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a persons unique and relatively stable behavior patterns
style of personality by a group of related traits
4 personality theories- 1. Trait
attempt to learn what traits make up personality and how they relate to actual behavior
focus on inner workings of personality, especially internal conflicts and struuggles.
3.Behavioristics and Social Learning
Focus on external environment and learning
Focus on private, subjective experience and personal growth
found over 4500 traits in the dictionary- Most of these can be catergorized into small number of basic, higher order traits-EX: diligence, disciplined, well organized, dependable.
Robert Mcrae and Paul Costa
developed the NEO Personality Inventory (the Big Five) which are- Extraoversion, Agreeableness, Conscientious, Neuroticism, Openess to experience
Psychoanalytic Theory- Sigmund Freud
Personality includes the id, ego, and superego
innate biological instincts and urges; self serving, irrational, and totally unconscious- works through via pleasure principle: wishes to have desires satisfied NOW, without waiting...
Decision-making component; directs id energies- partially conscious and partially unconscious- works via reality principle: Delays action until it is practical / appropriate
Judge or censor for thoughts and actions of the ego- Two parts- Conscience: Reflects actions for which a person has been rewarded- Ego ideal: Reflects behavior for which a person is...
Holds repressed memories and emotions and Id's instinctual drives
Everything you are aware of at the given moment including thoughts, perceptions, feelings and memories
material that can easily be brought into awareness
Personality forms through 5 stages of psychosexual development
Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, and Genital
Ages 0-1- Most infants pleasure comes from stimulation from the mouth- Oral dependant personality: Gulliable, passive and need lots of attention.
Ages 1-3- Attention turns to process of elimination-child express agression by letting go or holding on. Ego develops- Harsh and Leinent toilet training can make a child: Anal retentitive-...
Ages 3-6. Child now notices and is physically attracted to opposite sex parent- Adult traits- Vanity, exhibitionism, sensitive and pride, and narcissism
6-puberty. psychosexual development is dormant. Same sex friendship and play occur here- Genital stage Puberty or later. Full adult sexuality occurs here. sexual urges reawaken.
Disagreed with Freuds emphasis on unconscious and importance of sexuality
Striving for superiority
According to Adler, the basic drive propels us toward perfection
Any attempt to overcome feelings of inadaquecy or inferiority
mental storehouse for a single individuals unsconsious thoughts- contents are unique to each individual
mental storehouse for unconscious ideas and images shared by all humans
Behaviorial personality development
Any model of personality that emphasizes learing and observable behavior..Ex: operant conditioning in forming personality
Social Learning theory
Known as Social Cognitive theory: an explanation of personality that combines learning principles, cognition, and the effects of social relationships
an approach that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials and ideals. Emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth
The process of fully developing personal potentials. . .EX:Comfortable acceptance of self, others and nature, Spontaneity, task centering, Autonomy, continueed freshness of appreciation
Carl Rogers Humanistic theory- Self image
total subjective perception of one's body and personality
State that exists when there is a discrepency between ones experience's and self image or between one's self image and ideal self
An idealized image of oneself (the person one would like to be)
Paper and pencil measure consisting questions and reveal personality aspects. . EX: the 16 PF and the big five. . .Another is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
Psychological tests that use ambiguous or unstructured stimuli; person needs to make up stories about them...EX: Rorschach Technique and Thematic Apperception Test
Projective test comprised of 10 standardized inkblots
Thematic Apperception test
A projective test consisting of 20 different scenes and life situations about which respondents make up stories