Psychology Chapter 2 Test

Study These. They Are Very Helpful.
Created Sep 29, 2011
by chelseaturpin
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Nervous System

Without it, you couldn't exist! Made up of your brain, your spinal cord, and a network...
Neuron

A specialized, impulse-conducting cell. CENTER OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEMConsists...
Cell Body

Generates energy needed to carry out the work.
Dendrites

Root like structures, attached to the cell body of  neuron, that receive impulses form...
Axon

A long, thin part of a neuron that transmits impulses to other neurons from terminal buttons.
What is a neuron's job?

Carry messages in ONE DIRECTION from dendrites/cell body, through axon, to axon terminals.Then...
Glial Cells

Remove dead neurons & waste from the nervous system, nourish neurons, and direct their...
Myelin

A fatty substance that decreases leakage of electrical current being carried along the axon,...
Afferent Neurons

(Sensory Neurons)Receive & transmit messages from sensory receptors to the spinal cord...
Efferent Neurons
(Motor Neurons)Transmit messages from the brain or spinal cord to muscles and glands.Ex:...
Luigi Galvani

Discovered that neural impulses are electrochemical.*Connected lightning rods to dissected...
Neural Impulses

Electrochemical messages that travel within neurons at somewhere between 2 and 225 mph.(neurons...
Polarize/Resting Potential

An unequal distribution of ions (atoms with a positive or negative charge) on the two sides...
Peripheral part of the nervous system

Everything except the brain & spinal cord
Depolarize
To reduce the resting potential of a cell membrane from about 70 millivolts to -----> 0. 
Action Potential

Very rapid change in membrane potential that occurs when a nerve cell membrane is stimulated. Potential...
How messages travel from neuron to neuron

A neuron fired neurotransmitters out of an axon.Incoming messages combine to reach a certain...
All-or-none principle
Action potentials occur maximally or not at all.
Refractory Period
A phase following firing during.A neuron is less sensitive to messages from other neurons...
Synapse

Flows info from one neuron to another.When a nerve impuls reaches a synapse, axon terminals...
Synaptic Vesicles

Sacs in axon terminals, which contain neurotransmitters.
Neurotransmitters

Chemical substances involved in the transmission of neural impulses from one neuron to another.Work...
Receptor Site
A location on a dendrite of a receiving neuron tailored to receive a neurotransmitter.
Parts of the nervous system
Brain, spinal cord, and nerves linking them to sensory organ, muscles, and glands.
Central part of the nervous system
The brain & spinal cord
Somatic Nervous System
Transmits messages about sight, sound, ect.Afferent (Sensory) & Efferent (Motor)
Automatic Nervous System

Regulate glands & muscles of internal organs.    -Sympathetic: prepares body...
Spinal Cord

A long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the brain
Spinal Reflex
A simple, unlearned response to a stimulus that may involve only 2 neurons (sensory & motor...
Gray Matter

