Psychology Chapter 2 Test

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Created Sep 29, 2011
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chelseaturpin

 

 
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1
Nervous System
 
Without it, you couldn't exist! 
Made up of your brain, your spinal cord, and a network...
2
Neuron
 
A specialized, impulse-conducting cell. 
CENTER OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Consists...
3
Cell Body
 
Generates energy needed to carry out the work.
4
Dendrites
 
Root like structures, attached to the cell body of  neuron, that receive impulses form...
5
Axon
 
A long, thin part of a neuron that transmits impulses to other neurons from terminal buttons.
6
What is a neuron's job?
 
Carry messages in ONE DIRECTION from dendrites/cell body, through axon, to axon terminals.
Then...
7
Glial Cells
 
Remove dead neurons & waste from the nervous system, nourish neurons, and direct their...
8
Myelin
 
A fatty substance that decreases leakage of electrical current being carried along the axon,...
9
Afferent Neurons
 
(Sensory Neurons)
Receive & transmit messages from sensory receptors to the spinal cord...
10
Efferent Neurons
 
(Motor Neurons)
Transmit messages from the brain or spinal cord to muscles and glands.
Ex:...
11
Luigi Galvani
 
Discovered that neural impulses are electrochemical.
*Connected lightning rods to dissected...
12
Neural Impulses
 
Electrochemical messages that travel within neurons at somewhere between 2 and 225 mph.
(neurons...
13
Polarize/Resting Potential
 
An unequal distribution of ions (atoms with a positive or negative charge) on the two sides...
14
Peripheral part of the nervous system
 
Everything except the brain & spinal cord
15
Depolarize
 
To reduce the resting potential of a cell membrane from about 70 millivolts to -----> 0. 
16
Action Potential
 
Very rapid change in membrane potential that occurs when a nerve cell membrane is stimulated. 
Potential...
17
How messages travel from neuron to neuron
 
A neuron fired neurotransmitters out of an axon.
Incoming messages combine to reach a certain...
18
All-or-none principle
 
Action potentials occur maximally or not at all.
19
Refractory Period
 
A phase following firing during.
A neuron is less sensitive to messages from other...
20
Synapse
 
Flows info from one neuron to another.
When a nerve impuls reaches a synapse, axon terminals...
21
Synaptic Vesicles
 
Sacs in axon terminals, which contain neurotransmitters.
22
Neurotransmitters
 
Chemical substances involved in the transmission of neural impulses from one neuron to another.
Work...
23
Receptor Site
 
A location on a dendrite of a receiving neuron tailored to receive a neurotransmitter.
24
Parts of the nervous system
 
Brain, spinal cord, and nerves linking them to sensory organ, muscles, and glands.
25
Central part of the nervous system
 
The brain & spinal cord
26
Somatic Nervous System
 
Transmits messages about sight, sound, ect.Afferent (Sensory) & Efferent (Motor)
27
Automatic Nervous System
 
Regulate glands & muscles of internal organs.    -Sympathetic: prepares body...
28
Spinal Cord
 
A long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the brain
29
Spinal Reflex
 
A simple, unlearned response to a stimulus that may involve only 2 neurons (sensory & motor...
30
Gray Matter
 
Nonmyelinated neurons. Grayish neurons and neural segments that are involved in spinal reflex/or...
31
White Matter
 
Longer myelinated axons that carry messages to and from the brain.
32
Episonic Memory
 
remember what, where, and when you at dinner?
33
Amygdala
 
Fear, emotion, and anxiety. Discovered by Delgado
Triggers stereotypical aggressive responses.
34
Down Syndrome results from
 
when you have an extra chromosome on the 21st pair
Characterized by mental deficiency, a...
35
Wilder Penfield
 
Stimulated parts of the brain with electrical probes
36
The Electroencephalograph (EEG)
 
Record natural electricity in the brain (brain waves) passed between electrodes.
Associated...
37
Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT Scan)
 
Brain imaging that passes a narrow x-ray beam through the head & measures structures that...
38
Position Emission Tomography (PET Scan)
 
Brain imaging that injects a radioactive tracer into the bloodstream and assesses activity...
39
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
 
Brain imaging that places a person in a magnetic field and uses radio waves to cause the brain...
40
Functional MRI
 
A form of MRI that enables researchers to observe the brain "while it works" by taking repeated...
41
Prefrontal Cortex
 
EXECUTIVE CENTER where decisions are made to keep information in memory and solve problems
42
Hindbrain
 
Where the spinal cord rises to meet the brain.
43
Pons(bridge)
 
