Respiratory

155 cards

Respiratory


 
  
Created Oct 27, 2010
by
polly.sauers

 

 
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1
branching pattern of airways
 
brachial treerespiratory tree
2
trachea divides to
 
right and left bronchi at T7
3
Once in lungs each main bronchus subdivides into
 
Lobar (secondary) bronchi3 on right lung2 on left lung
4
Lobar bronchi branch into 3rd order
 
segmental (tertiary) bronchi
5
passages smaller than 1 mm
 
bronchioles
6
tiniest of little bronchi
 
terminal bronchioles
7
what fibers tube wall bronchial tree
 
elastic
8
mucosal epithelium thins and changes from pseudocolumar stratified to columnar and then cuboidal...
 
Macrophages in alveoli
9
as the passageways become smaller what increases
 
smooth muscle
10
the respiratory bronchi lead to winding    blankwhose walls consist of diffusely...
 
alveolar ducts
11
on walls of alveoli single layer squamous epithelial cells called
 
Type I cells
12
the alveolar ducts lead to terminal clusters of alveoli called
 
alveolar sacs
13
together alveolar and capillary walls and fused basement membrane form the air-blood barrier
 
respiratory membrane
14
scattered amid Type I squamous are cuboidal secretions detergent like
 
surfactant
15
open   blank   pores connect adjacent alveoli - allow air pressure in lungs to be...
 
alveolar
16
crawl along alveolar surfaces
 
alveolar macrophages
17
each cone shaped lung is surrounded by pleurae and connected to mediastinum by vascular and...
 
lung root
18
anterior lateral and posterior lung surfaces lie in close contact with ribs and form the curving
 
costal surface
19
deep to clavicle narrow superior tip of lung
 
apex
20
concave inferior surface rest on diaphragm
 
base
21
mediastinal surface each lung indentation called blank pulmonary and systemic blood vessels...
 
hilum
22
last tracheal cartilage is expanded and a spar of cartilage called        ...
 
Carina
23
the open posterior part of cartilage rings abut esophagus connected by smooth muscle fibers...
 
Trachealis muscle
24
the submucosa is supported by 16 to 20 C shaped rings of hyaline cartilage encased by the outermost...
 
adventitia
25
connective tissue layer deep to mucosa contains seromucous glands produce mucus "sheets" in...
 
submucosa
26
tracheal wall - several layers - plus hyaline cartilage
 
mucosasubmucosaadventitia
27
windpipe descends from larynx through neck to mediastinum
 
trachea
28
abdominal straining defecation
 
Valsalva's maneuver
29
Inflammation of vocal cords
 
laryngitis
30
superior to vocal folds similar pair of mucosal folds called
 
vestibular folds or false vocal cords
31
groove inferior to each conchae
 
nasal meatus
32
sereous membrane producing lubricating fluid - parietal pleura lines thoracic - visceral external...
 
Pleurae
33
what houses respiratory passageways smaller than main bronchi - stroma fibrous elastic connective...
 
lungs
34
main site of gas exchange special alveolar cells produce surfactant
 
alveoli
35
walls lack cartilage but contain comp layer of smooth muscle
 
bronchiolar walls
36
air passageways connect trachea with alveoli cleans, warms, and moistens incoming air consists...
 
bronchial tree
37
air passageways cleans warm and moistens incoming air
 
trachea
38
air passageway prevents food from entering lower respiratory tract...voice production
 
larynx
39
passage way for air and food facilitates exposure of immune system to inhaled antigens
 
pharynx
40
same as nasal cavity also lightens skull
 
paranasal sinuses
41
produces mucus, filters, warms and moistens air chamber for speech
 
nose
42
protrude from nasal cavity are three scroll like mucosa covered projections
 
superiormiddle inferior nasal conchae
43
natural antibiotics rid invading microbes
 
defensins
44
balance of nasal cavity mucosa pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium containing...
 
respiratory mucosa
45
contains smell receptors
 
olfactory epithelium
46
unsupported posterior portion of the mouth is
 
soft palate
47
palate supported by palatine bones and maxillary bones
 
hard palate
48
nasal cavity cont posteriorly with nasal portion of the pharynx through
 
posterior nasal apertures
49
nasal cavity divided by midline
 
nasal septum
50
lies in and posterior to nose
 
nasal cavity
51
all the respiratory passageways
 
conducting zone
52
actual site of gas exchange respiratory bronchalveolar duct alveoli
 
respiratory zone
53
actual use of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide by tissue cells not part of respiratory...
 
