Psychology: Chapter 3 -- Biological Foundations

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Perpherial Nervous System 
 
Autonomic: inside  Somatic: outside 
Autonomic System 
 
Sympathetic: prepares the body for action  Parasympathetic: returns the body to resting state 
Sensory neurons (afferent neurons)
 
detects informationfrom the physical world and sends this information to the brain via the spinal cord. 
Motor neurons (efferent neurons) 
 
responsible for movement. 
Interneurons 
 
The mediator between sensory and motor 
Dendrites 
 
Branch like appendages that detect information from other neurons 
Cell Body 
 
the information received from other neurons is collected and integrated. 
axon 
 
a long narrow structure by which information is transmitted to other neurons. 
Terminal buttons 
 
small nodules at the ends of axons that release chemical signals from the neuron to the synapse 
Synapse
 
The site for chemical communication between neurons 
Resting Membrane Potential 
 
When a neuron is resting (not active) the inside and outside differ electrically, a phenomenon known as the resting membrane potential. The electrical charge on the inside = negative. The electrical charge on the outside = positive 
All or None Principal 
 
A neuron fires with the same potency each time. 
Action Potential 
 
When an excitatory signal is processed, this leads to an Action potential (the neural impulse that passes along the axon and causes the release of chemicals from the terminal buttons. 
Agonists 
 
enhances the neuros actions by: increasing the release of neuros, blocking the re-uptake of neuros and mimicking a neuro
Antagonist 
 
inhibits the neuros actions by: blocking the release of neuros, destroying neuros in the synapse and mimicking a neuro.
Cerebellum
 
important for balance and movement. 
The Hypothalamus 
 
the brain's master regulatory structure. (The 4 F's: Fighting, Fleeing, Feeding, "Mating") 
Thalamus 
 
Gets info, directs all functions except smell. 
Hippocampus 
 
Vital to memory 
Amygdala 
 
Emotional responses 
The Basal Ganglia 
 
a system of subcortical nuclei responsible for producing and planning movement. 
The Cerebral Cortex
 
Outer layer of the brain and is divided into four parts. 
Occipatial Lobes 
 
right at the back of the head and is important for vision. 
Parietal lobes 
 
responsible for touch; the mid-top part of the brain 
Temporal lobes 
 
responsible for hearing; side of the brain 
Frontal lobes 
 
at the front of the brain; important for planning and movement. 
Prefrontal Cortex
 
Important for attention, working memory, decision making, social behaviour and personality.