Psychology Test 3

74 cards

Psychology Notes for David G Myers 9th addition Psychology text book. chapters 12,16,13


 
  
Created Apr 6, 2010
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wildmonkeys77

 

 
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1
Emotion
 
a response of the organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors,...
2
James-Lange theory
 
our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing...
3
Cannon-Bard theory
 
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses...
4
two-factor theory
 
to experience emotion, one must (1) by physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal
5
Polygraph
 
measures several of the phsiological responses accompanying emotion
6
Catharsis
 
emotional release. The catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing " aggressive energy...
7
feel-good, do-good phenomenon
 
when you feel good. You do good things for others
8
subjective well-being
 
self-perceived happiness of satisfaction with life. Used along with measures or objective well-being...
9
adaptation-level phenomenon
 
our tendency to form judgements (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level...
10
relative deprivation
 
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
11
Free association
 
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says...
12
psychoanalysis
 
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and...
13
Unconscious
 
according the Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts wishes, feelings, and memories....
14
psychosexual stages
 
the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according...
15
Oedipus complex
 
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred...
16
identification
 
the process by which, according the Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into...
17
fixation
 
according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual...
18
Defense Mechanisms
 
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protect methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting...
19
repression
 
the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories...
20
regression
 
defense mechanism in which an indiviudal faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual...
21
reaction formation
 
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses...
22
projection
 
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them...
23
rationalization
 
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening...
24
displacement
 
psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable...
25
Denial
 
defense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities
26
Collective unconscious
 
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history
27
projective test
 
a personality test such as the Rorschach of TAT that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to...
28
Thematic apperception test
 
a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories...
29
Rorschach inkblot test
 
the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots; seeks to identify people's inner...
30
terror-management theory
 
a theory of death-related anxiety; explores people's emotional and behavioral responses to...
31
self-actualization
 
according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical...
32
unconditional positive regard
 
according to Rogers, and attitude of total acceptance toward another person
33
Social psychology
 
the scientific study of how we think about, influence and relate to one another
34
attribution theory
 
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's...
35
fundamental attribution error
 
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another behavior, the underestimate the impact of...
36
attitude
 
feelings,often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way...
37
central route to persuasion
 
occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
38
peripheral route to persuasion
 
occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness
39
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
 
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger...
40
role
 
a set of explanations about a social position, defining how those in the position ought...
41
cognitive dissonance theory
 
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent....
42
conformity
 
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
43
normative social influence
 
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
44
informational social influence
 
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
45
social facilitation
 
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
46
social loafing
 
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their effort toward...
47
deindividuation
 
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal...
48
group polarization
 
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
49
groupthink
 
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides...
50
prejudice
 
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice...
51
stereotype
 
a generalized(sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
52
discrimination
 
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members
53
ingroup
 
"Us" people with whom we share a common identity
54
outgroup
 
"them" - those perceived as dfferent or apart from our ingroup
55
ingroup bias
 
the tendency to favor our own group
56
scapegoat theory
 
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
57
other-race effect
 
the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other...
58
just-world phenomenon
 
the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what the...
59
aggression
 
any physical or verbl behavior intended to hurt or destroy
60
frustration-aggression principle
 
the principle that frustration - the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal-creates anger,...
61
mere exposure effect
 
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
62
passionate love
 
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning...
63
companionate love
 
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
64
equity
 
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to...
65
self-disclosure
 
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
66
altruism
 
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
67
bystander effect
 
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are...
68
social exchange theory
 
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize...
69
reciprocity norm
 
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
70
conflict
 
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
71
social trap
 
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest,...
72
mirror-image perceptions
 
mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and...
73
superordinate goals
 
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
74
GRIT
 
graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension-reduction- a strategy designed to decrease...

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