Quasi-experimental, Correlational, And Naturalistic Designs

Chapter 12 

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Side ASide B
Closed system
Important factors that influence environment is controlled by the experimenterConfident that IV causes change in DVRule out rival hypothesisNot always possible High internal validity...
Open System
Participants can be influenced by a number of factors in which the researchers have little to no control used when strong experimental designs are not possible Use common sense and...
Quasi-experimental designs
used to evaluate the impact of a variable on an ongoing process
Correlational designs
describe the relationship between two variables
Naturalistic Observations
describe an ongoing process in its natural setting
Quasi experimental designs:Time series design
Within-subjects design Useful when interested in the effects of an event that has happened to all of the population being studied single-group pretest-posttest design, weak design
Quasi experimental designs:Interrupted time series design
several pretest and posttest measurements Can add reversal of phenomenon to add confidence to results
Quasi experimental designs:Longitudinal designs
Time is one of the independent variables (related to time series design)same participants assessed over multiple time points but nothing is introduced between any of the time pointsPotential...
Quasi experimental designs:Nonequivalent control group posttest- only
Exp. group         X       01 Non equivalent control group        ...
Quasi-experimental Designs:Nonequivalent before after design
Pretest provides baseline infoVery informative when random assignment is not possible Used in educational researchCompare the differences between before and after scores
Test writing productivity, u of s tests program, u of r control group. Whats happening Threats to internal validity:
Both are increasing, so something else is affecting it Maturation- could just be because one program is writing more than the other History`- because of pretest people want to get better,...
No increase with u of r but there is an increase with u of sMight conclude that the program is effective because of the increase Could be because of ceiling effects - u of r might already...
No increase in u of r but in crease in u of s started out similar More confidence in the effectiveness of the program Selection by maturation: no random assignment, so u of s might...
Strongest evidence that program is working Most confidence in program
Quasi experimental designs:Optimizing nonequivalent before after designs
try to get control groups as similar as possible to experimental groupcollect as much demographic info as possibleknowing how groups differ increases confidence in results
Quasi-experimental designs:Retrospective and ex post facto designs
Attempts to use empirical procedures to study something that happened in the past, try to suggest meaningful relationshipsWeak forms of inference but can be used in testing alternative...
Quasi-experimental designs:Comparative time series designExx.
asses two or more variables at different time periods to see how one variable relates to changes in the other Compare fatalities per 1000 canadians to the number of provinces banning...
Why do we use quasi-experimental designs
to study interesting events in real world settings that can not be studied in a lab enhances external validity ethics
Head start study-Early childhood prgram in the US for preschoolers from low SES homes -Comparison group identified using achievement scoresmatched group not similar SES backgroundsWhat...
Non-equivalent pretest posttest design
Employees at an electronics company assessed for job burnout before and after a scheduled vacationlevel of burnout was assessed before, during and after the 2 week vacation What kind...
Interrupted time-series design
not maturation because no stead inc or decmaybe selection by history effects- vacation might be in summer so people happier in summerAttrition- might be people who are less burned out...
Correlational studies
Describes a relationship between two variables does not imply causality, doesnt attempt to show how one influences the other
Correlation coefficient factors that influence it
stat used for establishing relationship degreefactors:restricted range, outliers, reliability of measures Lack of correlation rules out possibility of causality
Advanced Correlational strategies
Regressional analysisCross-lagged panel and structural equation analysisMultielevel modelingfactor analysis
Naturalistic Observations
Pay attention and observeUseful in complex situationsuseful when little is known
Problems when making observations
Reactive behaviour- participant is influenced by presenceUnobtrusive observations- undectectedSelective perception- when observers record things they expect to seeFatigue and boredom...
When anaylzing observations  what do you do
review data several timeslook for patternsevaluate atypical behaviourevaluate any theoretical ideas you may have had
Factors to be considered when decideing whether you or not you should conceal your identity
observing highly reactive behaviorsif behaviour will be different then use some consealageIf there is much to be gained by personally experiencing and wont be significantly influenced...
Naturalistic observation advantages and disadvantages
Adv.:Describe behavious as it naturally occurssutdies behavioural processes over a period of timeDIsadv:tend to be qualitativerepresentativeness of sample may be compromiseddoesn`t...
Four categories of Behavioural research

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