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Without it, you couldn't exist! Made up of your brain, your spinal cord, and a network...
A specialized, impulse-conducting cell. CENTER OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEMConsists...
Generates energy needed to carry out the work.
Root like structures, attached to the cell body of neuron, that receive impulses form...
A long, thin part of a neuron that transmits impulses to other neurons from terminal buttons.
What is a neuron's job?
Carry messages in ONE DIRECTION from dendrites/cell body, through axon, to axon terminals.Then...
Remove dead neurons & waste from the nervous system, nourish neurons, and direct their...
A fatty substance that decreases leakage of electrical current being carried along the axon,...
(Sensory Neurons)Receive & transmit messages from sensory receptors to the spinal cord...
(Motor Neurons)Transmit messages from the brain or spinal cord to muscles and glands.Ex:...
Discovered that neural impulses are electrochemical.*Connected lightning rods to dissected...
Electrochemical messages that travel within neurons at somewhere between 2 and 225 mph.(neurons...
An unequal distribution of ions (atoms with a positive or negative charge) on the two sides...
Peripheral part of the nervous system
Everything except the brain & spinal cord
To reduce the resting potential of a cell membrane from about 70 millivolts to -----> 0.
Very rapid change in membrane potential that occurs when a nerve cell membrane is stimulated. Potential...
How messages travel from neuron to neuron
A neuron fired neurotransmitters out of an axon.Incoming messages combine to reach a certain...
Action potentials occur maximally or not at all.
A phase following firing during.A neuron is less sensitive to messages from other neurons...
Flows info from one neuron to another.When a nerve impuls reaches a synapse, axon terminals...
Sacs in axon terminals, which contain neurotransmitters.
Chemical substances involved in the transmission of neural impulses from one neuron to another.Work...
A location on a dendrite of a receiving neuron tailored to receive a neurotransmitter.
Parts of the nervous system
Brain, spinal cord, and nerves linking them to sensory organ, muscles, and glands.
Central part of the nervous system
The brain & spinal cord
Somatic Nervous System
Transmits messages about sight, sound, ect.Afferent (Sensory) & Efferent (Motor)
Automatic Nervous System
Regulate glands & muscles of internal organs. -Sympathetic: prepares body...
A long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the brain
A simple, unlearned response to a stimulus that may involve only 2 neurons (sensory & motor...
Nonmyelinated neurons. Grayish neurons and neural segments that are involved in spinal reflex/or...
Longer myelinated axons that carry messages to and from the brain.
remember what, where, and when you at dinner?
Fear, emotion, and anxiety. Discovered by DelgadoTriggers stereotypical aggressive responses.
Down Syndrome results from
when you have an extra chromosome on the 21st pairCharacterized by mental deficiency, a broad...
Stimulated parts of the brain with electrical probes
The Electroencephalograph (EEG)
Record natural electricity in the brain (brain waves) passed between electrodes.Associated...
Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT Scan)
Brain imaging that passes a narrow x-ray beam through the head & measures structures that...
Position Emission Tomography (PET Scan)
Brain imaging that injects a radioactive tracer into the bloodstream and assesses activity...
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Brain imaging that places a person in a magnetic field and uses radio waves to cause the brain...
A form of MRI that enables researchers to observe the brain "while it works" by taking repeated...
EXECUTIVE CENTER where decisions are made to keep information in memory and solve problems
Where the spinal cord rises to meet the brain.
A structure of the hindbrain involved in respiration, attention, sleep, and dreaming.In front...
An oblong area of the hindbrain involved in regulating heartbeat and respiration.
A part of the hindbrain involved in maintaining balance and controlling motor behavior.
Reticular Activating System (RAS)
A part of the brain involved in attention, sleep, and arousal.Vital in attention, sleep, and...
Most forward part of the brain.
Near the center of the brain involved in the relay of sensory information to the cortex and...
A bundle of nuclei below the thalamus involved in body temperature, motivation, and emotion.
James Olds & Peter Milner
Discovered an animal's hypothalamus on accident.PLEASURE CENTERHumans are stimulated by higher...
A group of structures involved in memory, motivation, and emotion that forms a fringe along...
The large mass of the forebrain, which consists of 2 hemispheres
The wrinkled surface area(gray matter) of the cerebrum.
Valley in the cortex.
The section of cortex in which sensory stimulation is projected. It lies behind the central...
Involved in thinking & language.
A disruption in the ability to understand or produce language.
A language disorder characterized by difficulty comprehending the meaning of spoken language.
A language disorder characterized by slow difficult speech.
Logical & Intellectual
Intuitive, creative, and emotional.
Used to be considered a deficiency.Tend to have language problems, yet gifted in music &...
Temporary disturbances of brain function that involve sudden neural discharges.
Organs that secrete one or more chemical substances such as hormones, saliva, milk.2 Types:...
A passageway that carries substances to specific locations.
System of ductless glands that secrete hormones and release them directly into the blood stream.
A substance secreted by an endocrine gland that regulates body functions.Ex: growth,metabolism,...
MASTER GLAND -growth hormone(muscles, bones, glands) -prolactin (maternal behavior) ...
Secretes melatonin: regulates sleep-wake cycle
Produces thyroxin, which affects the body's metabolism.
A condition that results from too little thyroxin.Too much or too little causes overweight...
A condition characterized by stunned growth & mental retardation.
(located above the kidneys)Secretes hormones called corticosteroids: increase resistance to...
Believed in evolution & contradicted the Bible
Species that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce.
Small, random genetic variations.
Studies ways in which adaptation and natural selection are connected with mental processes...
Stereotyped pattern of behavior that is triggered by a particular stimulus.
Defines NatureTraits from parents to offspring by means of genes.
Defines NurtureThe area of biology that focuses on heredity.
MOST BASIC unit of heredity, found on a specific point on chromosome
A microscopic rod-shaped body in the cell nucleus carrying genes that transmit heredity traits...
Forms the basic material of chromosomes; form of a double helix and contains genetic code.James...
Traits influenced by gene combos.Ex: intelligence.
Genetic makeup based on nucleotide sequencing.NATURE
Outer appearance based off life experiences.NURTURE
23rd pair, which determines sexX from father =femaleY from father=male
*identical twins share 100% genes**parents & children have 50%**aunts & uncles share...
The fertilized egg cell (ovum) that carries genetic messages from both parents
Monozygotic Twins (MZ)
Develop from a single fertilized ovum that divides into 2 early in development; share the same...
Develop from 2 fertilized ova who are closest relates as brother & sister in general (FRATERNAL)