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Side ASide B
5 Steps of the Scientific Method
1. Identification of the problem to be studied 2. Hypothesis formulation- something that...
Tells us that something happens, but not why. Initial step for future research.
Determination of the degree & strength of relationship between to variables. Does not imply...
Determination of cause and effect relationships due to direct manipulation of independent variable.
Manipulated variable in a research study
Variable that changes because of the influence of the independent variable
A large group measured over long time. Very expensive. Attrition (loss of participants over...
People from different age groups studied simultaneously with # of discrete groupings within...
Combo of longitudinal and cross-sectional design. Small groups for shorter amount of time &...
Single, small group of individuals are tested repeatedly during a short period of time. See...
Single individual examined in extreme detail. Many different measures utilized. Generates new...
Culture is the independent variable. Ex: How culture influences aggressive tendencies....
Examine similarities across species. Give insight into human development, although question...
A change in the number or amount of a particular "something" (vocab, height, weight). Non-stage...
Change in underlying organization of a particular ability (speaking, walking) Such shifts most...
Pavlov's Classical Conditioning
Unconditioned stimulus (food) brings about unconditioned response (salivation).Unconditioned...
When stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produced the conditioned...
A learned tendency to differentiate between two similar stimuli if one is consistently associated...
A process in which the conditioned response is weakened & when the conditioned stimulus...
Higher-Order Conditioning (Second-Order Conditioning)
When a strong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus, causing the neutral stimulus...
Skinner's Operant Conditioning
Learn from outcome of a response, it's an indicator if we keep acting the same way. Stimulus-Response-Outcome....
Those things necessary for the survival of an organism. Ex: Food, shelter, sex
Things that become reinforcing through their association with a primary reinforcer. Ex: Money.
Adding a pleasant stimulus to encourage a given behavior. Ex: Giving candy to a kid who is...
Withdrawing an unpleasant stimulus to encourage a given behavior. Ex: Take away timeout to...
Adding an unpleasant stimulus to weaken a behavior. Ex: Spanking.
Withdrawing a pleasant stimulus to weaken a given behavior. Ex: Sleep without dinner
What did Bandura contribute beyond that proposed by Watson and Skinner?
Emphasis that learning often times is from observation and limitation. Learn from outcome of...
How does Bandura's theory differ from Watson and Skinner in terms of cognitive representation?
Skinner: Only observable behaviors, cognitions= by-product, had to experience in order to learn...
See another being reinforced for their behavior, more likely to do it
See another get punished, less likely to do it
Scheme according to Piaget
Flexible action pattern learned through the experience & environment. Develops via...
Understanding on the child's part that na object continues to exist even though not physically...
Understanding that something can represent something else. Developed towards end of sensorimotor...
Preoperational Thought (Characteristics)
Deal with world in qualitatively different way. Become more sophisticated in use of symbolic...
Preoperational Thought (Limitations)
-Centration: focus on 1 aspect and neglect others.-Irreversibility.-Don't understand transformations...
Concrete Operational Thought (Characteristics)
Overcoming limitations of stage 2.Better distinguish between fantasy & reality.Classify...
Concrete Operational Thought (Limitations)
Met by formal operational thought, which addresses:-abstract thought-Movement away from trial-and-error...
How does species heredity differ from individual heredity?
Species heredity: genetic endowment that's common to the species and governs maturation and...
Main arguments of Darwin's theory
Genetic variation exists in all species.Some genes aid in adaptation.
What is the focus of Behavioral Genetics?
Genetic/environment cause of trait.Heritability estimates.Methods of studying: experimental...
Methods of investigation used in behavioral genetics
Experimental and selective breeding (Tryon's maz-bright rats).Twin, adoption, family studies...
Differences between the 3 forms of correlation as detailed by Scarr and McCartney.
Passive G/E correlations: parents create social home.Evocative G/E correlations: smiley baby...
Outcome of conception, fertilized egg. . Combination of chromosomes.
The 3 Prenatal Periods
Germinal (days 1-14).Embryonic (3rd-8th week).Fetal (9th week- birth).
Germinal Period (days 1-14)
Zygote implants itself along uterine wall. 1/2 successful, 15% to 50% miscarriage.
Embryonic Period (3rd to 8th week)
Organogenesis (rapid organ development). Most susceptible to teratogens. Sexual differentiation.
Fetal Period (9th week- birth)
Proliferation, migration.Major muscular development.Ends in tremendous brain development.
Negative environmental influences that can potentially harm or destroy developing organisms.
After how many weeks is the child normally born?
40 weeks (38 in uterus, 2 weeks post las menstrual period).Can live on its own at about 28...
What factors are involved in determining how much of an impact a teratogen will have?
Dosage & duration. Genetic make-up: susceptibility.
For morning sickness. All or parts of limbs missing & many didn't survive.
Miscarriages. Low birth weight. Mental retardation.Physical problems.Slow fetal growth.SIDS
FAS.Small. Facial deformities.Retardation.
Processing difficulties.Severe behavioral problems.
Rubella (German Measles)
Blind.Deaf. Heart problems.Brain problems.
Miscarriage.Blind. Deaf.Heart: circulation issues.Brain.
In air and water.Lead- MR (also post natal.Learning disabilities.
What are some problems we see for some children born to mothers who are under 16 and for those...
15 & younger don't seek prenatal care: birth complications & low birth weight.Above...
How much weight gain is normal during pregnancy?
25-35 lbs.Malnutrition: smaller neurons, brain, & child.
Large amounts of estrogen produced and stimulates uterus to contract and the cervix to widen.
First stage of birth (generally the longest)
Typically lasts 12 hours or more.Cervix begins to dilate. Contractions begin (8-10min...
Second Stage (the "pushing" stage)
Lasts 1.5 hours or less.The baby's head moved through the cervix and into the vaginal canal. Period...
Third Stage (After Birth)
Lasts 5 to 30 minutes.The placenta and umbilical cord are expelled from the mother.
Oxygen shortage can be severe. Fairly common.
Surgical procedure to remove the baby from the uterus by cutting through the abdominal wall. Usually...
Local anesthesia given to woman to ease the pain of childbirth.Some feel it may danger the...
Uses breathing and relaxation techniques instead of medications.
Where, in the US, are most babies born? Is this the case worldwide?
Hospitals (over 95%).Not the same worldwide.Slight change seen in US, more women wanting to...
Newborn child.Average 20 inches long, 7.5 lbs.Disproportionately large head (influence of cephalocaudal...
Growth of body and organs, physical signs of aging, motor abilities, function of physiological...
Perception, language, learning, memory, problem solving, mental processes.
Motives, emotions, personality traits, interpersonal skills & relationships.
Bronfrenbrenner's Bioecological Model
Environment organized and affects development.Microsystem.Mesosystem.Exosystem.Macrosystem. Chronosystem.
Immediate physical & social environment. Face-to-Face. Ex: family.
Links between 2+ Microsystems
Social settings experienced indirectly. Ex: How parent's work day went.
Microsystem, mesosystem & exosystem embedded into cultural context
Patterning of events over time
Father's State during pregnancy
Older= miscarriage increase & risk of congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, kidney...
Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latent, Genital
Trust vs. Mistrust.Autonomy vs. shame.Initiative vs. guilt.Industry vs. inferiority. Identity...