Psychology Final

For My Psych Final.  enompasses Early And Middle Childhood.
 
Created May 5, 2010
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hxchenry
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preoperational intelligence
piaget's term for cognitive development between the ages of about 2 and 6; it includes language...
centration
a characteristic of preoperational thought in which a young child focuses (centers) on one...
egocentrism
piaget's term for children's tendency to think about the world entirely from their own personal...
focus on appearance
a characteristic of preoperational though in which a young child ignores all attributes that...
static reasoning
a characteristic of preoperational though in which a young child thinks that nothing changes....
irreversibility
a characteristic of preoperational thought in which a young child thinks that nothing can be...
conservation
the principle that the amount of a substance remains the same (i.e. is conserved) when its...
animism
the belief that natural objects and phenomena are alive
guided participation
the process by which people learn from others who guide their experiences and explorations
zone of proximal development
vygotsky's term for the skills - cognitive as well as physical - that a person can exercise...
scaffolding
 temporary support that is tailored to a learner's needs and abilities and aimed at helping...
private speech
the internal dialogue that occurs when people talk to themselves (either silently or out loud).
social meditation
human interaction that expands and advances understanding, often through words that one person...
theory-theory
the idea that children attempt to explain everything they see and hear by constructing theories
theory of mind
a person's theory of what other people might be thinking.  in order to have a theory of...
fast mapping
the speedy and sometimes imprecise way in which children learn new words by tentavily placing...
overregularization
the application of rules of grammar even when exptions occur, making the languague seem more...
balanced bilingual
a person who is fluent in two languages, not favoring one over the other.
montessori schools
schools that offer early childhood eduation based on the philosophy of maria montessori, which...
reggio emilia approach
a famous program of early-childhood education that originated in the town of reggio emili,...
emotional regulation
the ability to control when and how emotions are expressed
initiative versus guilt
erikson's third psychosocial crisis, in which children undertake new skills and activities...
self esteem
a person's evaluation of his or her own worth, either in specifics (e.g., intelligence, attractiveness)...
self concept
a person's understanding of who he or she is, in relation to self-esteem, appearance, personality,...
intrinsic motivation
a drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that comes from inside a person, such as the need to feel...
extrinsic motivation
a drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that arises from the need to have one's achievements rewarded...
psychopathology
an illness or disorder of the mind
externalizing problems
difficulty with emotional regulation that involves expressing powerful feelings throughuncontrolled...
internalizing problems
difficulty with emotional regulation that involves turning one's emotional distress inward,...
rough and tumble play
play that mimics agression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting, but in which there is not...
sociodramatic play
pretend play in which children act out various roles and themes in stories that they create.
authoritarian parenting
an approach to child rearing that is characterized by high behavioral standards, strict punishment...
permissive parenting
an approach to child rearing that is characterized by high nurturance and communication but...
authoritative parenting
an approach to child rearing in which the parents set limits but listen to the child ad are...
neglectful/uninvolved parenting
an approach to child rearing in which the parents are indifferent toward their children and...
empathy
the ability to understand the emotions and concerns of another person, especially when they...
antipathy
feelings of dislike or even hatered for another person
prosocial behavior
feelings and actions that are helpful and kind but are of no obvious benefit to oneself.
antisocial behavior
feelings and actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another person.
insturmental aggression
hurtful behavior that is intended to get or keep something that another person has.
reactive aggression
and impulsive retaliation for another person's intentional or accidental action, verbal or...
relational aggression
nonphysical acts, such as insults or social rejection, aimed at harming the social connection...
bullying aggression
unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack, especialy on victims who are unlikely to defend...
psychological control
a disciplinary technique that involves threatening to withdraw love and support and that relies...
time out
a disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people for a specified time.
sex differences
biological differences between males and females, in organs, hormones, and body type.
gender differences
differences in the roles and behavior of males and females that are prescibed by culture.
phallic stage
freud's third stage of development when the penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure
oedipus complex
the unconcscious desire of young boys to replace their father and win their mother's exclusive...
superego
in psychoanalytic theory, the jugmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral...
electra complex
the unconscious desire of girls to replace their mother and win their father's exclusive love.
identification
an attempt to defend one's self concept by taking on the behaviors and attides of someone else.
gender schema
a cognitive concept or general belief based onone's experiences - in this case, a child's understanding...
androgyny
a balance, within on person, of traditionally masculine and feminine psychological characteristics
middle childhood
the period between early childhood and early adolescence, approximately from ages 7 to 11.
BMI (body mass index)
a person's weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters
overweight
in an adult, having a bmi of 25 to 29, having a bmi above the 85th percentile, according to...
obesity
in an adult, having a bmi of 30 or  more. in a child, having a bmi above the 95th percentile,...
asthma
a chronic disease of the respiratiory system in which inflammation narrows the airways from...
reaction time
the time it takes to respond to a stimulus, either physically (with a reflexive movement such...
seletive attention
the ability to concentrate on some stimuli wihile ignoring others.
automatization
a process in which repetition of a sequence of thoughts and actions makes the sequence of routine,...