cellular respiration
54
movement of oxygen from blood to tissue cells and carbon dioxide from tissue to blood
 
internal
55
transport of oxygen from lungs to tissue cells of body and carbon dioxide from tissue cells...
 
transport of gases
56
movement of oxygen from lungs to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to lungs
 
external
57
movement of air in and out of lungs so gas is changed and refreshed
 
pulmonary ventilation
58
oxgen entersco2 leaves
 
gas exchange
59
the use of oxygen to produce ATP in glycolysis
 
cellular respiration
60
gas exchange between blood & tissues
 
internal respiration
61
gas exchange between air in lungs and blood transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood
 
external respiration
62
movement of air into and out of lungs
 
ventilation
63
3 types lung cancer
 
squamous celladenocarcinomasmall cell
64
abnormal viscous mucous
 
cystic fibrosis
65
outpocket foregut endoderm becomes pharyngeal mucosa
 
larygotracheal bud
66
form nasal cavities embryo
 
olfactory pits
67
two thickened plates embryo
 
olfactory placodes
68
increase ventilation to meet metabolic needs
 
hyperapnea
69
prevent excessive stretching lungs recoil strech receptors quiet inspiration initiated
 
Hering Breuer
70
breathing cessation
 
apnea
71
partial carbon dioxide pco2 levels rise in blood
 
hypercapnia
72
found in aortic arch and carotid arteries
 
peripheral chemoreceptors
73
throughout brain stem including ventrolateral medulla
 
central chemoreceptors
74
breathing rhythm?
 
pacemaker neurons
75
transmit impulses to VRG of medulla
 
pontine respiratory group
76
clustered neurons in 2 areas of medulla
 
dorsal and ventral respiratory group
77
resists shifts in blood ph
 
carbonic acid bicarbonate buffer system
78
the lower partial pressure oxygen po2 and the lower the extent of Hb saturation with O2, the...
 
Haldene effect
79
chloride ions move from plasma to RBC's
 
chloride shift
80
enzyme that reversibly catalyzes the conversion of co2 and water to carbonic acid
 
carbonic anhydrase
81
co2 molecules entering plasma quickly enter the RBC's where most reactions that prepare co2...
 
bicarbonate ions
82
reduced arterial po2
 
hypoxemic hypoxia
83
body cells unable to use oxygen even though correct amt delivered
 
histotoxia hypoxia
84
blood circulation blocked congestive heart failure emboli
 
ischemic hypoxia
85
poor oxygen delivery resulting from too few rbc's
 
anemic hypoxia
86
 curve s shaped curve steep slope po2 flattens out
 
oxygen dissociation
87
hemoglobin that has released oxygen
 
deoxyhemoglobin
88
amount gas reaching alveoli know as
 
ventilation
89
blood flow pulmonary capillary
 
perfusion
90
total pressure of all gases sum of pressure by each gas
 
Dalton's
91
gas contact liquid gas dissolves in liquid in proportion to its part....hyperbaric
 
Henry's
92
process other than breathing may modify normal respiratory rhythm
 
non-respiratory air movements
93
normal rate & depth
 
150   500
94
slow deep breathing
 
150   1000
95
rapid shallow
 
150   250
96
index effective ventilation
 
alveolar ventilation rate
97
amt gas exchange after deep breath and forceful exhale and as rapidly as possible
 
forced vital capacity
98
sum of all lung volumes
 
total lung capicity
99
total amount exchangeable air
 
vital capacity
100
amount air in lungs after tidal expiration
 
functional residual
101
total amt of air inspired after total volume
 
inspiratory capacity
102
inspiratory capacity functional respiratory capacity vital capacity and total lung capacity
 
respiratory capacities
103
amt evacuated from lungs after total volume
 
expiratory reserve
104
amount air inspried forcibly beyond total volume
 
inspiratory reserve
105
500 ml normal breathing in and out
 
tidal
106
4 respiratory volumes
 
tidal inspiratory expiratory residual
107
functional residual capacity - volume of air remaining in lungs after a normal tidal volume...
 
