Psychology Test #1

Dont Need Any
Created Jan 30, 2011
by fathobbit
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Psychology
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Scientific Observation
an empirical investigation that is structured so that it answers questions about the world
research method
a systematic approach to answering scientific questions
developmental psychologists
study the course of human growth and development from conception until death
learning theorists
study how and why learning occurs in humans and animals
personality theorists
study personality traits, motivation, and individual differences
sensation and perception psychologists
investigate how we discern the world through our senses
comparative psychologists
study and compare the behavior of different species, especially animals. 
biopsychologists 
study how behavior relates to biological processes, especially activities in the nervous system 
cognitive psychologists 
interested in thinking.
gender psychologists
study differences between females and males
social psychologists
explore human social behavior, such as attitudes, persuasion, riots, conformity, leadership,...
cultural psychologists 
study the ways in which culture affects human behavior
evolutionary psychologists
are interested in how our behavior is guided by patterns that evolved during the long history...
forensic psychologists
apply psychological principles to legal issues.
animal model
in research, an animal whose behavior is used to derive principles that may apply to human...
description
in scientific research, the process of naming and classifying
understanding
in psychology, understanding is achieved when the causes of a behavior can be stated 
psychology's 1st goal
description 
psychology's 2nd goal
understanding and explanation 
psychology's 3rd goal
prediction
psychology's 4th goal
control 
4 principles of critical thinking
1. few "truths transcend the need for empirical thinking.2. judging the quality of evidence...
critical thinking
an ability to evaluate, compare, analyze, critique, synthesize, and reflect on information
pseudopsychology 
any false and unscientific system of beliefs and practices that is offered as an...
what are the six steps of the scientific method?
1. making observations2. defining a problem3. proposing a hypothesis 4. gathering evidence/testing...
uncritical acceptance
the tendency to believe generally positive or flattering descriptions of oneself
fallacy of positive instances
the tendency to remember or notice information that fits on's expectations, while forgetting...
barnum effect
the tendency to consider a personal description accurate if it is stated in general terms
scientific method
a form of critical thinking based on careful measurement and controlled observation 
hypothesis 
the predicted outcome of an experiment or an educated guess about the relationship between...
operational definition
defining a scientific concept by stating the specific actions or procedures used to measure...
theory
a system of ideas designed to interrelate concepts and facts in a way that summarizes existing data...
stimulus
any physical energy sensed by an organism
introspection
to look within; to examine on's own thoughts, feelings, or sensations
structuralism
the school of thought concerned with analyzing sensations and personal experiences in...
functionalism 
the school of psychology concerned with how behavior and mental abilities help people adapt...
natural selection
darwin's theory that evolution favors those plants and animals best suited to their living...
behaviorism
the school of psychology that emphasizes the study of overt, observable behavior
response
any muscular action, glandular activity, or other identifiable aspect of behavior
cognitive behaviorism
an approach that combines behavioral principles with cognition (perception,...
gestalt psychology
a school of psychology emphasizing the study of thinking, learning, and perception in whole...
unconscious
contents of the mind that are beyond awareness, especially impulses and desires not...
repression
the unconscious process by which memories, thoughts, or impulses are held out of awareness
psychoanalysis 
a freudian approach to psychotherapy emphasizing the exploration of unconscious conflicts
neo-freudian
a psychologist who accepts the broad features of freud's theory but has revised the theory...
psychodynamic theory
any theory of behavior that emphasizes internal conflicts, motives, and unconscious forces
humanism
an approach to psychology that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials,...
determinism
the idea that all behavior has prior causes that would completely explain one's choices...
free will
the idea that human beings are capable of freely making choices or decisions
self-actualization
the ongoing process of fully developing one's personal potential
biological perspective
the attempt to explain behavior in terms of underlying biological principles 
psychological perspective 
the traditional view that behavior is shaped by psychological processes occurring at the level...
positive psychology
the study of human strengths, virtues, and effective functioning
sociocultural perspective
the focus on the importance of social and cultural contexts in influencing the behavior...
sociocultural perspective 
the focus on the importance of social and cultural contexts in influencing the behavior of...
cultural activity 
the idea that behavior must be judged relative to the values of the culture in which it occurs
social norms
rules that define acceptable and expecte behavior for the members of a group
psychologists
a person highly trained in the methods, factual knowledge, and theories of psychology
clinical psychologist
a psychologist who specializes in the treatment of psychological and behavioral disturbances...
counseling psychologist
a psychologist who specializes in the treatment of milder emotional and behavioral disturbances 
psychiatrist
a medical doctor with additional training in the diagnosis and treatment of mental...
psychoanalyst
a mental health professional (usually a medical doctor) trained to practice psychoanalysis 
counselor
a mental health professional who specializes in helping people with problems not involving...
psychiatric social worker
a mental health professional trained to apply social science principles...


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