aptitude
the potential to master a specific skill or to learn a certian body of knowledge
iq test
a test designed to measure intellectual aptitude, or the ability to learn in school.  originally,...
achievement test
a measure of mastery or proficiency in reading, mathematics, writing, science, or some other...
Wechsler intelligence schale for children (WISC)
and iq test designed for school age children.  the test assesses the potential in many ages,...
flynn effect
the rise in average iq scores that has occured over the decades in many nations
children with special needs
children who, because of a physical or metal disability, require extra help in order to learn.
developmental psychopathology
the field that uses insights to typical development to understand the remediate developmental...
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
a condition in which a person not only has a great difficulty concentrating for more than a...
comorbidity
the presence of two or more unrelated disease conditions at the same time in the same person.
learning disability
a marked delay in a particular area of learning that is not caused by an apparenty physical...
dyslexia
unusual difficulty with reading; thought to be the result of some neurological underdevelopment
autism
a developmental disorder marked by an inability to relate to other people normally, extreme...
autistic spectrum disorder
any of several disorders characterized by inadequate social skills, impared communication,...
asperger syndrome
a specific type of autistic spectrum disorder, characterized by extreme attention to details...
individual education plan (IEP)
a document that specifies educational goals and plans for a child with special needs.
least restrictive enviornment (LRE)
a legal requirement that children with special needs be assigned to the most general educational...
resource room
a room in which trained teachers help children with special nees, using specialized curricula...
inclusion
an approach to educating children with special needs in which they are included in regular...
concrete operational thought
piagets term for the ability to reason logically aout direct experiences ad perceptions
classification
the logical principle that things can be organized into groups (or categories or classes) according...
identity
the logical principle that certain characteristics of an object remain the same even if other...
reversiblility
the logical principle that a thing that has been changed can sometimes be returned to its original...
information processing theory
a perspective that compares thuman thinking process, by ananogy, to computer analysis of data,...
working memory
the component of the information processing system in which current conscious mental activity...
long term memory
the component of the information processing system in which virtually limitless amounts of...
knowledge base
a body of knowledge in a particular area that makes it easier to master new information in...
control processes
mechanisims (including selective attention, metacognition, and emotion regulation) that combine...
meta cognition
"thinking about thinking," or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task in order to determine...
english language learner (ELL)
a child who is learning english as a second languague.
language shift
a change from one language to another, which occurs not only in speaking and writing but also...
immersion
a strategy in which instruction in all school subjects occurs in the second (majority) language...
bilingual education
a strategy in which school subjects are taught in both the learner's original language and...
ESL (english as a second language)
an approach to teaching english in which all children who do not speak english are placed together...
progress in international reading literacy study (PIRLS)
inaugurated in 2001, a planned five year cycle of international trend studies in the reading...
TIMMS (trends in math and science study)
an international assessment of the math and science skills of fourth and eighth graders.  although...
no child left behind act
a US law enacted in 2001 that was intended to increase accountability in education by requiring...
national assessment of educational progress (NAEP)
an ongoing and nationally representative measure of US childrens achievement in reading, mathematics,...
hidden curriculum
the unofficial, unstated, or implicit rules and priorities that influence the academic curriculum...
phonics approach
teaching reading by first teaching the sounds of each letter and of various letter combinations
whole language approach
teaching reading by encouraging early use of all language skills - talking and listening, reading...
industry versus inferiority
the fourth of erikson's eight psychosocial crises, during which children attempt to master...
latency
freud's term for middle childhood, during which children's emotional drives and psychosexual...
social comparison
the tendency to assess ones abilities , achievements, social status, and other attributes by...
effortful control
the ability to regulate ones emotions and actions through effor, not simply through natural...
resilience
the capacity to adapt well to significant adversity and to overcome serious stress.
famiy structure
the legal and genetic relationships among relatives living in the same home; includes nuclear...
family function
the way a family works to meet the needs of its members. children need families to provide...
nuclear family
a family that consists of a father, a mother, and thier biological children under age 18.
single parent family
a family that consists of only one parent and his or her biological children under age 18.
extended family
a family of three or more generations living in one household.
polygamous family
a family consisting of one man, several wives, and the biological children of the man and his...
blended family
a stepparent family that includes children born to several families, such as the biological...
culture of children
the particular habits, styles, and values that reflect the set of rules and rituals that chracterize...
agressive rejected
rejected by peers because of antagonistic, confrontational behavior
withdrawn rejected
rejected by peers because of timid, withdrawn, and anzious behavior.
social cognition
the ability to understand social interactions, including the causes and consequences of human...
bullying
repeated, systematic effors to inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on a...
bully victim
someone who attacks others and who is attacked as well. (also called provocative victims because...
preconventional moral reasoning
kohlberg's first level of moral reasoning, emphasizing rewards and punishments.
conventional moral reasoning
kohlberg's second level of moral reasoning, emphasizing social rules.
postconventional moral reasoning
kohlberg's third level of moral reasoning, emphasizing moral principles.


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