegetables, meat products, milk. Vomiting illness; cooked rice dishes.Most common symptoms: Diarrhea illness; watery diarrhea no vomiting....
Illness: ListeriosisBacteria: Listeria monocytogenes
Food commonly linked: Raw meat, unpasterized dairy products, ready-to-eat food, such as deli meat, hot dogs, and soft cheese.Most common symptoms: Pregnant woman; miscarriage.Newborns;...
Illness: Hemorrhagic colitisBacteria: Shiga toxin-producing E. coli
Foods commonly linked: ground beef (raw and under cooked) and contaminated produceMost common symptoms: Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, kidney failure.
Illness: Clostridium perfringens gastroenteritisBacteria: Clostridium perfringens
Foods commonly linked: Meat, poultry, dishes made with meat and poultry.Most common symptoms: diarrhea and severe abdominal pain
Illness: BotulismBacteria: Clostridium botullinum
Food commonly linked: incorrectly canned food, reduced oxygen packaged (ROP) food, temperature-abused vegetables such as baked potatoes, untreated garlic-and-oil mixes.Most common symptoms:...
Illness: SalmonellosisBacteria: Salmonella Spp.
Foods commonly linked: poultry and eggs, dairy products, and produce.Most common symptoms: diarrhea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, and fever.
Illness: ShigellosisBacteria: Shigella spp.
Food commonly linked: Foods easily contaminated by hands such as salads containing TCS food (potatoes, tuna, shrimp, macaroni, and chicken) and food that has made contact with contaminated...
Illness: Staphylococcal gastroenteritisBacteria: Staphylococcus aureus
Found in humans-particularly in the hair, nose, throat, and infected cuts. Food commonly linked: food that requires handling during preparation, including salads containing TCS food...
Illnesses: Vibrio gastroenteritis and vibrio vulnificus primary septicemiaBacteria: Vibrio vulnificus
Food commonly linked: oysters from contaminated water.Most common symptoms: diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and nausea, vomiting, and low-grade fever and chills.
What are parasites?
Organisms that needs to live in or on a host in order to servive.
What are some characteristics shared by parasites?
They cannot grow in food. They can use many animals as hosts. They can be found in the feces of animals and people. They can contaminate both food and water.
Illness: AnisakiasisParasite: Anisakis simplex
Food commonly linked: Heering, cod, halibut, mackerel, and pacific salmon.Most common symptoms: tingling in throat and coughing up worms.
Illness: CryptosporidiosisParasite: Cryptosporidum parvus
Foods commonly linked: contaminated water and produceMost common symptoms: watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, and weight loss.
Illness: GiardiasisParasite: Giardia duodenalis also known as G. lamblia or G. intestinalsis
Food commonly linked: improperly treated water and produceMost common symptoms: Initially, fever. Later, diarrhea, abdominal cramps and nausea.
What is the most important method for preventing these disseases?
Purchase food such as meat, seafood, and poultry from approved, reputable suppliers.
What are fungi?
How can molds be dangerous?
They can produce aflatoxin.
What type of environment do molds and yeast like?
Low water activity, acidic foods.
Describe spoilage caused by molds or yeasts.
Mold: furry, blue, black, brown or green in colorYeast: small white or pink spots that smell like alcohol or slime
Where are fungi found?
the air, soil, plants, ater and some foods.
Can cooler or freezer temperatures kill mold?
No it can only slow them down.
Can Seafood toxins be smelled ot tasted?
Can seafood toxins be desroyed by freezing or cooking once formed in food?
What is a systemic toxin?
A toxin that is produced by the fish itself.
What 3 animals in the seafood catergory produce systemic toxin?
Pufferfish, Moray eel, and freshwater minnows.
Illness: Scromboid poisoningToxin: Histamine
Also known as histamine poisoning. Caused by eating high levels of histamine in scromboid and other species of fish. Food commonly linked: Tuna, bonito, mackerel and mahi mahiMost common...
Illness: Ciguatera fish poisoningToxin: ciguatoxin
Found in certain marine algae. Builds up in certain fish when they eat smaller fish that have eaten the toxic algae. Foods commonly linked: predatory tropical reef fish from the Pacific...
