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Side ASide B
What is a GIS?
A computer-based set of hardware and software used to capture, analyze, manipulate, and visualize spatial information.
What is the ‘discrete object view’?
Under this way of thinking, the world is made up of a series of objects that have a fixed location, or some sort of fixed boundary.
Describe the vector data model
A conceptualization of representing spatial data with a series of vector objects.
List the vector objects
Points, lines, and polygons
What is ‘topology’?
How Vector objects connect to eachother independently of the objects coordinates.
What is a DLG?
A digital line graph. (the features such as roads, rivers, or boundaries) are digitized from USGS maps.
What is the ‘continuous field view’?
The conceptualization of the world that all items vary across the earths surface as constant fields, and values are available at all locations across the field.
Describe the raster data model
A conceptualization of representing spatial data with a series of equally spaced and sized grid cells.
Define ‘nominal data’
A type of data that is a unique identifier of some kind. If numerical, the differences between numbers are not significant.
Define ‘ordinal data’
A type of data that refers solely to a ranking of some kind.
Define ‘interval data’
A type of numerical data in which the difference between numbers is significant, but there is no fixed non-arbitrary zero point associated with the data.
Define ‘ratio data’
A type of numerical data in which the difference between numbers is significant, but there is a non-arbitrary zero point associated with the data.
The reading explores three ways or bases for classifying Geographic problems. Explain the first.
The question of scale. The information needed can be a problem. For example, the map of Bosnia is a a problem because you need info about each areas residents, historical...
Explain the second way of classifying Geographic problems.
The problem of intent, or purpose. There is often no purpose for mapping some things, rather than human scientific intent.
Explain the third way of classifying Geographic problems.
Their time scales. Such as where to plant trees for next year.
What makes a Geographic database transactional?
The fact that unlike maps, they are CONSTANTLY BEING updated.
What is the difference between normative and positive uses of GIS?
Normative: uses that focus on Design. Positive: Uses that effect science
We explored the difference between data and information during lecture. Explain the difference between information and knowledge.
Knowledge is information with value.
What is the difference between idiographic Geography and nomothetic Geography.
Idiographic geography focuses on description of form. Nomothetic Geography seeks to discover general processes.
Why do many Geographers remain suspicious of the use of GIS in Geography?
It is too mundane to do the job.
What are the six component parts of a GIS?
Geographic core ideas, technology, data, specialty fields, procedures (metheods), Geovisualization.
What makes GIS a special class of Information Systems ?
It keeps track of where everything occurs