Psychology Test Chapter 6

Psychology Te St Chapt
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What is encoding?
The first stage in memory. Getting in sensory information intoa a form that the brain can use. Encoding is the set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert it into a form that is usable in the brain's storage systems.
What is Storage?
The second stage of memory. Holding on to the information for some period of time. This period will actually be of different lengths, depending on the stage of memory being used.
What is Retrieval?

This is the biggest problem people have; getting the information they know out of storage.
What might be a representation of the shallowest and highest level of information processing (Craik and Lockhart's work)?
Shallow processing is like explaining what a word looks like (ie all caps, italizied, in cursive) not really understanding what the word is or how it is related to other stuff. The highest level of information processing is putting meaning to the word and relating it to other things that you already know. This will you to retain it more and recall it faster.
Why did Sperling's research participants recall so few letters stored in sensory memory?
Because they were reading the row of letters and not taking in the whole picture so to speak. We have a tendency to read left to right starting from the top.
What is iconic memory?
This is visual sensory memory. An example would be when sperling made the grid and the subjects looked at the whole thing and for a short time after they were able to recall any row.
What is echoic memory?
This is auditory sensory memory. An example would be in a conversation you hear what someone says but you dont respond right away but what they said processed and you recall it seconds later even though it took a little time. Another would be how you are able to keep a conversation going because you can retain what the person says long enough to make a response.
What is the capacity of iconic memory according to Sperling?
Everything that you can see at one time.
Know what the partial report method was in Sperling's experiments.
Sperling would show his participants a grid of numbers with three rows. Then after the grid was gone he would give a tone. If it was a high tone they would recite the highest row, middle and so on. This would require the participants to take in the whole grid since they didnt know till after which tone would be played. They would be able to do this as long as the tone came shortly after the grid.
Who described the process of selective attention when moving memories through the three processes?
Broadbent. 1958?
What is another term for short-term memory?
Working memory
What is the magic number?
The magic number was thought of by George Miller. The number 7 plus or minus 2 is the magic number and it represents the amount of information a person can hold in STM at one time.
How can you increase memory capacity in STM?
Chunking is a way of grouping information into sections that make since with each other. This organization makes it easier to recall information. Like putting numbers so they read like a telephone etc.
Repeating something over and over is what kind of rehearsal?
Maintenance rehearsal-it keeps the information fresh in the mind until you stop repeating
What are the two major rehearsal and explain them.

Maintenance rehearsal- it keeps the information fresh in your head while you are repeating it.
Elaborative rehearsal-this is when you make the information meaningful in some way, it is more likely to stay in LTM
Procedural LTM?
Procedural (nondeclarative) LTM- This type of LTM is skills. This is things that are unable to be explained but you still know how to do. i.e. riding a bike or tying your shoes. This is often called implicit memory because memories for these skills, habits and learned reflexes are not easily retrieved into conscios awareness.
Declarative LTM?
This is the memory about things people can know. The facts and information that make up knowledge. People know general facts and facts from personal events.
What are the two types of declarative LTM?

Semantic Memory-This is the information that is learned from school or reading. The word semantic refers to meaning, so this kind of knowledge is awareness of the meanings of words, concepts, and terms as well as names of objects, math skills, and so on.
Episodic Memory- THis is the factual information about personal events. This information is constantly being updated and changed.
both of these are explicit memory because they are easily made conscious and brought from LTM to STM
Know what the semantic network is.
The semantic network is a theory on how information in LTm is stored in the mind. In a connected fashion with concepts that are related to each other stored physically closer to each other than concepts that are not highly related.
Given an example, know what a retrieval cue is.
retrieval cues is a type of stimulus of remembering. The more cues that are stored with a piece of information the easier the retrieval of the information will be.
What is encoding specificity?
The tendenct for memory of information to be improved if related information available when the memory is first formed is also available when the memory is being retrieved. Peanuts and a show or taking a test in the room you studied.
What is the tip-of-the-tongue effect.
when you are trying to remeber a bit fo information that you swear you know. most of the time you can tell what the word begins with or sounds like, just now the whole thing.
In terms of eyewitness testimony, what is the problem with false positives.
because people may think that they know exactly what they saw but they actually dont and this can land someone into jail who isnt a criminal.
Know what the misinformation effect is/
this effect is when witnesses to crimes are given additional information after the event they saw and over a period of time the will teld to believe that that additional information is what happened.
How effective is hypnotism with recalling old memories.
very as long as the psychologist isnt a freakazoid
in terms of repressed memories, what are the demopgraphics of the typical person seen for memory recovery sessions?
Middle aged women who are depressed and kind of in a dump
In general, Ebbinghaus found that most information is forgotten?
right after the event takes place...like an hour...then slowly deteriorates slowly for the next few days
Why nonsense syllales?
This way they would not have no meaning behind them and he would not be using other ways to remember them like verbal associations

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