Psychology Test 3 (Ch 5,6,7)

81 cards

Vocab For Psychology Test #3. Chapters 5,6,7.


 
  
Created Oct 26, 2010
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1
learning
 
a relatively permanent change in behavior or the potential to make a response that occurs as...
2
classical conditioning
 
learning that occurs when 2 stimuli- a conditioned and an unconditioned stilulus- are paired...
3
neutral stimulus (NS)
 
stimulus that, before conditioning, does not elicit a particular response
4
unconditioned stimulus (US)
 
stim that automatically produces a response whithout any previous training
5
conditioned stim (CS)
 
neutral stim that acquires the ability to elicit a conditioned response after being paired...
6
unconditioned response (UR)
 
reaction that is automatically produced when an unconditioned stim is presented
7
conditioned response (CR)
 
response elicited by a conditioned stim that has been paired with an unconditioned stim; is...
8
spontaneous recovery
 
reappearance of an extinguished CR after the passage of time
9
generalization
 
occurrence of responses to stimuli that are similar to a CS
10
discrimination
 
occurrence of responses only to a specific CS
11
learned motives
 
motives accquired, usually through classical conditioning
12
learned goals (incentives)
 
goals/incentives that are learned, usually through classical conditioning
13
blocking
 
situation in which the conditionability of a CS is weakened when it is paired with a US that...
14
operant conditioning
 
learning that occurs when the participant must make a response to produce a change in the environment
15
Law of effect
 
thorndike's view that reinforcers promote learning, while punishers lead to the unlearning...
16
positive reinforcement
 
increases the frequency of a target behavior  (response) that occurs when a behavior is...
17
primary reinforcer
 
stim that has innate reinforcing properties
18
secondary reinforcer
 
stim that accquires reinforcing properties by being associated with a primary reinforcer
19
shaping
 
form of operant conditioning in which a desired response is taught by reinforcment of successive...
20
discriminative stim
 
stim or signal telling the participant that responding will be reinforced
21
punisher
 
stim that produces a decrease in responding; may take form of presentation or termination of...
22
latent learning
 
learning that has occurred but is not demonstrated
23
insight learning
 
sudden grasp of concept or solution resulting from perceptual restructuring; typically characterized...
24
motivation
 
physiological and psychological factors that account for the arousal, direction, and persistence...
25
instincts
 
unlearned species-specific behaviors that are more complex than reflexes and triggered by environmental...
26
drive
 
internal motivational state created by a physiological need
27
drive-reduction theory
 
theory that views motivated behaviors as directed toward the reduction of a physiological need
28
optimum-level theory
 
theory that the body functions best at a specific level of arousal, which varies from individual...
29
cognitive dissonance
 
aversive state produced when an individual holds 2 incompatible thoughts or cognitions
30
hierarchy of needs
 
Maslow's view that basic needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs
31
pheromones
 
chemical odors emitted by some animals that appear to influence the behavior of members of...
32
achievement
 
manipulation of the environment according to established rules to attain a desired goal
33
emotion
 
physiological changes and conscious feelings of pleasantness/unpleasantness, aroused by external/internal...
34
James-Lange theory
 
theory that physiological changes precede and cause emotions
35
commonsense view of emotions
 
`emotions come before and cause bodily changes
36
cannon-bard theory
 
thalamus relays info simultaneously to the cortex and to the sympathetic nervous system, causing...
37
facial feedback hypothesis
 
making certain facial expressions will produce the corresponding emotion
38
display rules
 
culturally specific rules for which emotions to display, to whom, and when
39
non verbal communication
 
communication involving: movements, gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, use of personal...
40
paralanguage
 
communication that involves aspects of speech such as rate of talking and tone of voice, but...
41
memory
 
system or process by which the products or results of learning are stored for future use
42
nonsense syllables
 
stimuli used to study memory; typically composed of a consonant-vowel-consonant sequence
43
serial learning
 
learning procedure in which material that has been learned must be repeated in the order in...
44
free recall
 
learning procedure in which material that has been learned may be repeated in any order
45
serial position effect
 
tendency for items at the beginning and end of a list to be learned better than items in the...
46
paired-associate learning
 
items to be recalled are learned in pairs. during recall, one member of the pair is presented...
47
recognition test
 
test in which retention is measured by the ability to pick out previously learned items from...
48
relearning test
 
test of retention that compares the time or trials required to learn material a second time...
49
savings score
 
difference between the time or trials originally required  to learn material and the time...
50
encoding
 
first stage of the memory process; info is transformed or coded (a transduction process) into...
51
storage
 
2nd stage of the memory process. info is placed in the memory system. may involve either brief...
52
retrieval
 
3rd stage of memory process; stored memories are brought into consciousness 
53
eidetic imagery
 
a form of memory, (photographic). especially vivid visual recollections of material
54
sensory memory
 
very brief  but extensive memory for sensory events (.5-1 s for visual and 2-3 s for auditory...
55
short- term memory
 
info held in consciousness for 10-20 seconds
56
working memory
 
second stage of short term memory; attention and conscious effort are brought to bear on material
57
long-term memory
 
very large cappacity and capability to store info relatively permanently
58
maintenance rehearsal
 
rehearsal used when we want to save or maintain info for a specific period of time
59
elaborative rehearsal
 
rehearsal inwhich meaning is added to the material to be remembered
60
proactive interference
 
situation in which previously learned info hinders the recall of info learned more recently
61
retroactive interference
 
situation in which info learned more recently hinders the recall of info learned previously
62
levels of processing model
 
deeper processing of info increases the likelihood that the info will be recalled
63
explicit (declarative) memory
 
memories that we are consciously aware of, such as facts or personal events; can be subdivided...
64
semantic memory
 
memory for general knowledge 
65
implicit (nondeclarative) memory
 
memories we are not consciouly aware of but can still influence our behavior and mental processes;...
66
tip of the toungue
 
condition of being almost, but not quite, able to remember something; used to investigate the...
67
episodic memory
 
memory of one's personal experiences
68
flashbulb memory
 
very detailed memory of an arousing,surprising, or emotional situation
69
priming or implicit memory
 
unconsious memory processing in which prior exposure to stim items may aid subsequent learning 
70
procedural memory
 
memory for making responses and performing skilled actions
71
semantic network
 
network of related concepts that are linked together
72
schema
 
grouping or cluster of knowledge about an object or sequence of events
73
encoding specificity
 
theory stating that the effectiveness of memory retrieval is directly related to the similarity...
74
state-dependent learning
 
theory stating that when we learn something while in a specific physiological state, our recall...
75
method of loci
 
use of familiar locations as cues to recall items that have been assiciated with them
76
pegword technique
 
use of familiar words or names as cues to recall items that have been associated with them
77
acronym
 
a word formed by the initial letters of the items to be remembered 
78
acrostic
 
a verse or saying in which the first letter(s) of each word stand for a bit of info
79
anterograde amnesia
 
inability to store new memories after a traumatic event
80
retrograde amnesia
 
loss of memories that we stored before a traumatic event
81
consolidation hypothesis
 
hypothesis that memories must be consolidated or set before they can be stored


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