Sensation And Perception


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Specialized cells that respond to a specific form of sensory stimulation
 
Sensory receptors
Process by which physical energy is converted into a coded neural signal to be used by the brain
 
Transduction
Smallest possible strength of a stimulus that can be detected half the time
 
Absolute Threshold
(Just Noticeable Difference) smallest possible difference between two stimuli that can be detected half the time
 
Difference Threshold
Decline in sensitivity to a constant stimulus
 
Sensory Adaptation
The size of the JND will vary depending on its relation to the strength of the original stimulus
 
Weber's Law
Detection of stimuli below the threshold of conscious awareness
 
Subliminal Perception
Repeated exposure to a stimulus increases that person's preference for that stimulus
 
Mere exposure effect
Contains all energy waves in vision
 
Electromagnetic Spectrum
clear membrane covering visible part of eye that helps gather and direct incoming light
 
cornea
opening in middle of iris that changes size to let in different amounts of light
 
pupil
colored part of eye; a muscle that controls size of pupil
 
iris
transparent structure behind pupil that focuses, or bends, light as it enters the eye
 
lens
process by which the lends changes shape to focus light so it falls properly on the retina
 
accommodation
nearsightedness, light focused in front of retina
 
myopia
farsightedness, light focused behind retina
 
hyperopia
thin, light-sensitive membrane located at the back of the eye containing the photoreceptor (rods and cones)
 
retina
small area in center of retina where visual information is most sharply focused; composed entirely of cones
 
fovea
contains no rods/cones; place where the optic nerve exits the back of the eye
 
optic disk
point at which optic nerve leaves where there is a small gap in your field of vision
 
blind spot
specialized neurons in retina that connect the rods/cones with the ganglion cells
 
bipolar cells
specialized neurons in the retina that connect to bipolar cells; bundled axons from optic nerve
 
ganglion cells
thick nerve that exits from back of eyes and carries visual info the the brain
 
optic nerve
point in the brain at which optic nerve fibers from each eye meet and partly cross over to the opposite side of brain
 
optic chiasm
property of wavelengths known as color (determined by wavelength)
 
Hue
property of color that corresponds to the purity of the light wave (single wave=more pure)
 
saturation
perceived intensity of a color, which corresponds to the amplitude of the light wave
 
brightness
the 5 basic tastes
 
Sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami
sensory receptors for pain found in the skin, muscles, and internal organs
 
nocioceptors
a delta fibers transmit sharp, intense, short-lived pain due to immediate injury
 
fast system
C fibers transmit longer-lasting, throbbing, burning pain
 
slow system
sense of location of body parts in relation to one another
 
kinesthetic
sense of balance, receptors located in the inner ear
 
vestibular
receptors in muscles and joints that provide information about body position and movement
 
Proprioceptors
emphasizes the importance of sensory receptors in detecting the basic features of a stimulus in the process of recognizing a whole pattern; from the parts to the whole
 
bottom-up processing
emphasizes the importance of the observer's knowledge, expectations, and other cognitive processes in arriving at meaningful perception; from the whole to the parts
 
Top-Down Processing
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