Psychology: Chapter 3 -- Biological Foundations

Psychology: Chapter 3 -- Biological Foundations
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Perpherial Nervous System
 
Autonomic: inside Somatic: outside
Autonomic System
 
Sympathetic: prepares the body for action Parasympathetic: returns the body to resting state
Sensory neurons (afferent neurons)
 
detects informationfrom the physical world and sends this information to the brain via the spinal cord.
Motor neurons (efferent neurons)
 
responsible for movement.
Interneurons
 
The mediator between sensory and motor
Dendrites
 
Branch like appendages that detect information from other neurons
Cell Body
 
the information received from other neurons is collected and integrated.
axon
 
a long narrow structure by which information is transmitted to other neurons.
Terminal buttons
 
small nodules at the ends of axons that release chemical signals from the neuron to the synapse
Synapse
 
The site for chemical communication between neurons
Resting Membrane Potential
 
When a neuron is resting (not active) the inside and outside differ electrically, a phenomenon known as the resting membrane potential. The electrical charge on the inside = negative. The electrical charge on the outside = positive
All or None Principal
 
A neuron fires with the same potency each time.
Action Potential
 
When an excitatory signal is processed, this leads to an Action potential (the neural impulse that passes along the axon and causes the release of chemicals from the terminal buttons.
Agonists
 
enhances the neuros actions by: increasing the release of neuros, blocking the re-uptake of neuros and mimicking a neuro
Antagonist
 
inhibits the neuros actions by: blocking the release of neuros, destroying neuros in the synapse and mimicking a neuro.
Cerebellum
 
important for balance and movement.
The Hypothalamus
 
the brain's master regulatory structure. (The 4 F's: Fighting, Fleeing, Feeding, "Mating")
Thalamus
 
Gets info, directs all functions except smell.
Hippocampus
 
Vital to memory
Amygdala
 
Emotional responses
The Basal Ganglia
 
a system of subcortical nuclei responsible for producing and planning movement.
The Cerebral Cortex
 
Outer layer of the brain and is divided into four parts.
Occipatial Lobes
 
right at the back of the head and is important for vision.
Parietal lobes
 
responsible for touch; the mid-top part of the brain
Temporal lobes
 
responsible for hearing; side of the brain
Frontal lobes
 
at the front of the brain; important for planning and movement.
Prefrontal Cortex
 
Important for attention, working memory, decision making, social behaviour and personality.
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