Illness: Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP)Toxin: Saxitoxin
Foods commonly linked: shellfish found in colder waters, such as those of the Pacific and New England coasts, including; clams, mussels, oysters, and scallopsMost common symptoms: Numbness,...
Illness: Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP)Toxin: Brevetoxin
Food commonly linked: Shellfish found in the warmer waters of the west coast Florida, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea, including; clams, mussels, and oysters.Most common symptoms:...
Illness: Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP)Toxin: Domoic acid
Food commonly linked: shellfish found in the coastal waters of the Pacific Northwest and the east coast if Canada, including; clams, mussels, oysters, and scallops. Most common symptoms:...
What is the link between foodborne illnesses and mushrooms?
Eating toxic, wild mushrooms mistaken for edible ones, collected by amateur hunters.
How do you prevent mushroom toxin?
By buying mushrooms from approved, reputable suppliers.
Why do illnesses from plant toxin usually happen?
Because an operation has purchased from an unapproved source.
What are some examples of items that have caused illness?
Toxic plants mistaken for the edible version, honey from bees allowed to harvest nectar from toxic plants, and undercooked kidney beans.
How can you prevent plant toxin?
Purchase plants abd items made with plants only from approved, reputable suppliers. Then cook and hold dishes made from these items correctly.
What are the 3 metals that can contaminate acidic foods?
Lead: found in pewterCopper: found in cookware such as pots and pansZinc: found in galvanized items such as buckets or tubs
How could carbonated-beverage dispensers be contaminated with toxic metal?
If carbonated water is allowed to flow back into the copper supply lines, it could leach copper from the lines.
How can chemicals contaminate food?
If used or stored improperly.
How can you keep food safe from chemical contaminants?
Store chemicals away from food, utensils, and equipment used for food. Follow manufaturers' instructions. Be careful when using chemicals while food is being prepared. When transferring...
How do physical contaminants happen?
When objects get into food and can also occur when natural objects are left in the food, like fish bones.
What are some common physical contaminants?
Metal shavings from cans, staples from cartons, glass from broken lightbulbs, blades from plastic or rubber scrapers, fingernails, hair, bandages, dirt, bones, jewelry, and fruit pits.
What is a food allergen?
The body's negative reation to a particular food protein.
What are the common food allergens?
Milk and dairy products, eggs and egg products, fish and shellfish, wheat, soy and soy products, peanuts and tree nuts.
What are some symptoms of a food allergy?
Itching in and around the mouth, face, or scalp, tightening in the throat, wheezing or shortness of breath, hives, swelling of the face, eyes, hands, or feet, abdominal cramps, vomiting,...
How can you prevent an allergic reation in your establishment?
Service staff: describe dishes, identify ingredients, suggest simple menu items.Kitchen staff: don't cook different types of food in the same fryer oil, don't put food on surfaces that...
How can foodhandlers contaminate food?
Have a foodborne illness, have symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, or jaundice, have wounds that contain a pathogen, have contact with a person who is ill, touch anything that may...
What is a carrier?
A person who has a disease but aren't aware of it.
What bacteria do most humans carry on their skin?
What are the 4 diseases that cannot be transmitted through food?
AIDS, Hepatitis B and C and TB
What are your resposibilites as an employer concerning these illnesses?
Cannot fire employees with AIDS or Hep B Cannot disclose that an employee has one of the 4 diseases
What are the components of a good personal hygiene program?
Follow hygienic hand practices, maintain personal cleanliness, wearing clean and appropriate uniforms and follow dress codes, avoid certain habits and actions, maintain good health,...
How long should hand washing take?
How hot must the water be?
100oF or as hot as you can stand.
What are acceptable methods for drying your hands?
Hot air dryer or single use paper towel.
What is the role of a gel antiseptic in an establishment?
Should only be used after washing hands and should be completely dry before touching another.
When do employees need to wash their hands?
After touching anything that could potentially contaminate the food.
Describe proper fingernail length and hygiene?
Very short, very clean, and scrubbed with a hand brush.
