Without it, you couldn't exist! Made up of your brain, your spinal cord, and a network of nerves. Your brain uses information it receives from your nerves to coordinate all of your actions and reactions.
A specialized, impulse-conducting cell. CENTER OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEMConsists of the cell body, axon, and dendrites.
Generates energy needed to carry out the work.
Root like structures, attached to the cell body of neuron, that receive impulses form other neurons.
A long, thin part of a neuron that transmits impulses to other neurons from terminal buttons.
What is a neuron's job?
Carry messages in ONE DIRECTION from dendrites/cell body, through axon, to axon terminals.Then transmits messages from terminal buttons to other neurons, muscles, or glands
Remove dead neurons & waste from the nervous system, nourish neurons, and direct their growth.
A fatty substance that decreases leakage of electrical current being carried along the axon, allowing messages to conduct regularly.
(Sensory Neurons)Receive & transmit messages from sensory receptors to the spinal cord and brain.Ex: The feeling you get in your foot after someone steps on it.
(Motor Neurons)Transmit messages from the brain or spinal cord to muscles and glands.Ex: Hopping around after someone steps on your foot.
Discovered that neural impulses are electrochemical.*Connected lightning rods to dissected frogs. When lightning struct their muscles contracted.
Electrochemical messages that travel within neurons at somewhere between 2 and 225 mph.(neurons & body fluid contain ions in resting state)Chemical changes happen within neurons which cause them to be transmitted.
An unequal distribution of ions (atoms with a positive or negative charge) on the two sides of the nerve cell membrane. Expressed as -70 mV, and the minus means that the inside is negative relative to (or compared to) the outside.It occurs when a...
Peripheral part of the nervous system
Everything except the brain & spinal cord
To reduce the resting potential of a cell membrane from about 70 millivolts to -----> 0.
Very rapid change in membrane potential that occurs when a nerve cell membrane is stimulated. Potential goes from the resting potential (typically -70 mV) to some positive value (typically about +30 mV) in a very short period of time.Next section...
How messages travel from neuron to neuron
A neuron fired neurotransmitters out of an axon.Incoming messages combine to reach a certain threshold.
Action potentials occur maximally or not at all.
A phase following firing during.A neuron is less sensitive to messages from other neurons and will not fire.
Flows info from one neuron to another.When a nerve impuls reaches a synapse, axon terminals release chemical into the synaptic cleft.
Sacs in axon terminals, which contain neurotransmitters.
Chemical substances involved in the transmission of neural impulses from one neuron to another.Work only at matching sites. -Exite: cause others to fire -Inhibit: prevent others to fireExcess or Deficiencies lead...
A location on a dendrite of a receiving neuron tailored to receive a neurotransmitter.
Parts of the nervous system
Brain, spinal cord, and nerves linking them to sensory organ, muscles, and glands.
Central part of the nervous system
The brain & spinal cord
Somatic Nervous System
Transmits messages about sight, sound, ect.Afferent (Sensory) & Efferent (Motor)
Automatic Nervous System
Regulate glands & muscles of internal organs. -Sympathetic: prepares body for emergency -Parasympathetic: becomes active during relaxation.
A long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the brain
A simple, unlearned response to a stimulus that may involve only 2 neurons (sensory & motor neuron)
Nonmyelinated neurons. Grayish neurons and neural segments that are involved in spinal reflex/or send axons to brain.
Longer myelinated axons that carry messages to and from the brain.
remember what, where, and when you at dinner?
Fear, emotion, and anxiety. Discovered by DelgadoTriggers stereotypical aggressive responses.
Down Syndrome results from
when you have an extra chromosome on the 21st pairCharacterized by mental deficiency, a broad face, and slanting eyes. Death by middle age.
Stimulated parts of the brain with electrical probes
The Electroencephalograph (EEG)
Record natural electricity in the brain (brain waves) passed between electrodes.Associated with feeling of relaxation, sleep stages, and epilepsy.
Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT Scan)
Brain imaging that passes a narrow x-ray beam through the head & measures structures that reflect the rays from various angles, enabling a computer to generate a 3D image.
