Psychology Test 3 (Ch 5,6,7)

Psychology Test 3  (Ch 5,6,7) Vocab For Psychology Test #3. Chapters 5,6,7.
  
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learning
 
a relatively permanent change in behavior or the potential to make a response that occurs as a result of experience
classical conditioning
 
learning that occurs when 2 stimuli- a conditioned and an unconditioned stilulus- are paired and become associated with each other
neutral stimulus (NS)
 
stimulus that, before conditioning, does not elicit a particular response
unconditioned stimulus (US)
 
stim that automatically produces a response whithout any previous training
conditioned stim (CS)
 
neutral stim that acquires the ability to elicit a conditioned response after being paired with an unconditioned stim
unconditioned response (UR)
 
reaction that is automatically produced when an unconditioned stim is presented
conditioned response (CR)
 
response elicited by a conditioned stim that has been paired with an unconditioned stim; is similar to the UR
spontaneous recovery
 
reappearance of an extinguished CR after the passage of time
generalization
 
occurrence of responses to stimuli that are similar to a CS
discrimination
 
occurrence of responses only to a specific CS
learned motives
 
motives accquired, usually through classical conditioning
learned goals (incentives)
 
goals/incentives that are learned, usually through classical conditioning
blocking
 
situation in which the conditionability of a CS is weakened when it is paired with a US that has previously been paired with another CS
operant conditioning
 
learning that occurs when the participant must make a response to produce a change in the environment
Law of effect
 
thorndike's view that reinforcers promote learning, while punishers lead to the unlearning of responses
positive reinforcement
 
increases the frequency of a target behavior (response) that occurs when a behavior is followed by presentation of a positive reinforcer
primary reinforcer
 
stim that has innate reinforcing properties
secondary reinforcer
 
stim that accquires reinforcing properties by being associated with a primary reinforcer
shaping
 
form of operant conditioning in which a desired response is taught by reinforcment of successive responses that more closely resemble the target response
discriminative stim
 
stim or signal telling the participant that responding will be reinforced
punisher
 
stim that produces a decrease in responding; may take form of presentation or termination of a stim
latent learning
 
learning that has occurred but is not demonstrated
insight learning
 
sudden grasp of concept or solution resulting from perceptual restructuring; typically characterized by an immediate change in behavior
motivation
 
physiological and psychological factors that account for the arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior
instincts
 
unlearned species-specific behaviors that are more complex than reflexes and triggered by environmental events called releasing stim
drive
 
internal motivational state created by a physiological need
drive-reduction theory
 
theory that views motivated behaviors as directed toward the reduction of a physiological need
optimum-level theory
 
theory that the body functions best at a specific level of arousal, which varies from individual to another
cognitive dissonance
 
aversive state produced when an individual holds 2 incompatible thoughts or cognitions
hierarchy of needs
 
Maslow's view that basic needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs
pheromones
 
chemical odors emitted by some animals that appear to influence the behavior of members of the same species
achievement
 
manipulation of the environment according to established rules to attain a desired goal
emotion
 
physiological changes and conscious feelings of pleasantness/unpleasantness, aroused by external/internal stimuli, that lead to behavioral reactions
James-Lange theory
 
theory that physiological changes precede and cause emotions
commonsense view of emotions
 
`emotions come before and cause bodily changes
cannon-bard theory
 
thalamus relays info simultaneously to the cortex and to the sympathetic nervous system, causing emotional feelings and physiological changes to occur at the same time.
facial feedback hypothesis
 
making certain facial expressions will produce the corresponding emotion
display rules
 
culturally specific rules for which emotions to display, to whom, and when
non verbal communication
 
communication involving: movements, gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, use of personal space and touching
paralanguage
 
communication that involves aspects of speech such as rate of talking and tone of voice, but not the words used
memory
 
system or process by which the products or results of learning are stored for future use
nonsense syllables
 
stimuli used to study memory; typically composed of a consonant-vowel-consonant sequence
serial learning
 
learning procedure in which material that has been learned must be repeated in the order in which it was presented; also know as ordered recall
free recall
 
learning procedure in which material that has been learned may be repeated in any order
serial position effect
 
tendency for items at the beginning and end of a list to be learned better than items in the middle
ex. ABCs
paired-associate learning
 
items to be recalled are learned in pairs. during recall, one member of the pair is presented and the other is to be recalled
recognition test
 
test in which retention is measured by the ability to pick out previously learned items from a list that also contains unfamiliar items
relearning test
 
test of retention that compares the time or trials required to learn material a second time with the time or trials required to learn the material the first time
savings score
 
difference between the time or trials originally required to learn material and the time or trials required to relearn the material; aka relearning score
encoding
 
first stage of the memory process; info is transformed or coded (a transduction process) into a form that can be processed further and stored
storage
 
2nd stage of the memory process. info is placed in the memory system. may involve either brief or long-term storages of memory
retrieval
 
3rd stage of memory process; stored memories are brought into consciousness
eidetic imagery
 
a form of memory, (photographic). especially vivid visual recollections of material
sensory memory
 
very brief but extensive memory for sensory events (.5-1 s for visual and 2-3 s for auditory stim)
short- term memory
 
info held in consciousness for 10-20 seconds
working memory
 
second stage of short term memory; attention and conscious effort are brought to bear on material
long-term memory
 
very large cappacity and capability to store info relatively permanently
maintenance rehearsal
 
rehearsal used when we want to save or maintain info for a specific period of time
elaborative rehearsal
 
rehearsal inwhich meaning is added to the material to be remembered
proactive interference
 
situation in which previously learned info hinders the recall of info learned more recently
retroactive interference
 
situation in which info learned more recently hinders the recall of info learned previously
levels of processing model
 
deeper processing of info increases the likelihood that the info will be recalled
explicit (declarative) memory
 
memories that we are consciously aware of, such as facts or personal events; can be subdivided into semantic and episodic memory
semantic memory
 
memory for general knowledge
implicit (nondeclarative) memory
 
memories we are not consciouly aware of but can still influence our behavior and mental processes; can be subdivided into priming and procedural memory
tip of the toungue
 
condition of being almost, but not quite, able to remember something; used to investigate the nature of semantic memory
episodic memory
 
memory of one's personal experiences
flashbulb memory
 
very detailed memory of an arousing,surprising, or emotional situation
priming or implicit memory
 
unconsious memory processing in which prior exposure to stim items may aid subsequent learning
procedural memory
 
memory for making responses and performing skilled actions
semantic network
 
network of related concepts that are linked together
schema
 
grouping or cluster of knowledge about an object or sequence of events
encoding specificity
 
theory stating that the effectiveness of memory retrieval is directly related to the similarity of the cues present when the memory was encoded and when it was retrieved
state-dependent learning
 
theory stating that when we learn something while in a specific physiological state, our recall of that info will be better when we are in the same physiological state
method of loci
 
use of familiar locations as cues to recall items that have been assiciated with them
pegword technique
 
use of familiar words or names as cues to recall items that have been associated with them
acronym
 
a word formed by the initial letters of the items to be remembered
acrostic
 
a verse or saying in which the first letter(s) of each word stand for a bit of info
anterograde amnesia
 
inability to store new memories after a traumatic event
retrograde amnesia
 
loss of memories that we stored before a traumatic event
consolidation hypothesis
 
hypothesis that memories must be consolidated or set before they can be stored

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