What is the proper procedure for dealing with a cut or sore?
Wash it, bandage it, and cover it.
What should you do before putting on gloves?
Wash hands thoroughly
How should you take gloves off?
Grab the bottom by the wrist and flipp them inside out.
When do gloves need to be replaced?
1. Soiled or torn2. New task3. every 4 hours4. after handling raw meat and before ready-to-eat food
Describe the 4 components of proper work attire?
1. Clean hat or other hair restraint, No hair dangling in face2. Wear clean clothes, bath yourself3. Remove aprons when leaving service areas4. Remove jewelry
Are eating, drinking, smoking, and chewing gum or tobacco allowed in the food area?
Describe Proper tasting procedure?
Use a seperate dish and use clean utensils.
What is cause to restrict an employee from working around food?
Sore throat with a fever.
What is cause for wxclusion from the setablishment?
vomiting or diarrhea, jaundice, sore throat and fever if working in high risk population.
When must you not only restrict employees from the establishment, but also notify the local regulatory agency?
When they have been infected by salmonella typhi, Shigella, E. coil, Hepatitis A or Norovirus.
What is a manager's role in a persomal hygiene program?
To model proper behavior.
What is the flow of food?
Everything that happens to food from purchase to serving
What is cross-contamination?
The transfer of microorganisms from one food or surface to another.
What are 2 types of barriers used to prevent cross-contamination?
Physical barrier: specific equipment, clean and sanitizeProcedural barrier: time between different food. Purchase things that require minimal preparation.
What is the purpose of color coded equipment?
To keep different types of food seperate.
What is time-temperature abuse?
When food is in the temperature danger zone too long.
What are the 4 ways food can be time-temperature abused?
Cooked improperly, cooled improperly, reheated improperly, held improperly.
What is the temperature danger zone?
Temperatures favorable to the growth of microorganisms. Between 41oF and 135oF
What is the most dangerous part of the food danger zone?
between 70oF and 125oF
What is the best way to avoid time-temperature abuse?
Establish procedures employees must follow and then monitor them.
Describe a Bimetallic Stemmed Thermometer
Standard thermometer that ranges from 0F-220F. Used for standard cooking. Cannot be used for deep frying or candy making.
Describe types of thermocouplers/thermistors
Immersion, penetration, surface and air
Describe infrared (laser) thermometer
Doesn't touch the food. Only for surface readings. Not very accurate.
What is a time-temperature indicatior (TTI)?
Decal that is placed on refrigerated food containers where and irreversible color change occurs when the food has been time-temperature abused.
Describe 2 ways to calibrate a thermometer
Ice point method: calibrated to 32oFBoiling point method: Calibrated to 212oF
How often do you need to calibrate your thermometer?
Daily, when going from extreme hot to extreme cold foods, and when bumped or dropped or any type of shock or trauma.
What type of thermometer should not be used in a food establishment?
What part of food gets measured for internal temperature and how long does it take?
the thickest part avoiding fat and bone for at least 15 seconds.
What criteria should you sue when choosing a supplier?
1. Approved and reputable 2. Know your suppliers food/safety practice3. Arrange deliveries so they can arrive one at a time and during off peak hours
What must be done once a delivery arrives and what paperwork should you have available?
Check quatities, damages, anything that might have been repacked, spot check weights and take sample temperatures of refrigerated products. Always check against work orders.
When is it okay to reject a shipment?
whenever it is below your standards.
What 4 steps should you take when rejecting a shipment?
1. Set the product aside2. Tell the delivery person why you are rejecting the shipment3. Get something in writing from the delivery person4. Log the incident in your records
How do you check the temperatures of meat, poultry, and fish?
Insert the stem or probe of the thermometer directly into the thickest part of the product.
How do you check the temperatures of Reduced Oxygen Packaged (ROP) and bulk items?
Insert the thermometer stem and probe between 2 packages, or fold the package around it.
How do you check the temperatures of other packaged foods?
Open the package and insert the thermometer stem or probe into the package.
How do you check the temperatures of live, molluscan shellfish?
