Psychology Test #1

65 cards

dont need any


 
  
Created Jan 30, 2011
by
fathobbit

 

 
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1
Psychology
 
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
2
Scientific Observation
 
an empirical investigation that is structured so that it answers questions about the world
3
research method
 
a systematic approach to answering scientific questions
4
developmental psychologists
 
study the course of human growth and development from conception until death
5
learning theorists
 
study how and why learning occurs in humans and animals
6
personality theorists
 
study personality traits, motivation, and individual differences
7
sensation and perception psychologists
 
investigate how we discern the world through our senses
8
comparative psychologists
 
study and compare the behavior of different species, especially animals. 
9
biopsychologists 
 
study how behavior relates to biological processes, especially activities in the nervous system 
10
cognitive psychologists 
 
interested in thinking.
11
gender psychologists
 
study differences between females and males
12
social psychologists
 
explore human social behavior, such as attitudes, persuasion, riots, conformity, leadership,...
13
cultural psychologists 
 
study the ways in which culture affects human behavior
14
evolutionary psychologists
 
are interested in how our behavior is guided by patterns that evolved during the long history...
15
forensic psychologists
 
apply psychological principles to legal issues.
16
animal model
 
in research, an animal whose behavior is used to derive principles that may apply to human...
17
description
 
in scientific research, the process of naming and classifying
18
understanding
 
in psychology, understanding is achieved when the causes of a behavior can be stated 
19
psychology's 1st goal
 
description 
20
psychology's 2nd goal
 
understanding and explanation 
21
psychology's 3rd goal
 
prediction
22
psychology's 4th goal
 
control 
23
4 principles of critical thinking
 
1. few "truths transcend the need for empirical thinking.2. judging the quality of evidence...
24
critical thinking
 
an ability to evaluate, compare, analyze, critique, synthesize, and reflect on information
25
pseudopsychology 
 
any false and unscientific system of beliefs and practices that is offered as an...
26
what are the six steps of the scientific method?
 
1. making observations2. defining a problem3. proposing a hypothesis 4. gathering evidence/testing...
27
uncritical acceptance
 
the tendency to believe generally positive or flattering descriptions of oneself
28
fallacy of positive instances
 
the tendency to remember or notice information that fits on's expectations, while forgetting...
29
barnum effect
 
the tendency to consider a personal description accurate if it is stated in general terms
30
scientific method
 
a form of critical thinking based on careful measurement and controlled observation 
31
hypothesis 
 
the predicted outcome of an experiment or an educated guess about the relationship between...
32
operational definition
 
defining a scientific concept by stating the specific actions or procedures used to measure...
33
theory
 
a system of ideas designed to interrelate concepts and facts in a way that summarizes existing data...
34
stimulus
 
any physical energy sensed by an organism
35
introspection
 
to look within; to examine on's own thoughts, feelings, or sensations
36
structuralism
 
the school of thought concerned with analyzing sensations and personal experiences in...
37
functionalism 
 
the school of psychology concerned with how behavior and mental abilities help people adapt...
38
natural selection
 
darwin's theory that evolution favors those plants and animals best suited to their living...
39
behaviorism
 
the school of psychology that emphasizes the study of overt, observable behavior
40
response
 
any muscular action, glandular activity, or other identifiable aspect of behavior
41
cognitive behaviorism
 
an approach that combines behavioral principles with cognition (perception,...
42
gestalt psychology
 
a school of psychology emphasizing the study of thinking, learning, and perception in whole...
43
unconscious
 
contents of the mind that are beyond awareness, especially impulses and desires not...
44
repression
 
the unconscious process by which memories, thoughts, or impulses are held out of awareness
45
psychoanalysis 
 
a freudian approach to psychotherapy emphasizing the exploration of unconscious conflicts
46
neo-freudian
 
a psychologist who accepts the broad features of freud's theory but has revised the theory...
47
psychodynamic theory
 
any theory of behavior that emphasizes internal conflicts, motives, and unconscious forces
48
humanism
 
an approach to psychology that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials,...
49
determinism
 
the idea that all behavior has prior causes that would completely explain one's choices...
50
free will
 
the idea that human beings are capable of freely making choices or decisions
51
self-actualization
 
the ongoing process of fully developing one's personal potential
52
biological perspective
 
the attempt to explain behavior in terms of underlying biological principles 
53
psychological perspective 
 
the traditional view that behavior is shaped by psychological processes occurring at the level...
54
positive psychology
 
the study of human strengths, virtues, and effective functioning
55
sociocultural perspective
 
the focus on the importance of social and cultural contexts in influencing the behavior...
56
sociocultural perspective 
 
the focus on the importance of social and cultural contexts in influencing the behavior of...
57
cultural activity 
 
the idea that behavior must be judged relative to the values of the culture in which it occurs
58
social norms
 
rules that define acceptable and expecte behavior for the members of a group
59
psychologists
 
a person highly trained in the methods, factual knowledge, and theories of psychology
60
clinical psychologist
 
a psychologist who specializes in the treatment of psychological and behavioral disturbances...
61
counseling psychologist
 
a psychologist who specializes in the treatment of milder emotional and behavioral disturbances 
62
psychiatrist
 
a medical doctor with additional training in the diagnosis and treatment of mental...
63
psychoanalyst
 
a mental health professional (usually a medical doctor) trained to practice psychoanalysis 
64
counselor
 
a mental health professional who specializes in helping people with problems not involving...
65
psychiatric social worker
 
a mental health professional trained to apply social science principles...

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