Psychology Test 3

Psychology Notes For David G Myers 9th Addition Psychology Text Book. Chapters 12,16,13
Created Apr 6, 2010
by wildmonkeys77
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Side ASide B
a response of the organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors,...
James-Lange theory
our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing...
Cannon-Bard theory
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses...
two-factor theory
to experience emotion, one must (1) by physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal
measures several of the phsiological responses accompanying emotion
emotional release. The catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing " aggressive energy...
feel-good, do-good phenomenon
when you feel good. You do good things for others
subjective well-being
self-perceived happiness of satisfaction with life. Used along with measures or objective well-being...
adaptation-level phenomenon
our tendency to form judgements (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level...
relative deprivation
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
Free association
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says...
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and...
according the Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts wishes, feelings, and memories....
psychosexual stages
the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according...
Oedipus complex
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred...
the process by which, according the Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into...
according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual...
Defense Mechanisms
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protect methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting...
the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories...
defense mechanism in which an indiviudal faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual...
reaction formation
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses...
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them...
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening...
psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable...
defense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities
Collective unconscious
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history
projective test
a personality test such as the Rorschach of TAT that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to...
Thematic apperception test
a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories...
Rorschach inkblot test
the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots; seeks to identify people's inner...
terror-management theory
a theory of death-related anxiety; explores people's emotional and behavioral responses to...
according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical...
unconditional positive regard
according to Rogers, and attitude of total acceptance toward another person
Social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence and relate to one another
attribution theory
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's...
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another behavior, the underestimate the impact of...
feelings,often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way...
central route to persuasion
occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
peripheral route to persuasion
occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger...
a set of explanations about a social position, defining how those in the position ought...
cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent....
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
social facilitation
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their effort toward...
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal...
group polarization
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides...
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice...
a generalized(sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members
"Us" people with whom we share a common identity
"them" - those perceived as dfferent or apart from our ingroup
ingroup bias
the tendency to favor our own group
scapegoat theory
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
other-race effect
the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other...
just-world phenomenon
the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what the...
any physical or verbl behavior intended to hurt or destroy
frustration-aggression principle
the principle that frustration - the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal-creates anger,...
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
passionate love
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning...
companionate love
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to...
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
bystander effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are...
social exchange theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize...
reciprocity norm
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
social trap
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest,...
mirror-image perceptions
mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and...
superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension-reduction- a strategy designed to decrease...

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