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Rhetorical Toolbox


Mrs. Wilsons AP Engli
  
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Marissa Glessman
AP Language and Composition
Rhetorical Toolbox
 

Marissa Glessman
AP Language and Composition
Rhetorical Toolbox

ALLITERATION
Repitition of the same sound beginning several words in sequence
 

Ex. [L]et us go forth to lead the land we love.

ALLUSION
Brief reference to a person, event, or place, real or fictitious, or to a work of art
 

Ex. Let both sides unitre to heed in all corners of the earth the command of Isaiah.

ANAPHORA
repitition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or lines
 

Ex. not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need - not as a call to battle, though embattled we are

ANTIMETABOLE
repitition of words in reverse order
 

Ex. [A]sk not what your country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country.

ANTITHESIS
Opposition, or contrast, of ideas or words in a balanced or parallel construction
 

Ex. [W]e shall support any friend, oppose any foe.

ARCHAIC DICTION
Old-fashioned or outdated choice of words
 

Ex. beliefs for which our forebears fought

ASYNDETON
Omission of conjunctions between coordinate phrases, clauses, or words
 

Ex. [W]e shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any fore to assure the survival and the success of liberty.

CUMULATIVE SENTENCE
Sentence that completes the main idea at the beginning of the sentence, and then builds and adds on.
 

Ex. But neither can two great and powerful groups of nations take comfort from out present course - both sides overburdened by the cost of modern weapons, both rightly alarmed by the steady spread of the deadly arom, yet both racing to alter that uncertain balance of terror that stays the hand of mankind's final war.

HORTATIVE SENTENCE
Sentence that exhorts, advises, calls to action
 

Ex. Let both sides explore what problems unite us instead of belaboring those problems which divide us.

IMPERATIVE SENTENCE
Sentence used to command, njoin, implore, or entreat
 

Ex. My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man.

INVERSION
Inverted order of words n a sentence (variation of the subject-verb-object order)
 

Ex. United there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided there is little we can do.

JUXTAPOSITION
Placement of two things closely together to emphasize ciomparisons or contrasts
 

Ex. [W]e are the heirs of that first revolution. Let the word go forth...that the torh has been passed to a new generation of Americans - born in this country. [emphasis added]

METAPHOR
figure of speech that says one thing is another in order to explain by comparison
 

Ex. And if a beachhead of cooperation may push back the jungle of suspicion.

METONYMY
Using a single feature to represent the whole
 

Ex. In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than mine, will rest the final success or failure of our course.

OXYMORON
Paradoxical juxtaposition of words that seem to contradict one another
 

Ex. but this peaceful revolution

PARALLELISM
Similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases, or clauses
 

Ex. Let both sides explore...Let both sides, for the first time, formulate serious and precise proposals...Let both sides seek to invoke...Let both sides unite to heed

PERIODIC SENTENCE
Sentence whose main clause is withheld until the end
 

Ex. To that world assemblye of sovereign stats, the Unites Nations, our last best hope in an age where the instruments of war have far outpaced the instruments of peace, we renew our pledge of support.

PERSONIFICATION
Attribution of a lifelike quality to an inanimate object or idea
 

Ex. with history the final judge of our deeds

RHETORICAL QUESTION
Figure of speech in the form of a question posed for thetorical effect rather than for the purpose of getting an answer
 

Ex. Will you join in that historic effort?

ZEUGMA
Use of two different words in a grammatically similar way but producting different, often inconguous, meanings
 

Ex. Now the trumpet summons us again - not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need - not as a call to battle, though embattled we are - but a call to bear the burden.

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