Psychology: Chapter 2 Brain And Behavior

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Psychology: Chapter 2 Brain And Behavior

Chapter Two Of Test One

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What are two different parts of the neurons and what are their primary functions?
Dendrites- Recieve signals from other neurons then send them to cell bodyCell body (aka soma)- Cells life support. Recieves info from dendrites/ other neurons and integrates it
What is a neuron?
Base building block of the nervous system that convey info to different parts of the NS and activiate muscles and glands
What are two more different parts of the neurons and what are their primary functions?
Axon- Info flows down axon in form of electricalAxon terminals- contains neuro transmitters that carry messages to muscles, glands and other neurons
What are glial cells and what are their functions?
Provide neurons nourshimentHold neurons in placeIsolate brain from toxinsForm Myelin sheath
What is the myelin sheath?
Fatty insulation of nerouns around some axons that help speed conduction impulse
What roles do the resting potential, action potential and negative after potential play in the nerve impulse?
Resting potential= The electrical charge of an inactive neuron. Messages from other neurons will raise or lower resting potentialAction potential= Electrical current that is sent down an axonNegative after potential- When a cell drops below resting potential and is less likely to fire
What is a synapse?
Gap between neurons and muscles in which one in which one neuron realses a chemical that excites or inhibits the next neuron
What are inhibitory and excitatory synapses?
Excitatory synapse- When the binding of the Neuro transimitor to the receptor causes positively charged to enter the cell raising the likelyhood of an action potentialInhibitory synapse- When the binding of the neurotransmiters causes negatively charged ions to enter cell decreasing the likelyhood of an action potential

what are neurtotransmitters? and how do they affect the postsynaptic neuron?
chemical realeased by neuron that affects other neuronspostsynaptic neuron???
What endorphins and how do they affect the body?
Produced by piutary gland and hypothalanks. they are the bodies nautral opitates that are realeased in response to pain and excerise
How do drugs alter Neurotransmitters?
Agonists- Work by miciming the effects of NTAntagonists- Work by blocking the NTs
What are the major divisions of the nervous system and what are their functions?
Central nervous system- Brain and spinal cordsPeripheral nervous system- can be divided into two major partsSomatic- Carries messages to and fro the sense organ, controls voluntary behaviorAutonimac- controls internal organs and glands Sympathetic- emergency Parashypathetic- quiets the body and returns it to lower arsoul
What is the difference between the sympathetic and parasympethic nervous systems?
Sympathetic system- Responds to emergencies by activiating body resources (aka fight or flight response)Parasympathetic- Controls the normal operations of the body, calms us down after an emergency
What four structures make up the hindbrain and what are their functions?
Medulla- Controls heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, coughing and swallowingPons- Important for muscle controlReticualr formation- Plays important role in arousal and attention, screens messages entering brainCerebellum- Imporant in motor control. Contributes to motor cordinanation and timing, posture involved in basic learning
Function of the midbrain?
Involved in some sensory reflexes and helps regulate brain arousal
What are the subocrial structures of the foebrain? what are their functions and what happens when damaged? hint there are five
Thalmus- a final switching station for sensory messages on their way to the cortex. Vison hearing taste and touch all pass through. (if damaged you can lose every sense expect smell)Hypothalalmus- Master control center of emotion. crossroads that connects many areas of the brain. (regulates emotions, body temp, sensations of pleasure)Limbic system- Regulates emotionamygadala- influences rage, agression and fearHippocampus- Involved in memory formation
What are the four principles of coritcal organization?
Functioal specialization- Different areas of the cortex serve different functionsTopograhpic organization- Sensory and motor areas are organized so that adjacent neurons recieve inputContraleral connections- Each hemisphere is respnonsible for the sensory motor control for the opposite side of the bodyAssysmetry of higher function- 2 hemisphers have slightly different functions
What are the four lobes of the ceberal cortex?

Frontal Lobe- working memoryPartetal lobe- Processes info about body's safe touchOccipital lobe- Processes visual infoTemporal lobe- Procceses auiditory info
What are two specific things that can happen when different areas of the cortex are damaged?
Visual agnosias- Set of disorders where patients cant interpret visual infoProsopagnosia- Inability to recognize faces
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