Rhetorical Toolbox

Mrs. Wilsons AP Engli

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Side ASide B
Marissa Glessman AP Language and Composition Rhetorical Toolbox
Marissa Glessman AP Language and Composition Rhetorical Toolbox
ALLITERATION Repitition of the same sound beginning several words in sequence
Ex. [L]et us go forth to lead the land we love.
ALLUSION Brief reference to a person, event, or place, real or fictitious, or to a work of art
Ex. Let both sides unitre to heed in all corners of the earth the command of Isaiah.
ANAPHORA repitition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or lines
Ex. not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need - not as a call to battle, though embattled we are
ANTIMETABOLE repitition of words in reverse order
Ex. [A]sk not what your country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country.
ANTITHESIS Opposition, or contrast, of ideas or words in a balanced or parallel construction
Ex. [W]e shall support any friend, oppose any foe.
ARCHAIC DICTION Old-fashioned or outdated choice of words
Ex. beliefs for which our forebears fought
ASYNDETON Omission of conjunctions between coordinate phrases, clauses, or words
Ex. [W]e shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any fore to assure the survival and the success of liberty.
CUMULATIVE SENTENCE Sentence that completes the main idea at the beginning of the sentence, and then builds and adds on.
Ex. But neither can two great and powerful groups of nations take comfort from out present course - both sides overburdened by the cost of modern weapons, both rightly alarmed by the...
HORTATIVE SENTENCE Sentence that exhorts, advises, calls to action
Ex. Let both sides explore what problems unite us instead of belaboring those problems which divide us.
IMPERATIVE SENTENCE Sentence used to command, njoin, implore, or entreat
Ex. My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man.
INVERSION Inverted order of words n a sentence (variation of the subject-verb-object order)
Ex. United there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided there is little we can do.
JUXTAPOSITION Placement of two things closely together to emphasize ciomparisons or contrasts
Ex. [W]e are the heirs of that first revolution. Let the word go forth...that the torh has been passed to a new generation of Americans - born in this country. [emphasis added]
METAPHOR figure of speech that says one thing is another in order to explain by comparison
Ex. And if a beachhead of cooperation may push back the jungle of suspicion.
METONYMY Using a single feature to represent the whole
Ex. In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than mine, will rest the final success or failure of our course.
OXYMORON Paradoxical juxtaposition of words that seem to contradict one another
Ex. but this peaceful revolution
PARALLELISM Similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases, or clauses
Ex. Let both sides explore...Let both sides, for the first time, formulate serious and precise proposals...Let both sides seek to invoke...Let both sides unite to heed
PERIODIC SENTENCE Sentence whose main clause is withheld until the end
Ex. To that world assemblye of sovereign stats, the Unites Nations, our last best hope in an age where the instruments of war have far outpaced the instruments of peace, we renew our...
PERSONIFICATION Attribution of a lifelike quality to an inanimate object or idea
Ex. with history the final judge of our deeds
RHETORICAL QUESTION Figure of speech in the form of a question posed for thetorical effect rather than for the purpose of getting an answer
Ex. Will you join in that historic effort?
ZEUGMA Use of two different words in a grammatically similar way but producting different, often inconguous, meanings
Ex. Now the trumpet summons us again - not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need - not as a call to battle, though embattled we are - but a call to bear the burden.

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