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Side ASide B
acute infection of the bronchioles
What are the causes of bronchiolitis?
RSV- 80 %
Signs and symptoms of bronchioliits?
URI, fever, cough, iritable and respiratory distress, crackles, rales and wheezes, atelectasis, tachypnea
How do you diagnose bronchiolitis?
with a chest x-ray showing infiltrates
treatment for bronchiolitis
nebulizer, O2 and fluids
What are two major interventions for bronchiolitis?
oxygen and rid of mucous
What are treatments for at home RSV and LTB?
Fever meds, rest fluids
Treatment for RSV and LTB in the hospital?
CPT, neb, suctioning, O2 and IVF's
What med is used to treat RSV and LTB? What type of med is it?
What med is given to prevent preemies from RSV and LTB?
Respigam and Synagis
Nasal washing is also an intervention in the hospital for what?
RSV and LTB
What glands does cystic fibrosis effect?
Cystic Fibrosis is recessive or dominant?
Cystic fibrosis causes an increase in what?
What two electrolytes are increased in cystic fibrosis?
sodium and chloride
What is effected by cystic fibrosis?
pancreas, respiratory, GI and bile duct systems
How is the respiratory system affected by cystic fibrosis?
frequent infections and progressive pulmonary diseases
What are respiratory complications of cystic fibrosis?
atelectasis, pneumothorax, hemoptysis and clubbing
How is the GI system affected by cystic fibrosis?
decreased absorption of nutrients, carbs, fats and proteins
what are GI complications of cystic fibrosis?
Pancreatitis and diabetes
what do cystic fibrosis patients have to take before meals? why?
pancreatic enzymes; to increase digestion of foods
What is going to be in your stools if you have cystic fibrosis?
steatorrhea and azotorrhea, fat and protein
What could happen to your intestines, rectum and how does it effect your reproductive system?
intestinal obstruction prolapsed rectum infertility and sterility
how do you diagnose cystic fibrosis?
sweat chloride test
What are treatments for cystic fibrosis?
CPT, exercise, DB, vibration vest, percussion and O2, ct's, lung transplant
what vitamins should cystic fibrosis patients take?
fat soluble vitamins (ADEK)
How do you treat respiratory problems at home for cystic fibrosis?
Hand held nebulizer
Pneummonia is what?
inflammation of the pulmonary parenchyma
How do you diagnose pneumonia?
sputum sample and cxray
What is the number one treatment for pneumonia?
what is an indication of a chest xray for pneumonia?
wheezes and crackles?
The four causes of pneumonia are?
viral, bacterial, m-pneumonia, aspiration
What is the most common pneumonia in children? what is it associated with?
viral pneumonia and it is associated with URI.
What are signs and symptoms of pneumonia?
fever, slight cough, malaise, whitish sputum, wheezes and crackles
what will you see on a cxr for pneumonia?
patchy infiltrates, with peribroncial distribution
older child signs and symptoms of bacterial pneumonia
headache, chills, abd pain, chest pain, meningitis, increased respirations, resp distress, hacking, non-productive cough, crackles, wheezes, advances to purulent sputum
infant signs and symptoms
lethargic, high fever and seizures
what is treatment for bacterial pneumonia?
hospitalization, cxr, o2, cpt, ivf's, fever meds and antibiotics to treat organisms
postural drainage is what?
declining head to move mucous up
seasonal and chronic allergies
signs and symptoms of allergic rhinitus
nasal inflammation, sneezing, nasal congestion
what can the sighs and symptoms lead to?
URI, and OM
How do you diagnose allergic rhinitus?
skin test and PE
What is treatment for allergic rhinitis?
reduce allergens, antihistamines/decongestant nasal spray and immunotherapy
Asthma is a what?
chronic inflammation disorder of airways resulting in bronchiolconstriction
Asthma is associated with what?
triggers such as stress
signs and symptoms of asthma include
wheezes, chest tightness, cough, dyspnea.
What do the signs and symptoms of asthma lead too?
airway obstruction, orthopnea, and respiratory distress
How do you diagnose asthma?
PEFR (peak expiratory flow rate) PFT (pulmonary function test)
When using the PEFR what are the color grades?
green is 80-100% of personal best yellow is 50-79% of personal best red is <50 of personal best
What does the PFT measure?
lung volume, evaluates lung disease and how it responds to treatments
short acting inhalers
long acting inhalers. why?
steroids because they help with inflammation
What are two types of long acting inhalers?
systemic beta-2 agonist and bronchiodilators that are not rescue
what do you teach asthma patients
avoid triggers; allergens and use PEFR, take rescue inhalers 20-30 minutes before exercise and stay away from sports such as cross country
What are other treatments for asthma?
CPT, hyposensitization, immunotherapy
what do preemies get chronic lung disease from? and what does this cause?
RDS; poor lung compliance and leads to heart failure
What is respiratory failure?
How do you diagnose resp failure?
cxr with hyperinflation, atelectasis, fibrosis
What is treatment of resp failure?
surfactant, prenatal steroids, jet vent, diuretics, steroids, bronchodilators
what is home care for respiratory failure?
meds, o2, apnea monitor
if you have respiratory failure how will your lungs look on the xray
never clear, just patchy
if you have critical respiratory failure you are on what?
what is sinusitis?
the blockage of sinus cavities with blockage
diagnose sinusitis with?
tender sinuses, cold symptoms longer than ten days
treatment for sinusitis?
amoxicillin 10-14 days is number one treatment
other treatments for sinusitis?
corticosteroid nasal spray, antihistamines, decongestants, and saline drops or sprays, sinus pot
sinusitis can be what or what? and if not treated will become what?
viral or bacterial. bacterial
signs and symptoms of sinusitis
headache, periorbital swelling, fever, cough, sore throat, ear pain and popping of ears