Psychology Chapter 16 Review (Social Thinking & Influence)

This Is The Review For Chapter 16 Of The Cengage Psychology Textbook For A Dual Enrollment Psychology Class. This Chapter Is Called Social Thinking And Influence, It's About How Individuals Behave Around Each Other, And How We Are Influenced By Others. 
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What is social psychology?
The study of how individuals behave, think, and feel in social situations, and how people act in the presence of others.
Ongoing pattern of life passed down from one generation to another.
What are the three types of roles?
Social role, Ascribed role, and Achieved role.
Social role?
Patterns of behavior expected of people in various social situations (the President)
Ascribed role?
Assigned to the person, not under your control (your daughter)
Achieved role
Attained voluntarily by special effort (teacher)
What is role conflict?
When two or more roles make conflicting demands (Example: a mother with a full time job)
Group structure
Network of roles, communication, pathways, and power in a group
Group cohesiveness
Degree of attraction among group members or their commitment to remaining in groups Cohesive groups work better
Level of social power and importance.
Accepted, but usually unspoken standard of behavior
Group with which an individual identifies
Group with which individuals do not identify
What is the autokinetic effect?
The apparent measurement of a stationary point of light displayed in a dark room. If one person says the distance they believe it to be first, then the other people will be more likely to base their decisions off of that.
Making inferences about the causes of one's own behavior and others behavior
What is consistency in attribution?
Behavior changes very little in difference circumstances
What is distinctiveness>
Noting that a behavior only occurs under certain circumstances.
What are the four social perception terms?
Actor- person of interest
Object- aim, motive, target of an action
Setting- social/physical environment in which action occurs
Situational demands- pressures to behave in certain ways in certain settings or social situations.
Downgrading internal causes as a way of explaining an individual's behavior when a person's actions seem to have strong external causes.
Example: Friend doesn't tip the waiter, you assume it's because they're stingy. External causes may be that the waiter provided bad service.
Degree to which people agree. Implies that responses are externally caused.
What is self handicapping?
Arranging to perform under conditions that usually impair performance so as to have an excuse for a poor showing. (Ex- procrastination)
Fundamental attribution error
Tendency to attribute behavior of others to internal causes (personality, likes)
Actor-observer bias
Tendency to attribute behavior of others to internal causes, while attributing our own behavior to external (situation, circumstantial).
What is attitude?
Learned tendency to respond to people, objects, or institutions in a positive OR negative way.
What are the three components of attitude?
Belief component- what the person believes about object of an attitude
Emotional component- feelings toward the object of an attitude
Action component- actions toward various people, objects, or institutions.
What are the ways in which attitudes are formed?
Direct contact- personal experience with object of the attitude
Interaction with others- influence of discussions with people holding a particular attitude
Child rearing- effects of parental values, beliefs, and practices
Group membership- social influences from belonging to certain groups
Mass media- all media that reach large audiences (tv, internet)
Mean worldview- viewing the world/other people as dangerous or threatening
Chance conditioning-
A condition occurring my chance or coincidence
Social distance scale
scale where the degree of a person's willingness to have contact with a member of another group is measured
Attitude scale
Statements on scale representing various possible views on an issue
Reference group
Any group a person identifies with an uses as a standard for social comparison
What is persuasion, and the three parts of it?
Deliberate attempt to change attitudes or beliefs with info and arguments.
Communicatior- person presenting arguments/info Message- content of the arguments Audience- person/group the message is directed to
Cognitive dissonance?
Festinger Contradicting or clashing thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, or perceptions cause discomfort. We need to have consistency in thoughts, perceptions, or images of ourself. So we attempt to justify our actions and make excuses to convince ourselves that we are doing the right thing, so we aren't uncomfortable by our decisions.
Degree to which one's actions are explained by rewards or other circumstances
Social Influence
changes in a person's behavior induced by the presence or actions of another person. -Someone else influences your decision (husband, mother, peer, etc) Peer pressure is a good example of persuasion and social influence
Bringing one's behavior into agreement with norms or behavior of others
What are the different types of power?
Social, reward, coercive, legitimate, referent, expert.
Social power
Ability to control, alter, influence the behavior of another person
Reward power
rewarding a person for complying with desired behavior
Coercive power
Based on ability to punish a person for failure to comply
Legitimate power
accepting a person as an agent of an established social order
Referent power
respect for a person or group
Expert power
Based on possession of knowledge or expertise
Social facilitation
tendency to look/perform better when in the presence of others
Social loafing
tendency to work less hard when part of a group than when solely responsible for their work
Personal space
Area surrounding the body defined as private and subject to personal control
What are the four spacial norms?
Intimate distance (most private space, about 18 inches from the skin- special people or special circumstances only)
Personal distance (interactions with friends, 18in-4ft from body; arms length)
Social distance (impersonal interaction, 4-12 ft)
Public distance (formal interactions-giving a speech; 12 ft or more)
systematic study of human use of personal space, especially in social settings
Compulsion by decision makers to maintain agreement, even at the cost of critical thinking
Group sanctions
rewards/punishments given by groups to enforce conformity among members
What is the Soloman Asch experiment?
When a group of people must select a line most closely matching the standard line. All lines are shown to a group of 7. Other 6 people accomplices, and at times would select the wrong line. 33 of trials- real subject conformed to group pressure even when the answers are obviously wrong.
Bending to requests of one person who has little/no authority or social power
Foot-in-the-door effect
A person who agreed to a smaller request is more likely to later agree to a larger demand
Door-in-the-Face effect
Person who refused a major request will be more likely later on to comply with a smaller request
Lowball technique
Commitment gained first to reasonable/desirable terms, which are then made less reasonable/desirable.
Milgram Conformity to demands of authority. Would you shock a man with a known heart condition who is screaming and asked to be released, because authorities tell you to?
Engineered/forced attitude change requiring a captive audience.
What are the 3 steps of brainwashing?
Unfreezing- loosening former values/convictions
Change- person abandons former beliefs
Refreezing- rewarding/solidifying new attitudes/beliefs
Groups professing great devotion to a person/people, & follows them almost without questions -Leaders personality is usually more important than the issues they preach -Cult members are usually victimized by the leader
What are some ideal cult targets?
Cults try to recruit at a time of need, especially when a sense of belonging is most attractive. -Look for college students/young adults
Assertiveness training
Learn to be self-assertive
What is self-assertion?
Standing up for yourself by speaking out on your behalf; direct, honest, expression of feelings and desires.
Hurting another to get one's way no matter what, without regard for feelings
What is the broken reward?
Self-assertion technique involving repeating a request until it's acknowledged. Good way to be assertive

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