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Respiratory


Respiratory
  
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branching pattern of airways
 
brachial treerespiratory tree
trachea divides to
 
right and left bronchi at T7
Once in lungs each main bronchus subdivides into
 
Lobar (secondary) bronchi3 on right lung2 on left lung
Lobar bronchi branch into 3rd order
 
segmental (tertiary) bronchi
passages smaller than 1 mm
 
bronchioles
tiniest of little bronchi
 
terminal bronchioles
what fibers tube wall bronchial tree
 
elastic
mucosal epithelium thins and changes from pseudocolumar stratified to columnar and then cuboidal in terminal branches...cilia sparse...debris
 
Macrophages in alveoli
as the passageways become smaller what increases
 
smooth muscle
the respiratory bronchi lead to winding blankwhose walls consist of diffusely arranged rings of smooth muscle cells, connective tissue fibers
 
alveolar ducts
on walls of alveoli single layer squamous epithelial cells called
 
Type I cells
the alveolar ducts lead to terminal clusters of alveoli called
 
alveolar sacs
together alveolar and capillary walls and fused basement membrane form the air-blood barrier
 
respiratory membrane
scattered amid Type I squamous are cuboidal secretions detergent like
 
surfactant
open blank pores connect adjacent alveoli - allow air pressure in lungs to be equalized...alternate air routes when alveoli collapsed due to disease
 
alveolar
crawl along alveolar surfaces
 
alveolar macrophages
each cone shaped lung is surrounded by pleurae and connected to mediastinum by vascular and bronchial attachment called
 
lung root
anterior lateral and posterior lung surfaces lie in close contact with ribs and form the curving
 
costal surface
deep to clavicle narrow superior tip of lung
 
apex
concave inferior surface rest on diaphragm
 
base
mediastinal surface each lung indentation called blank pulmonary and systemic blood vessels bronchi lymph vessels nerves enter and leave
 
hilum
last tracheal cartilage is expanded and a spar of cartilage called marking when trachea branches to 2 main bronchi
 
Carina
the open posterior part of cartilage rings abut esophagus connected by smooth muscle fibers is
 
Trachealis muscle
the submucosa is supported by 16 to 20 C shaped rings of hyaline cartilage encased by the outermost connective tissue is
 
adventitia
connective tissue layer deep to mucosa contains seromucous glands produce mucus "sheets" in trachea
 
submucosa
tracheal wall - several layers - plus hyaline cartilage
 
mucosasubmucosaadventitia
windpipe descends from larynx through neck to mediastinum
 
trachea
abdominal straining defecation
 
Valsalva's maneuver
Inflammation of vocal cords
 
laryngitis
superior to vocal folds similar pair of mucosal folds called
 
vestibular folds or false vocal cords
groove inferior to each conchae
 
nasal meatus
sereous membrane producing lubricating fluid - parietal pleura lines thoracic - visceral external lung structures
 
Pleurae
what houses respiratory passageways smaller than main bronchi - stroma fibrous elastic connective tissue allow to recoil
 
lungs
main site of gas exchange special alveolar cells produce surfactant
 
alveoli
walls lack cartilage but contain comp layer of smooth muscle
 
bronchiolar walls
air passageways connect trachea with alveoli cleans, warms, and moistens incoming air consists of right and left main bronchi
 
bronchial tree
air passageways cleans warm and moistens incoming air
 
trachea
air passageway prevents food from entering lower respiratory tract...voice production
 
larynx
passage way for air and food facilitates exposure of immune system to inhaled antigens
 
pharynx
same as nasal cavity also lightens skull
 
paranasal sinuses
produces mucus, filters, warms and moistens air chamber for speech
 
nose
protrude from nasal cavity are three scroll like mucosa covered projections
 
superiormiddle inferior nasal conchae
natural antibiotics rid invading microbes
 
defensins
balance of nasal cavity mucosa pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium containing goblet cells...rest on lamina propria
 
respiratory mucosa
contains smell receptors
 
olfactory epithelium
unsupported posterior portion of the mouth is
 
soft palate
palate supported by palatine bones and maxillary bones
 
hard palate
nasal cavity cont posteriorly with nasal portion of the pharynx through
 