Insert the thermometer stem or probe into the middle of the carton or case between the shellfish
How do you check the temperature of eggs?
Check the air temperature of the truck
What are acceptable and unacceptable guidelines for receiving fish?
Temperature: 41oF or belowAcceptable: Bright red gills, bright shiny skin, firm flesh that springs back when you touch it, mild ocean and seaweed smell, bright, clear, full eyes, should...
What are acceptable and unacceptable guidelines for receiving shellfish?
Temperatures: 41oF or belowAcceptable: mild ocean or seaweed smell, shells closed and unbroken, arrive live.Unacceptable: slimy, sticky or dry texture, strong fishy odor, excessively...
What is a shellstock identification tag?
Tags packaged with any shellfish that tells when and where the shellfish was harvested. Must be kept for 90 days after the last shellfish is used.
What are acceptable and unacceptable guidelines for receiving crustaceans?
Temperature: 41oF or belowAcceptable: mild ocean or seaweed smell, shipped alive, packaged in seaweed, and kept moist.Unacceptable: strong fishy odor and dead on arrival
What is the difference between inspected and graded meat and are both required?
Inspection: required and indicates that a facility has net minimum requirements to be in production.Grading: voluntary and tells about the quality of the meat.
What are acceptable and unacceptable guidelines for receiving Meat?
Temperature: 41oF or belowAcceptable: good color, no odor, packaging intact and cleanUnacceptable: bad color, sour odors, slimy, sticky or dry texture, broken or dirty packaging
What are acceptable and unacceptable guidelines for receiving Poultry?
Temperature: 41oF or belowAcceptable: no discoloration, firm flesh that springs back when touched, no odor, product should be surrounded by crushed, self-draining ice.Unacceptable:...
What are acceptable and unacceptable guidelines for receiving eggs?
Temperature: 45oF or belowAcceptable: no odor, clean and unbroken shellsUnacceptable: sulfur smell or off odor, dirty or cracked shells.
What are acceptable and unacceptable guidelines for receiving dairy products?
Temperature: 41oF or belowAcceptable: sweetish flavor for milk, sweet flavor; uniform color; firm texture for butter, typical flavor and texture; uniform color; clean and unbroken rind...
What are acceptable and unacceptable guidelines for receiving fresh produce?
Temperature: 41oF or below only required for sliced melons and cut tomatoesAcceptable: No mold, no cuts, no wiltingUnacceptable: moldy, cuts, wilting, and mushiness
What are the 3 rules for serving prepackaged juice?
1. Must have a variance from your local regulatory athorities2. Must be purchased from a retailer with a HACCP Plan3. Must be pasturized or have a warning label
What are acceptable and unacceptable guidelines for receiving refrigerated Ready-to-eat food?
Temperature: 41oF or belowUnacceptable: Anything where the package have been tampered with.
What are acceptable and unacceptable guidelines for receiving Frozen processed food?
Temperature: freezing of belowUnacceptable: signs of thawing
Modified Atmosphere Packaging. Injected carbon dioxide or nitrogen into the packaging.
Removing tha air from the package
Define sous vide
Cooked or partially cooked food is vacuumed packed in idividual pouches and then chilled.
What are acceptable and unacceptable guidelines for receiving Reduced Oxygen Packaged (ROP) food?
Temperature: 41oF or belowAcceptable: intact and good conditioned packagingUnacceptable: opened packaging, bubbles
What are unacceptable guidelines for receiving canned food?
Swollen ends, leaks, flawed seals, rust, dents (small that don't affect the seal), missing labels.
What are unacceptable guidelines for receiving Dry Food?
What are acceptable and unacceptable guidelines for receiving ultra-high temperature pasturized and aseptically packaged food?
Temperature: 41oF or belowUnacceptable: punctured packaging or seal broken
What is ultra-high temperature pasturization?
Food is heat-treated at very high temperatures to kill microorganisms
What is aseptical packaging?
Sealing food under sterile conditions to keep it from being contaminated.
Are all UHT foods aseptically packaged?
No. Not all UHT pasturized foods ar sealed under sterle conditions.
What are acceptable and unacceptable guidelines for receiving hot TCS food?
