Chapter 8 - Quality

Chapter 8 - Quality Quality Terminology For Chapter 8  (PMP Exam Prep)
  
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Benchmarking
 
The comparison of a current product to industry standards to attain a measurement or baseline.
Brainstorming
 
A data-generating technique which includes team members or subject matter experts for the purpose of solving project problems, identifying project risk, and planning-related activities
Common Cause
 
A predictable source of variation in a system.
Conformance
 
Creation and delivery of a product that has met the specified requirements and conformance (or functionality) of use.
Conformance to Requirement
 
The point where the project and product meet the standards of the written specifications defined at project inception (or modified through change control)
Control Chart
 
A graph of data that shows the measurement of a process over elapsed time.
Control Limits
 
The area of measurementthree standard deviations (or Sigma) from the mean on a control chart.
Corrective Action
 
Action taken to bring project in line with the project management plan.
Cost of Nonconformance
 
Cost associated with not meeting quality expectations of the project or product.
Cost of Quality (COQ) (Technique)
 
Cost of conformance to requirements and non-conformance.
Defect
 
A problem or error in the creation of the work of the project.
Defect Repair
 
The process of correcting or improving an error in the creation of the project.
Design of Experiments (DOE)
 
A process that examines which variables have the greatest outcome on a process or product.
Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)
 
A process that analyzes every failure mode in every piece of a product - The analysis is then reviewed for impact on every aspect of the system.
Features
 
The characteristics that the user desires built into a product.
Fishbone Diagrams (Ishikawa Diagrams)
 
Diagrams that break down possible areas for failure in a process and allow analysis of impact for the area; sometimes considered an ideal tool for root cause analysis.
Fitness for Use
 
A product that can be used as it was intended when designed.
Flowcharting (Technique)
 
A decomposition approach to breaking a system or process into block steps that can be repeated by following the diagram.
Flowcharts
 
Diagrams that display the connectivity of pieces of a system.
Grade
 
A ranking to classify products that have different functions or features.
Influence Diagram
 
A graphical representation of causal influences.
Inspection (Technique)
 
Evaluating something created to ensure it meets the desired standards for use and conforms to requirements.
Ishikawa Diagrams
 
Diagrams that break down possible areas for failure in a process and allow analysis or impact for the area; sometimes considered and ideal tool for root cause analysis. Also known as fishbone diagrams.
ISO 9000
 
Developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as a means to plan, control, and document processes, and overall improve quality.
Kaizen
 
A technique that takes a proactive stance to process development, on that makes improvements throughout a process as time evolves.
Mean
 
The average value in a measurement of a population.
Normal Distribution
 
A bell-shaped curve that is in sync with the mean of the population.
Parametric Estimating
 
An estimating technique that utilizes historical or industry data to create estimates based on parameters such as per unit or size variable.
Pareto Analysis
 
Identification of te few problems that have the most occurance on a measurement in a system/project, etc.
Pareto Chart (Tool)
 
A histogram that allows prioritization of problem areas on a project, system, etc.
Perform Quality Assurance
 
The periodic analysis of project performance to verify that the project will meet te appliable quality standards
Perform Quality Control
 
Observe project results to verify they meet the applicable quality standards whil attempting to improve overall qualiity
Performance
 
The level of success at which a product performs its intended use
Plan Quality
 
Identification of applicable quality standards and how to attain them on the project or product.
Population
 
The entire group of similar criteria (Ex: All Americans, all owners of a particular product).
Prevention Cost
 
Cost of planning and executing a project within an acceptable range of error (or error free)
Procedure
 
A set of activities completed in a certain order to accomplish a desired objective
Process
 
A set of activities completed in a certain order to create a product, result, or service
Process Adjustments
 
Adjustments made to modify the output of a process to achieve a better degree of quality
Project Quality Management
 
The processes required to ensure that the result of the project is satisfactory: establishing policies, objectives, and responsibilities
Quality
 
The degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements
Quality Audits
 
Reviews of quality activities that apply to lessons learned and can be applied to current and future projects
Quality Management Plan
 
Document that establishes the definition of quality baseline, checklists; also defines and validates quality processes, tests the product, formats data for communication to project stakeholders, and deals with changes to quality standards and processes
Reliability
 
The likelihood of a product or service to function as planned
Rework
 
Actions used to modify/repair defective products to come within specification of the desired process outcome
Root Cause Analysis
 
A technique that is used to discover what is an underlying problem, defect, or variance with a system or product
Sample
 
A part of the population used for a measurement (instead of the entire population)
Seven Run Rule
 
A rule that states if seven consectutive data points are on one side of the mean (above or below) or increasing/decreasing, then the process is out of control and should be investigated
Sigma
 
A measurement of acceptability of a product or process
Special Cause
 
A non-random or intermittent variable in a system
Specification
 
A document (or piece of a document) that describes the requirements that something is to be created by or performed to, as well as verifiable when it has been created
Specification Limits
 
The area on the sides of a mean of a control chart that the customer has established as acceptable limits for testing; can be above or below but not between the control limits
Standard Deviation
 
The measurement of variation within a distribution
Statistical Sampling
 
Selecting a section of the population to use for a measurement (instead of the entire population)
Threshold
 
A value related to the project such as scope, time, cost, or quality that if crossed, activates some type of report, action, or procedure
Value Engineering (VE)
 
A techique which emphasizes executing the project and total cost of ownership over the product life cycle as efficiently and effectively as possible

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