Psychology Test 3

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Psychology Test 3

Psychology Notes For David G Myers 9th Addition Psychology Text Book. Chapters 12,16,13

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Emotion
 
a response of the organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience
James-Lange theory
 
our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
Cannon-Bard theory
 
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion
two-factor theory
 
to experience emotion, one must (1) by physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal
Polygraph
 
measures several of the phsiological responses accompanying emotion
Catharsis
 
emotional release. The catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing " aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges
feel-good, do-good phenomenon
 
when you feel good. You do good things for others
subjective well-being
 
self-perceived happiness of satisfaction with life. Used along with measures or objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life
adaptation-level phenomenon
 
our tendency to form judgements (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience
relative deprivation
 
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
Free association
 
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says what-ever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarassing
psychoanalysis
 
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
Unconscious
 
according the Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts wishes, feelings, and memories. according to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.
psychosexual stages
 
the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
Oedipus complex
 
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
identification
 
the process by which, according the Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos
fixation
 
according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved
Defense Mechanisms
 
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protect methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
repression
 
the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
regression
 
defense mechanism in which an indiviudal faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
reaction formation
 
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety arousing unconscious feelings
projection
 
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others. "The thief thinks everyone else is a thief"
rationalization
 
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening unconscious reasons for one's actions
displacement
 
psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet.
Denial
 
defense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities
Collective unconscious
 
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history
projective test
 
a personality test such as the Rorschach of TAT that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger project of one's inner dynamics
Thematic apperception test
 
a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
Rorschach inkblot test
 
the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
terror-management theory
 
a theory of death-related anxiety; explores people's emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death
self-actualization
 
according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
unconditional positive regard
 
according to Rogers, and attitude of total acceptance toward another person
Social psychology
 
the scientific study of how we think about, influence and relate to one another
attribution theory
 
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
fundamental attribution error
 
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another behavior, the underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
attitude
 
feelings,often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
central route to persuasion
 
occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
peripheral route to persuasion
 
occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
 
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
role
 
a set of explanations about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
cognitive dissonance theory
 
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent. For example when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
conformity
 
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
normative social influence
 
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
informational social influence
 
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
social facilitation
 
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
social loafing
 
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their effort toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
deindividuation
 
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
group polarization
 
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
groupthink
 
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
prejudice
 
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action
stereotype
 
a generalized(sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
discrimination
 
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members
ingroup
 
"Us" people with whom we share a common identity
outgroup
 
"them" - those perceived as dfferent or apart from our ingroup
ingroup bias
 
the tendency to favor our own group
scapegoat theory
 
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
other-race effect
 
the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races
just-world phenomenon
 
the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what the deserve and deserve what they get
aggression
 
any physical or verbl behavior intended to hurt or destroy
frustration-aggression principle
 
the principle that frustration - the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal-creates anger, which can generate aggression
mere exposure effect
 
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
passionate love
 
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a relationship
companionate love
 
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
equity
 
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
self-disclosure
 
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
altruism
 
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
bystander effect
 
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
social exchange theory
 
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
reciprocity norm
 
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
conflict
 
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
social trap
 
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
mirror-image perceptions
 
mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive
superordinate goals
 
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
GRIT
 
graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension-reduction- a strategy designed to decrease international tensions