A structure of the hindbrain involved in respiration, attention, sleep, and dreaming.
In...
44
Medulla
 
An oblong area of the hindbrain involved in regulating heartbeat and respiration.
45
Cerebellum
 
A part of the hindbrain involved in maintaining balance and controlling motor behavior.
46
Reticular Activating System (RAS)
 
A part of the brain involved in attention, sleep, and arousal.
Vital in attention, sleep,...
47
Forebrain
 
Most forward part of the brain.
48
Thalamus
 
Near the center of the brain involved in the relay of sensory information to the cortex and...
49
Hypothalamus
 
A bundle of nuclei below the thalamus involved in body temperature, motivation, and emotion.
50
James Olds & Peter Milner
 
Discovered an animal's hypothalamus on accident.
PLEASURE CENTER
Humans are stimulated...
51
Limbic System
 
A group of structures involved in memory, motivation, and emotion that forms a fringe along...
52
Cerebrum
 
The large mass of the forebrain, which consists of 2 hemispheres
53
Cerebral Cortex
 
The wrinkled surface area(gray matter) of the cerebrum.
54
Fissure
 
Valley in the cortex.
55
Somatosensory Cortex
 
The section of cortex in which sensory stimulation is projected. It lies behind the central...
56
Prefrontal region
 
Involved in thinking & language.
57
Aphasia
 
A disruption in the ability to understand or produce language. 
58
Wernicke's Aphasia
 
A language disorder characterized by difficulty comprehending the meaning of spoken language.
59
Broca's Aphasia
 
A language disorder characterized by slow difficult speech.
60
Left Brain
 
Logical & Intellectual
61
Right Brain
 
Intuitive, creative, and emotional.
62
Left Handedness
 
Used to be considered a deficiency.
Tend to have language problems, yet gifted in music...
63
Epilepsy
 
Temporary disturbances of brain function that involve sudden neural discharges.
64
Glands
 
Organs that secrete one or more chemical substances such as hormones, saliva, milk.
2 Types:...
65
Ducts
 
A passageway that carries substances to specific locations.
66
Endocrine System
 
System of ductless glands that secrete hormones and release them directly into the blood stream.
67
Hormone
 
A substance secreted by an endocrine gland that regulates body functions.
Ex: growth,metabolism,...
68
Pituitary Gland
 
MASTER GLAND  -growth hormone(muscles, bones, glands)  -prolactin (maternal behavior) ...
69
Hypothalamus
 
COMMANDER GLAND
70
Pineal Gland
 
Secretes melatonin: regulates sleep-wake cycle
71
Thyroid Gland
 
Produces thyroxin, which affects the body's metabolism.
72
Hypothyroidism
 
A condition that results from too little thyroxin.
Too much or too little causes overweight...
73
Cretinism
 
A condition characterized by stunned growth & mental retardation.
74
Adrenal Glands
 
(located above the kidneys)Secretes hormones called corticosteroids: increase resistance to...
75
Darwin
 
Believed in evolution & contradicted the Bible
76
Batural Selection
 
Species that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce.
77
Mutation
 
Small, random genetic variations.
78
Evolutionary Psychology
 
Studies ways in which adaptation and natural selection are connected with mental processes...
79
Instincts 
 
Stereotyped pattern of behavior that is triggered by a particular stimulus.
80
Heredity
 
Defines Nature
Traits from parents to offspring by means of genes.
81
Genetics
 
Defines Nurture
The area of biology that focuses on heredity.
82
Genes
 
MOST BASIC unit of heredity, found on a specific point on chromosome
83
Chromosomes
 
A microscopic rod-shaped body in the cell nucleus carrying genes that transmit heredity traits...
84
DNA
 
Forms the basic material of chromosomes; form of a double helix and contains genetic code.
James...
85
Polygenetic
 
Traits influenced by gene combos.
Ex: intelligence.
86
Genotype
 
Genetic makeup based on nucleotide sequencing.
NATURE
87
Phenotype
 
Outer appearance based off life experiences.
NURTURE
88
Sex Chromosomes
 
23rd pair, which determines sex
X from father =femaleY from father=male
89
Kinship Studies
 
*identical twins share 100% genes**parents & children have 50%**aunts & uncles share...
90
Zygote
 
The fertilized egg cell (ovum) that carries genetic messages from both parents
91
Monozygotic Twins (MZ)
 
Develop from a single fertilized ovum that divides into 2 early in development; share the same...
92
Dizygotic Twins
 
Develop from 2 fertilized ova who are closest relates as brother & sister in general (FRATERNAL)

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