Temperature: 135F or aboveUnacceptable: wrong temperature
What are acceptable and unacceptable guidelines for receiving nonfood items with a food-contact surface?
Unacceptable: tears, holes, or punctures, broken cartons or seals, dirty wrappers, leaks, dampness, or water stains, signs of pests or pest damage, expired code or use-by dates
What food must be labeled and what information should be on the label?
ready -to-eat, TCS foods, prepared on site, or held longer than 24 hours. Name and date it should be sold, consumed, or discarded.
What id FIFO and why is it important?
FIFO: First In, First OutInsures that you use older product before the new product.
Wgat is the maximum amount of time you can hold ready-to-eat, TCS food?
What is a product's shelf life?
How long something is good for
What is the proper temperature for a refrigerator and where should the thermometer be placed?
Cold enough to keep the food 41oF or below. The thermometer should be in the warmest part of the refrigerator.
What are the 4 things you can do to keep your refrigerator at the proper temperature?
1. set to proper temperature2. scedule maintainence3. don't overload/use open shelving4. keep doors close
What is the order food should be stored in a refrigerator ( if it is not possible to store different foods in different areas)?
Top Shelf: ready-to-eat food2nd shelf: whole fish3rd shelf: whole meat4th shelf: ground beefBottom: poultry
How cold should a freezer be?
Cold enough to keep things frozen.
What are the biggest treats to dry food storage and how should you do to control these dangers?
Moisture and heat. Keep it between 50oF-70oF, away from sunlight. Keep all plumbing away from dry storage.
How far away from walls and the floor should dry food be?
6 inches from the floor and away from the wall
What are the proper storage temperature and packaging for meat?
41oF or below. Original packaging, airtight moisture
What are the proper storage temperature and packaging for poultry?
41oF or below. Packed in crushed self-draining ice.
What are the proper storage temperature and packaging forfish?
41oF or below. Packed in crushed self-draining ice.
What are the proper storage temperature and packaging for shellfish?
45oF or below. Can be on display in tanks if and only if they are display only or your establishment must have a variance(HACCP Plan). 41oF if shucked.
What are the proper storage temperature and packaging for eggs?
45oF or below. Always use FIFO.
What are the proper storage temperature and packaging for dairy products?
41oF or below. Always use FIFO.
What are the proper storage temperature and packaging for fresh produce?
Sliced melons and cut tomatoes are stored at 41oF or below. Fruits and vegetables kept in the refrigerator need the humidity to be 85 to 95%.
What are the proper storage temperature and packaging for ROP foods?
41oF or below.
What are the proper storage temperature and packaging for UHT and aseptically packaged food?
Once opened 41oF or below. UHT products not aseptically packaged 41oF or below.
What are the proper storage temperature and packaging for canned goods?
What are the proper storage temperature and packaging for dry food?
50oF-70oF. Keep flour, cereal, and grain products in airtight containers.
What are the 4 acceptable methods for thawing frozen foods?
1.Refrigerator 41oF or below2. Submerge under running, cold (70F or below), potable water3. In a microwave ONLY if cooking immediately4. As part of cooking
What is slacking?
Gradually thawing something for deep frying allowing for even cooking.
WHat is the food source of most cross-contamination in an operation?
Raw meat, poultry, and seafood.
How do eggs become contaminated with Salmonella?
When the egg is forming in the chicken.
What temperature should water be to wash vegetables?
Warmer than the vegetables
When should you refrain from serving raw seed sprouts (when you serve who)?
High risk population
Is it acceptable to use sulfites on raw produce?
What 7 practices require a variance from the regulatory agency?
1. Smoking food as a method of preservation2. Food additives as amethod of preservation3. Curing meats4. Custom processing animals5. Packaging food using reduced oxygen packaging6....
What does cooking do to microorganisms?
Reduce them to levels safe for consumption.
What is an internal temperature?
The minimum temperature that a food item must reach in order for food to be safe to eat.
What are 2 ways microorganisms can still be harmful after proper cooking?
Spores and toxins
What is the minimum internal temperature for comercially processed, ready-to-eat food and fruits and vegetables (only if holding)?