posterior nasal apertures
nasal cavity divided by midline
 
nasal septum
lies in and posterior to nose
 
nasal cavity
all the respiratory passageways
 
conducting zone
actual site of gas exchange respiratory bronchalveolar duct alveoli
 
respiratory zone
actual use of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide by tissue cells not part of respiratory but chemical involved with smell and speech
 
cellular respiration
movement of oxygen from blood to tissue cells and carbon dioxide from tissue to blood
 
internal
transport of oxygen from lungs to tissue cells of body and carbon dioxide from tissue cells to lungs
 
transport of gases
movement of oxygen from lungs to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to lungs
 
external
movement of air in and out of lungs so gas is changed and refreshed
 
pulmonary ventilation
oxgen entersco2 leaves
 
gas exchange
the use of oxygen to produce ATP in glycolysis
 
cellular respiration
gas exchange between blood & tissues
 
internal respiration
gas exchange between air in lungs and blood transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood
 
external respiration
movement of air into and out of lungs
 
ventilation
3 types lung cancer
 
squamous celladenocarcinomasmall cell
abnormal viscous mucous
 
cystic fibrosis
outpocket foregut endoderm becomes pharyngeal mucosa
 
larygotracheal bud
form nasal cavities embryo
 
olfactory pits
two thickened plates embryo
 
olfactory placodes
increase ventilation to meet metabolic needs
 
hyperapnea
prevent excessive stretching lungs recoil strech receptors quiet inspiration initiated
 
Hering Breuer
breathing cessation
 
apnea
partial carbon dioxide pco2 levels rise in blood
 
hypercapnia
found in aortic arch and carotid arteries
 
peripheral chemoreceptors
throughout brain stem including ventrolateral medulla
 
central chemoreceptors
breathing rhythm?
 
pacemaker neurons
transmit impulses to VRG of medulla
 
pontine respiratory group
clustered neurons in 2 areas of medulla
 
dorsal and ventral respiratory group
resists shifts in blood ph
 
carbonic acid bicarbonate buffer system
the lower partial pressure oxygen po2 and the lower the extent of Hb saturation with O2, the more CO2 that can be carried in blood
 
Haldene effect
chloride ions move from plasma to RBC's
 
chloride shift
enzyme that reversibly catalyzes the conversion of co2 and water to carbonic acid
 
carbonic anhydrase
co2 molecules entering plasma quickly enter the RBC's where most reactions that prepare co2 for transport as
 
bicarbonate ions
reduced arterial po2
 
hypoxemic hypoxia
body cells unable to use oxygen even though correct amt delivered
 
histotoxia hypoxia
blood circulation blocked congestive heart failure emboli
 
ischemic hypoxia
poor oxygen delivery resulting from too few rbc's
 
anemic hypoxia
curve s shaped curve steep slope po2 flattens out
 
oxygen dissociation
hemoglobin that has released oxygen
 
deoxyhemoglobin
amount gas reaching alveoli know as
 
ventilation
blood flow pulmonary capillary
 
perfusion
total pressure of all gases sum of pressure by each gas
 
Dalton's
gas contact liquid gas dissolves in liquid in proportion to its part....hyperbaric
 
Henry's
process other than breathing may modify normal respiratory rhythm
 
non-respiratory air movements
normal rate & depth
 
150 500
slow deep breathing
 
150 1000
rapid shallow
 
150 250
index effective ventilation
 
alveolar ventilation rate
amt gas exchange after deep breath and forceful exhale and as rapidly as possible
 
forced vital capacity
sum of all lung volumes
 
total lung capicity
total amount exchangeable air
 
vital capacity
amount air in lungs after tidal expiration
 
functional residual
total amt of air inspired after total volume
 
inspiratory capacity
inspiratory capacity functional respiratory capacity vital capacity and total lung capacity
 
respiratory capacities
amt evacuated from lungs after total volume
 
expiratory reserve
amount air inspried forcibly beyond total volume
 
inspiratory reserve
500 ml normal breathing in and out
 
tidal
4 respiratory volumes
 
tidal inspiratory expiratory residual
functional residual capacity - volume of air remaining in lungs after a normal tidal volume expiration
 
male 2400female 1800
inspiratory capacity - max amt of air that can be inspired after normal expiration
 
