Psychology Test 3

Psychology Notes For David G Myers 9th Addition Psychology Text Book. Chapters 12,16,13
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a response of the organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience
James-Lange theory
our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
Cannon-Bard theory
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion
two-factor theory
to experience emotion, one must (1) by physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal
measures several of the phsiological responses accompanying emotion
emotional release. The catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing " aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges
feel-good, do-good phenomenon
when you feel good. You do good things for others
subjective well-being
self-perceived happiness of satisfaction with life. Used along with measures or objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life
adaptation-level phenomenon
our tendency to form judgements (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience
relative deprivation
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
Free association
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says what-ever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarassing
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
according the Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts wishes, feelings, and memories. according to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.
psychosexual stages
the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
Oedipus complex
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
the process by which, according the Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos
according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved
Defense Mechanisms
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protect methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
defense mechanism in which an indiviudal faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
reaction formation
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety arousing unconscious feelings
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others. "The thief thinks everyone else is a thief"
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening unconscious reasons for one's actions
psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet.
defense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities
Collective unconscious
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history
projective test
a personality test such as the Rorschach of TAT that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger project of one's inner dynamics
Thematic apperception test
a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
Rorschach inkblot test
the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
terror-management theory
a theory of death-related anxiety; explores people's emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death
according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
unconditional positive regard
according to Rogers, and attitude of total acceptance toward another person
Social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence and relate to one another
attribution theory
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another behavior, the underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
feelings,often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
central route to persuasion
occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
peripheral route to persuasion
occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
a set of explanations about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent. For example when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
social facilitation
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their effort toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
group polarization
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action
a generalized(sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members
"Us" people with whom we share a common identity
"them" - those perceived as dfferent or apart from our ingroup
ingroup bias
the tendency to favor our own group
scapegoat theory
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
other-race effect
the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races
just-world phenomenon
the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what the deserve and deserve what they get
any physical or verbl behavior intended to hurt or destroy
frustration-aggression principle
the principle that frustration - the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal-creates anger, which can generate aggression
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
passionate love
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a relationship
companionate love
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
bystander effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
social exchange theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
reciprocity norm
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
social trap
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
mirror-image perceptions
mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive
superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension-reduction- a strategy designed to decrease international tensions

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