What is the minimum internal temperature for fish, shell eggs for immediate service, pork, beef, veal, lamb, and game?
What is the minimum internal temperature for injected meat, ratites (ostrich, emu), ground meat, eggs to be held for later service?
What is the minimum internal temperature for TCS food cooked in a microwave, stuffing, stuffed meat, fish, poultry, and pasta, previously cooked potentially hazardous ingredients.
What is the minimum internal temperature for tea steeped traditionally?
What is the minimum internal temperature for automatic tea and coffee machines?
How long should the minimum internal temperatures be reached?
15 seconds with the exception of roasts which are to be held for 4 minutes.
Name 3 rules for microwave cooking?
1. Cover the food to prevent drying out2. Rotate or stir it halfway through cooking to distribute the heat evenly.3. Check the temperature in several places to make sure the food is...
What are the 2 stages you must use to cool food?
The first is from 135oF to 70oF within 2 hours. Thee second is from 70oF to 41oF within 4 hours.
Why is the first stage shorter and whit if it isn't cooled within the first stage?
The first stage is shorter because microorganisms grow faster between 125oF and 70oF so food must pass through this temperature range quickly to minimze growth. If it isn't cooled within...
What are the 6 ways to help food cool quickly?
1. Use ice water bath2. Ice paddle for stirring 3. Blast or tumble chiller4. Add ice or water as an ingredients5. Divide hot TCS food into shallow pans
Once food has reached what temperature can it be placed in the refrigerator?
Food reheated for immediate service to a customer must reach what temperature?
165oF for 15 seconds
Should you rely on a gauge on hot-holding equipment for reliabel food temperatures?
No. You should always take the internal temperature.
How often should you check the temperature of food during hot holding?
Every 4 hours
How long can you hold hot and cold food without temperature control?
Hot: up to 4 hoursCold: up to 6 hours
What 3 requirements must be met to hold either hot or cold food without temperature control?
1. Start at safe temperature2. Label foods to know what time you removed food3. Follow label instructions
What temperature must cold food stay below if being held without temperature control?
What type of items are the ONLY items that can be re-served to customers?
Unopened pre-packaged food.
If leftovers are given to a customer, what should they include?
Instructions on how to be handled.
How long can refrigerated TCS Foods be held?
What is a food safety management system?
procedures and practices designed to prevent foodborne illness
What are the 5 prerequisite food safety programs you must have in place before instituting an Active Managerial Control or HACCP Program?
1. Personal Hygiene Program2. Supplier Selection and Specification Program3. Sanitation and Pest Control Program4. Facility and Equipment Maintainence Program5. Food Safety Training...
What are the principles behind an active managerial control program?
Focuses on controlling the 5 most common risk factors that cause foodborne illness.
What are the 4 steps of active managerial control?
1. Consider the 5 risk factors and identify issues2. Create policies and procedures to address issues3. Monitor the policies4. Verify that the policies are working
What does HACCP stand for?
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
What is the principle behind a HACCP program?
To identify control points throughout the flow of food to reduce the causes of foodborne illness
What are the 7 steps of HACCP?
1. Conduct a hazard anaysis2. Determine critical control point3. Establish critical limits-specifics4. Establish monitoring procedures-checking5. Identify corrective actions-keeping...
When is a HACCP plan required?
When applying for a variance.
What is the most important factor to consider when designing an establishment?
What are the 3 reasons layout is important?
1. Work flow- reduce amount of time2. Contamination-don't have dishes by food3. Equipment accessability-easy access
What is Porosity and is it desirable in flooring?
The ability to absorb liquids. No.
What is resiliency and is it desirable in flooring?
The ability to react to shock without breaking. Yes.
What is coving?
Sealed edge where the floor meets the wall.
Why should windowa in dry storage have frosted glass or shades?
To keep out heat and moisture.
Where are handwashing stations required?
Restrooms, prep/service areas, and dishwashing stations
What 5 things must a handwashing station be equipped with?
1. Hot and cold running water2. Soap3. Means to dry hands4. Waste container5. Sign stating that all employees must wash hands before returning to service.