3600 male2400 female
vital capacity - max amt of air that can be expired after maximum inspiratory effort
 
4800 male3100 female
total lung capacitymax amt of air contained in lungs after max inspiratory effort
 
6,000 male4,200 female
residual volume amt of air remaining in lungs after forced exhalation
 
male 1200female 1100
expiratory reserve volume - max amt of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation
 
1200 male700 female
inspiratory reserve volume amt of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalation
 
male 3100female 1900
tidal volume at of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath resting
 
500 ml
too little surfactant collapse alveoli newborns
 
infant respiratory distress syndrome - may suffer from bronchopulmonary dysplasia
gas - liquid boundary molecules of liquid strongly attracted to each other than to gas molecules
 
surface tension
gas flow changes with resistance
 
inversely (decreases)
during each breath pressure gradients move 0.5 liter of air in and out of lungs
 
volume of breath
plueral cavity pressure becomes more negative as chest wall expands during inspiration returns to initial value as chest wall recoils
 
intrapleural pressure
pressure inside lungs decreases as lung volume increases during inspriation, pressure, inc during expiration
 
intrapulmonary pressure
active process by contraction of abdominal wall muscles
 
forced expiration
major nonelastic source of resistance to gas
 
nonelastic
diaphragm and external intercostal muscles
 
inspiratory muscles
relationship between pressure and volume of gas
 
boyle's law
pressure of air in pleural cavity
 
pneumothorax
lung collapse bronchiole plugged
 
atelactasis
difference between intrapulmonary pressure and intrapleural pressure
 
transpulmonary pressure
intrapulmonary pressure is
 
pressure in alveoli
atmospheric pressure is
 
760
respiratory pressures always described relative to
 
atmospheric pressure
inflammation of the pleurae results from pneumonia
 
pleurisy
pleurae divide thoracic cavity into 3 chambers called
 
central mediastinum two lateral pleural compartments limits spread of infection
the pleural fluid fills slitlike space called
 
pleural cavity
the pleurae produce
 
pleurae fluid
covers exterior lung surface
 
visceral
covers thoracic wall and superior face of diaphragm
 
parietal pleura
form a thin layered serosa
 
pleurae
lungs innervated by parasympathetic and symphathetic motor fibers and visceral sensory fibers nerve fibers enter through lung root
 
pulmonary plexus
provide oxygenated systemic blood to lung tissue arise from aorta enter lungs at hilum
 
bronchial arteries
freshly oxygenated blood conveyed from respiratory zones of lungs to heart by
 
pulmonary veins
in the lungs, the pulmonary arteries branch profusely along with bronchi and feed into the blank surrounding the alveoli
 
pulmonary capillary networks
systemic venous blood that is to be oxygenated in lungs is delivered by
 
pulmonary arteries and to main bronchi
left smaller than right concavity medial aspect
 
cardiac notch
left lung subdivided superior and inferior lobes by
 
oblique fissure
right lung partitioned into superior medial inferior lobes by
 
oblique and horizontal fissures
each lobe contains a number of pyramid shaped each segment served by own artery and vein
 
bronchopulmonary segments
smallest subdivisions of lung at lung surface
 
lobules
the vocal folds and medial opening between them through which air passes
 
glottis
core of mucosal folds formed by ligaments
 
vocal folds true vocal
lying under laryngeal mucosa which attached arytenoid cartilage to thyroid cartilage
 
vocal ligaments
small cartilage (3) from lateral and posterior wall of larynx
 
arytenoidcuneiformcorniculate
inferior to thyroid cartilage ring shaped
 
cricoid cartilage
laryngeal prominence
 
midline adam's apple
large shield shaped formed by fusion of 2 cartilage plate
 
thyroid cartilage
voice box 3rd to 6th vertebrae continuous with trachea
 
larynx

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