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Science GCSE, Biology


Flash Cards For Science GCSE- Biology
  
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Healthy
 
Being free from infection with no coughs colds or diseases.
Fitness
 
How much physical activity you are capable of doing and how quickly your body recovers afterwards
Capillaries
 
A very small blood vessel located in the tissue of the body that transports blood from arteries to veins
Veins
 
Blood vessles that carry blood towards the heart.
Artery
 
Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
Blood pressure
 
The measure of the force of blood per unit area as it flows through the arteries. It is measured in mmhg (millimetres of mercury). A health blood pressure is about 120/80 mmhg. 120 is systolic pressure and 80 is diastolic pressure)
Pulse
 

Each time the heart beats, the arteries pulse (throb). This can can be found in certain points on the body where the arteries are close to the surface.
Protein
 

Protein molecules are long chains of amino acids.
(In a chemical change the protein molecules change state and cannot be changed back)
Protease enzymes
 
They break down large insoluble proteins into small soluble amino acids.
Pathogens
 
Disease causing microorganisms. The different types are : Fungi, Viruses, Bacteria, Protozoa.
White blood cells
 
Cells of the imune system that defend the body of infectious disease and foreign materials.
The eye
 
A sense organ that focuses light onto light- sensitive receptor cells in the retina. These are then stimulated and cause nerve impulses to pass along sensory neurones to the brain.
The lens
 
A clear flexible bag of fluid surrounded by circular ciliary muscles that change the shape of the lens.
Homeostasis
 
An automatic control system to maintain a constant internal enviroment to ensure that cells can function efficiently. It benefits: water levels, temperature, oxygen levels and carbon dioxide.
Hormones
 
Chemicals released by endocrine glands. They are released directly into the bloodstream and travel around the body to their target organs.
Sex chromosones
 
They are made of long lengths of DNA. They determin the sex of a child. All egg cells carry X chromosones and half the sperm carry X and half the sperm carry Y. Humans have have 46 chromosones and 23 pairs of chromosones.
Genes
 
Genes are made up of DNA. It is found in the nucleus and carries in its sequence all the instructions for the developement of an organism.

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