What is the proper cleaning procedures for clean-in-place equipment (such as soft serve ice cream machines)?
Wash, rinse, sanitize.
When installing kitshen equipment it must be at least blank inches off the floor or sealed to a mansonary base that provides a toe space of blank inches.
Tabletop equipment must sit blank inches off the table, be tiltable, or be sealed to the table.
What is cantilever mounting?
What is potable water?
What is cross-connection?
Any physical connection between a consumer's potable water system and any other nonpotable water system or source.
What is backflow?
Undesirable reversal of flow of nonpotable water or other substances through a cross-connection and into the pipes of a consumer's potable water source.
What is the best way to prevent backflow?
What kind of lighting should be in your establishment?
50 foot candles in food preparation areas20 foot candles in most areas10 foot candles in walk-ins, dry-storage, and dining rooms
What 3 things does the EPA recommend for managing waste?
1. Reduce2. Reuse3. Recycle
What is cleaning?
Process of removing food and other soil from all food-contact surfaces.
What is sanitizing?
Process of reducing the number of microorganisms to safe levels of consumption
Reduce surface tension between soil and surface. Contains surfactants
Define solvent cleaners
degreasers, dissolve grease
Define acid cleaners
Delimers, dissolve mineral deposits
Define abrasive cleaners
Scouring, helps scrub
What are the 2 methods of sanitizing?
Heat and chemical
How hot must water be to heat sanitize?
171oF for 30 seconds
What are the 3 most commonly used chemical sanitizers?
1. Chlorine 2. Iodine3. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QUATZ)
What temperatures should the chemical sanitizers be held at and for how long?
Chlorine: 55oF-120oF higher the temperature, the less chlorine is needed for 7-10 seconds.Iodine: 75oF for 30 secondsQuaternary Ammonium Compounds: 75oF for 30 seconds
How hot must the temperature be in high-temperature machines?
165oF for single temperature machines180oF for final rinse machines
How hot must water be in chemical-sanitizing machines?
As per manufacturers' instructions
In a 3 compartment sink, what is the appropriate water temperature for each compartment?
Wash: 110oF or hotterRinse: no requirementSanitize: depends on sanitizer
What are the proper labeling procedures?
If repackaged at establishment: common name of chemicalIf factory packaged: common name, address of manufacturer, and possible hazards
What does MSDS stand for?
Material Safety Data Sheet
What is a Material Safety Data Sheet?
Sheets supplied by the chemical manufacturer listing the chemical and its common name, its potential physical and health hazards, info about using and handling it safely.
How should you dispose of hazardous materials?
Follow manufacturers' instructions and check with local regulatory agency.
What is an infestation?
Large numbers of pests establishing themselves in your establishment.
What is integrated pest management?
Program using prevention measures to keep pests from entering an establishment and control
What are the 3 basic rules of an IPM program?
1. Prevention (deny access)2. Control (deny food, water, and shelter.3. Extermination (work with a licensed pest control operator (PCO) to eliminate pests that do enter.
What are signs of a cockroach infestation?
Strong oily odor, droppings or feces that look like grains of pepper, capsule shaped egg cases that are brow, dark red, or black.
What are signs of a rodent infestation?
Signs of gnawing, droppings, tracks and nests made of scraps of paper, cloth, hair, feathers, and grass.
What are 4 ways to control insects?
1. Repellents2. Sprays: residuals and contact3. Bait4. Traps
What are 3 ways to control rodents?
1. Traps: spring traps or box traps2. Glue boards3. Bait
How should pesticides be stored?
By your PCO, away from food offsite
What are the roles of the federal, state, and local regulatory agencies for the foodservice industry?
Federal: recommends regulations based on researchState: write and enforce regulationsLocal: Enforce regulations
What is the FDA food code?
List of government recommendations for food service regulations (updated every 2 years)
Who will conduct an inspection at a facility?
Local health inspector
What is a training need?
A gap between employees are required to tkow to perform their jobs and what they actually know.
What training should all employees receive?
General food safety knowledge
What is the best training method?
Depends on the learner