Psychology Chapter 16 Review (Social Thinking & Influence)

This Is The Review For Chapter 16 Of The Cengage Psychology Textbook For A Dual Enrollment Psychology Class. This Chapter Is Called Social Thinking And Influence, It's About How Individuals Behave Around Each Other, And How We Are Influenced By Others.  
Created May 22, 2011
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What is social psychology? 
The study of how individuals behave, think, and feel in social situations, and how people act...
Culture 
Ongoing pattern of life passed down from one generation to another. 
What are the three types of roles? 
Social role, Ascribed role, and Achieved role. 
Social role? 
Patterns of behavior expected of people in various social situations (the President) 
Ascribed role? 
Assigned to the person, not under your control (your daughter) 
Achieved role 
Attained voluntarily by special effort (teacher) 
What is role conflict? 
When two or more roles make conflicting demands (Example: a mother with a full time job) 
Group structure 
Network of roles, communication, pathways, and power in a group 
Group cohesiveness 
Degree of attraction among group members or their commitment to remaining in groups Cohesive...
Status 
Level of social power and importance. 
Norm 
Accepted, but usually unspoken standard of behavior 
In-group
Group with which an individual identifies 
Out-group 
Group with which individuals do not identify 
What is the autokinetic effect? 
The apparent measurement of a stationary point of light displayed in a dark room. If one person...
Attribution 
Making inferences about the causes of one's own behavior and others behavior 
What is consistency in attribution? 
Behavior changes very little in difference circumstances 
What is distinctiveness> 
Noting that a behavior only occurs under certain circumstances. 
What are the four social perception terms? 
Actor- person of interest Object- aim, motive, target of an action Setting- social/physical...
Discounting 
Downgrading internal causes as a way of explaining an individual's behavior when a person's...
Consensus 
Degree to which people agree. Implies that responses are externally caused. 
What is self handicapping? 
Arranging to perform under conditions that usually impair performance so as to have an excuse...
Fundamental attribution error 
Tendency to attribute behavior of others to internal causes (personality, likes) 
Actor-observer bias 
Tendency to attribute behavior of others to internal causes, while attributing our own behavior...
What is attitude? 
Learned tendency to respond to people, objects, or institutions in a positive OR negative way. 
What are the three components of attitude? 
Belief component- what the person believes about object of an attitude Emotional component-...
What are the ways in which attitudes are formed? 
Direct contact- personal experience with object of the attitude Interaction with others-...
Chance conditioning-
A condition occurring my chance or coincidence 
Social distance scale 
scale where the degree of a person's willingness to have contact with a member of another group...
Attitude scale 
Statements on scale representing various possible views on an issue 
Reference group 
Any group a person identifies with an uses as a standard for social comparison 
What is persuasion, and the three parts of it? 
Deliberate attempt to change attitudes or beliefs with info and arguments. Communicatior-...
Cognitive dissonance? 
Festinger Contradicting or clashing thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, or perceptions cause...
Justification
Degree to which one's actions are explained by rewards or other circumstances 
Social Influence 
changes in a person's behavior induced by the presence or actions of another person. -Someone...
Conformity 
Bringing one's behavior into agreement with norms or behavior of others 
What are the different types of power? 
Social, reward, coercive, legitimate, referent, expert. 
Social power 
Ability to control, alter, influence the behavior of another person 
Reward power 
rewarding a person for complying with desired behavior 
Coercive power 
Based on ability to punish a person for failure to comply
Legitimate power 
accepting a person as an agent of an established social order 
Referent power 
respect for a person or group 
Expert power 
Based on possession of knowledge or expertise 
Social facilitation 
tendency to look/perform better when in the presence of others 
Social loafing 
tendency to work less hard when part of a group than when solely responsible for their work 
Personal space 
Area surrounding the body defined as private and subject to personal control 
What are the four spacial norms? 
Intimate distance (most private space, about 18 inches from the skin- special people or special...
Proxemies 
systematic study of human use of personal space, especially in social settings 
Groupthink
Compulsion by decision makers to maintain agreement, even at the cost of critical thinking 
Group sanctions 
rewards/punishments given by groups to enforce conformity among members 
What is the Soloman Asch experiment? 
When a group of people must select a line most closely matching the standard line. All lines...
Compliance 
Bending to requests of one person who has little/no authority or social power 
Foot-in-the-door effect 
A person who agreed to a smaller request is more likely to later agree to a larger demand 
Door-in-the-Face effect 
Person who refused a major request will be more likely later on to comply with a smaller request 
Lowball technique 
Commitment gained first to reasonable/desirable terms, which are then made less reasonable/desirable. 
Obediance? 
Milgram Conformity to demands of authority. Would you shock a man with a known heart...
Brainwashing 
Engineered/forced attitude change requiring a captive audience. 
What are the 3 steps of brainwashing? 
Unfreezing- loosening former values/convictions Change- person abandons former beliefs Refreezing-...
Cults 
Groups professing great devotion to a person/people, & follows them almost without questions -Leaders...
What are some ideal cult targets? 
Cults try to recruit at a time of need, especially when a sense of belonging is most attractive. -Look...
Assertiveness training 
Learn to be self-assertive 
What is self-assertion? 
Standing up for yourself by speaking out on your behalf; direct, honest, expression of feelings...
Aggression 
Hurting another to get one's way no matter what, without regard for feelings 
What is the broken reward? 
Self-assertion technique involving repeating a request until it's acknowledged. Good way to...


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