male 2400female 1800
108
inspiratory capacity - max amt of air that can be inspired after normal expiration
 
3600 male2400 female
109
vital capacity - max amt of air that can be expired after maximum inspiratory effort
 
4800 male3100 female
110
total lung capacitymax amt of air contained in lungs after max inspiratory effort
 
6,000 male4,200 female
111
residual volume amt of air remaining in lungs after forced exhalation
 
male 1200female 1100
112
expiratory reserve volume - max amt of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal...
 
1200 male700 female
113
inspiratory reserve volume amt of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume...
 
male 3100female 1900
114
tidal volume at of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath resting
 
500 ml
115
too little surfactant collapse alveoli newborns
 
infant respiratory distress syndrome - may suffer from bronchopulmonary dysplasia
116
gas - liquid boundary molecules of liquid strongly attracted to each other than to gas molecules
 
surface tension
117
gas flow changes with resistance
 
inversely (decreases)
118
during each breath pressure gradients move 0.5 liter of air in and out of lungs
 
volume of breath
119
plueral cavity pressure becomes more negative as chest wall expands during inspiration returns...
 
intrapleural pressure
120
pressure inside lungs decreases as lung volume increases during inspriation, pressure, inc...
 
intrapulmonary pressure
121
active process by contraction of abdominal wall muscles
 
forced expiration
122
major nonelastic source of resistance to gas
 
nonelastic
123
diaphragm and external intercostal muscles
 
inspiratory muscles
124
relationship between pressure and volume of gas
 
boyle's law
125
pressure of air in pleural cavity
 
pneumothorax
126
lung collapse bronchiole plugged
 
atelactasis
127
difference between intrapulmonary pressure and intrapleural pressure
 
transpulmonary pressure
128
intrapulmonary pressure is
 
pressure in alveoli
129
atmospheric pressure is
 
760
130
respiratory pressures always described relative to
 
atmospheric pressure
131
inflammation of the pleurae results from pneumonia
 
pleurisy
132
pleurae divide thoracic cavity into 3 chambers called
 
central mediastinum two lateral pleural compartments limits spread of infection
133
the pleural fluid fills slitlike space called
 
pleural cavity
134
the pleurae produce
 
pleurae fluid
135
covers exterior lung surface
 
visceral
136
covers thoracic wall and superior face of diaphragm
 
parietal pleura
137
form a thin layered serosa
 
pleurae
138
lungs innervated by parasympathetic and symphathetic motor fibers and visceral sensory fibers...
 
pulmonary plexus
139
provide oxygenated systemic blood to lung tissue arise from aorta enter lungs at hilum
 
bronchial arteries
140
freshly oxygenated blood conveyed from respiratory zones of lungs to heart by
 
pulmonary veins
141
in the lungs, the pulmonary arteries branch profusely along with bronchi and feed into the...
 
pulmonary capillary networks
142
systemic venous blood that is to be oxygenated in lungs is delivered by
 
pulmonary arteries and to main bronchi
143
left smaller than right concavity medial aspect
 
cardiac notch
144
left lung subdivided superior and inferior lobes by
 
oblique fissure
145
right lung partitioned into superior medial inferior lobes by
 
oblique and horizontal fissures
146
each lobe contains a number of pyramid shaped each segment served by own artery and vein
 
bronchopulmonary segments
147
smallest subdivisions of lung at lung surface
 
lobules
148
the vocal folds and medial opening between them through which air passes
 
glottis
149
core of mucosal folds formed by ligaments
 
vocal folds true vocal
150
lying under laryngeal mucosa which attached arytenoid cartilage to thyroid cartilage
 
vocal ligaments
151
small cartilage (3) from lateral and posterior wall of larynx
 
arytenoidcuneiformcorniculate
152
inferior to thyroid cartilage ring shaped
 
cricoid cartilage
153
laryngeal prominence
 
midline adam's apple
154
large shield shaped formed by fusion of 2 cartilage plate
 
thyroid cartilage
155
voice box 3rd to 6th vertebrae continuous with trachea
 
larynx


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