Position Emission Tomography (PET Scan)
Brain imaging that injects a radioactive tracer into the bloodstream and assesses activity of parts of the brain according to the amount of glucose they metabolize.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Brain imaging that places a person in a magnetic field and uses radio waves to cause the brain to emit signals that reveal shifts in the floe of blood, which, in turn, indicate brain activity.
A form of MRI that enables researchers to observe the brain "while it works" by taking repeated scans.
EXECUTIVE CENTER where decisions are made to keep information in memory and solve problems
Where the spinal cord rises to meet the brain.
A structure of the hindbrain involved in respiration, attention, sleep, and dreaming.In front of medulla. Transmits info about body movement.
An oblong area of the hindbrain involved in regulating heartbeat and respiration.
A part of the hindbrain involved in maintaining balance and controlling motor behavior.
Reticular Activating System (RAS)
A part of the brain involved in attention, sleep, and arousal.Vital in attention, sleep, and arousal.Injury may result in a coma.
Most forward part of the brain.
Near the center of the brain involved in the relay of sensory information to the cortex and in the functions of sleep and attention.
A bundle of nuclei below the thalamus involved in body temperature, motivation, and emotion.
James Olds & Peter Milner
Discovered an animal's hypothalamus on accident.PLEASURE CENTERHumans are stimulated by higher functions. Choices & Values.
A group of structures involved in memory, motivation, and emotion that forms a fringe along the inner edge of the cerebrum.
The large mass of the forebrain, which consists of 2 hemispheres
The wrinkled surface area(gray matter) of the cerebrum.
Valley in the cortex.
The section of cortex in which sensory stimulation is projected. It lies behind the central fissure in the parietal lobe.
Involved in thinking & language.
A disruption in the ability to understand or produce language.
A language disorder characterized by difficulty comprehending the meaning of spoken language.
A language disorder characterized by slow difficult speech.
Logical & Intellectual
Intuitive, creative, and emotional.
Used to be considered a deficiency.Tend to have language problems, yet gifted in music & math.1 parent left handed = 80% probability for child
Temporary disturbances of brain function that involve sudden neural discharges.
Organs that secrete one or more chemical substances such as hormones, saliva, milk.2 Types: with & without ducts
A passageway that carries substances to specific locations.
System of ductless glands that secrete hormones and release them directly into the blood stream.
A substance secreted by an endocrine gland that regulates body functions.Ex: growth,metabolism, and some behavior
MASTER GLAND -growth hormone(muscles, bones, glands) -prolactin (maternal behavior) -Vasopressin (paternal behavior for animals) -Oxytocin (stimulates labor)
Secretes melatonin: regulates sleep-wake cycle
Produces thyroxin, which affects the body's metabolism.
A condition that results from too little thyroxin.Too much or too little causes overweight & sluggishness.
A condition characterized by stunned growth & mental retardation.
(located above the kidneys)Secretes hormones called corticosteroids: increase resistance to stress, promote muscle development, cause liver to release sugar, making more energy available for emergencies.
Believed in evolution & contradicted the Bible
Species that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce.
Small, random genetic variations.
Studies ways in which adaptation and natural selection are connected with mental processes and behavior.
Stereotyped pattern of behavior that is triggered by a particular stimulus.
Defines NatureTraits from parents to offspring by means of genes.
Defines NurtureThe area of biology that focuses on heredity.
MOST BASIC unit of heredity, found on a specific point on chromosome
A microscopic rod-shaped body in the cell nucleus carrying genes that transmit heredity traits from generation to generation.
Forms the basic material of chromosomes; form of a double helix and contains genetic code.James Watson & Francis Crick
Traits influenced by gene combos.Ex: intelligence.
Genetic makeup based on nucleotide sequencing.NATURE
Outer appearance based off life experiences.NURTURE
23rd pair, which determines sexX from father =femaleY from father=male
*identical twins share 100% genes**parents & children have 50%**aunts & uncles share 25% with nieces/nephews**1st cousins share 12.5%*
The fertilized egg cell (ovum) that carries genetic messages from both parents
Monozygotic Twins (MZ)
Develop from a single fertilized ovum that divides into 2 early in development; share the same genetic code. (IDENTICAL)
Develop from 2 fertilized ova who are closest relates as brother & sister in general (FRATERNAL)