Nonmyelinated neurons. Grayish neurons and neural segments that are involved in spinal reflex/or...
White Matter
Longer myelinated axons that carry messages to and from the brain.
Episonic Memory
remember what, where, and when you at dinner?
Amygdala
Fear, emotion, and anxiety. Discovered by DelgadoTriggers stereotypical aggressive responses.
Down Syndrome results from
when you have an extra chromosome on the 21st pairCharacterized by mental deficiency, a broad...
Wilder Penfield
Stimulated parts of the brain with electrical probes
The Electroencephalograph (EEG)
Record natural electricity in the brain (brain waves) passed between electrodes.Associated...
Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT Scan)
Brain imaging that passes a narrow x-ray beam through the head & measures structures that...
Position Emission Tomography (PET Scan)
Brain imaging that injects a radioactive tracer into the bloodstream and assesses activity...
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Brain imaging that places a person in a magnetic field and uses radio waves to cause the brain...
Functional MRI
A form of MRI that enables researchers to observe the brain "while it works" by taking repeated...
Prefrontal Cortex
EXECUTIVE CENTER where decisions are made to keep information in memory and solve problems
Hindbrain
Where the spinal cord rises to meet the brain.
Pons(bridge)
A structure of the hindbrain involved in respiration, attention, sleep, and dreaming.In front...
Medulla
An oblong area of the hindbrain involved in regulating heartbeat and respiration.
Cerebellum
A part of the hindbrain involved in maintaining balance and controlling motor behavior.
Reticular Activating System (RAS)
A part of the brain involved in attention, sleep, and arousal.Vital in attention, sleep, and...
Forebrain
Most forward part of the brain.
Thalamus
Near the center of the brain involved in the relay of sensory information to the cortex and...
Hypothalamus
A bundle of nuclei below the thalamus involved in body temperature, motivation, and emotion.
James Olds & Peter Milner
Discovered an animal's hypothalamus on accident.PLEASURE CENTERHumans are stimulated by higher...
Limbic System
A group of structures involved in memory, motivation, and emotion that forms a fringe along...
Cerebrum
The large mass of the forebrain, which consists of 2 hemispheres
Cerebral Cortex
The wrinkled surface area(gray matter) of the cerebrum.
Fissure
Valley in the cortex.
Somatosensory Cortex
The section of cortex in which sensory stimulation is projected. It lies behind the central...
Prefrontal region
Involved in thinking & language.
Aphasia
A disruption in the ability to understand or produce language. 
Wernicke's Aphasia
A language disorder characterized by difficulty comprehending the meaning of spoken language.
Broca's Aphasia
A language disorder characterized by slow difficult speech.
Left Brain
Logical & Intellectual
Right Brain
Intuitive, creative, and emotional.
Left Handedness
Used to be considered a deficiency.Tend to have language problems, yet gifted in music &...
Epilepsy
Temporary disturbances of brain function that involve sudden neural discharges.
Glands
Organs that secrete one or more chemical substances such as hormones, saliva, milk.2 Types:...
Ducts
A passageway that carries substances to specific locations.
Endocrine System
System of ductless glands that secrete hormones and release them directly into the blood stream.
Hormone
A substance secreted by an endocrine gland that regulates body functions.Ex: growth,metabolism,...
Pituitary Gland
MASTER GLAND  -growth hormone(muscles, bones, glands)  -prolactin (maternal behavior) ...
Hypothalamus
COMMANDER GLAND
Pineal Gland
Secretes melatonin: regulates sleep-wake cycle
Thyroid Gland
Produces thyroxin, which affects the body's metabolism.
Hypothyroidism
A condition that results from too little thyroxin.Too much or too little causes overweight...
Cretinism
A condition characterized by stunned growth & mental retardation.
Adrenal Glands
(located above the kidneys)Secretes hormones called corticosteroids: increase resistance to...
Darwin
Believed in evolution & contradicted the Bible
Batural Selection
Species that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce.
Mutation
Small, random genetic variations.
Evolutionary Psychology
Studies ways in which adaptation and natural selection are connected with mental processes...
Instincts 
Stereotyped pattern of behavior that is triggered by a particular stimulus.
Heredity
Defines NatureTraits from parents to offspring by means of genes.
Genetics
Defines NurtureThe area of biology that focuses on heredity.
Genes
MOST BASIC unit of heredity, found on a specific point on chromosome
Chromosomes
A microscopic rod-shaped body in the cell nucleus carrying genes that transmit heredity traits...
DNA
Forms the basic material of chromosomes; form of a double helix and contains genetic code.James...
Polygenetic
Traits influenced by gene combos.Ex: intelligence.
Genotype
Genetic makeup based on nucleotide sequencing.NATURE
Phenotype
Outer appearance based off life experiences.NURTURE
Sex Chromosomes
23rd pair, which determines sexX from father =femaleY from father=male
Kinship Studies
*identical twins share 100% genes**parents & children have 50%**aunts & uncles share...
Zygote
The fertilized egg cell (ovum) that carries genetic messages from both parents
Monozygotic Twins (MZ)
Develop from a single fertilized ovum that divides into 2 early in development; share the same...
Dizygotic Twins
Develop from 2 fertilized ova who are closest relates as brother & sister in general (FRATERNAL)

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