Psychology Chapter 11 Part 1

Chapter 11 Part 1
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Urge to move toward ones goals; to accomplish tasks.
Perceived state of tension that occurs when our bodies are deficient in some need.
Inherently biological state of deficiency (cellular or bodily) that compel drives.
Evolutionary Model
(models of motivation)
Major motives all involve basic survival and reproduction needs and drives. * Hunger, thirst, body-temperature regulation, oxygen, sex.
Drive Reduction Model
(models of motivation)
When our physiological systems are out of balance or depleted, we are driven to reduce this state*The temperature in the room
Physiological equilibrium around an optimal set point
Set Point
Ideal fixed setting of a particular physiological system
Optimal Arousal Model
(models of motivation)
Yerkes and Dodson Law (1908)Principle that moderate levels of arousal, lead to optimal performance
Hierarchical Model
(models of motivation)
Maslow's hierarchy of needs.Needs range from most basic physiological necessities to highest psychological needs for growth and fulfillment.
Maslow's Hierarchical of Needs Triangle
/ Self Actualization / Esteem Needs / Love and Belongingness / Safety and Security Needs / Physiological Needs
Biology of WHEN we eat
-Stomach-Blood - Glucose-Brain - Hypothalamus-Hormones that cause hunger
Psychology of WHAT we eat
Influenced by external factors- Sight of food- Smell of food- Exposure to certain foods- Cultural preferences
Human Sexual Response (Four Phases)
Excitiment (arrow up)Plateau (arrow to the right)Orgasm (arrow hit top)Resolution (arrow goes down)
The master regulator of almost all major drives and motives we have, such as hunger, thirst, temperature and sexual behavior; also controls the pituitary gland.
During an orgasm...
Deactivation in the amygdala and hippocampus and parts of the cortex involving consciousness.- Men show deactivation in brain activity too, but only in the left amygdala
- controls sex drive in both men and women- adrenal glands produce testosterone- younger women's are higher than older women's
Three Kinds of Societies in Terms of Sexual Attitudes
Restrictive- restrict sex before and outside of marriage.Semi-restrictive-formal prohibitions on pre and extramarital sex that are not strictly enforced.Permissive- place few restrictions on sex.
Parental Investment Theory
If pregnancy occurs, the cost of having sex is quite different for men and women.Men- only contribution is sex.Women- Carry for 9 months, sicknesses, painful labor and delivery, 18+ years of caring.
Sexual Orientation
Heterosexual- the opposite sexHomosexual- the same sexBisexual- both sexes* Influenced by both nature and nurture**The higher testosterone your mother has while you are in womb, the more likely you are to be attracted to women; goes for mean and women
Need to Belong: Affiliation
Humans are social creatures that depend on other people our entire lives. OUr need to belong and to be accepted by others is one fo the strongest of all human needs.
Need to Belong: Affiliation cont..
Rejection is one of the most painful experiences in life.Lack of belongingness and being rejected lead to both physical health and psychological problems, ranging from having more health problems to developing eating disorders, depression, suicide, violence towards others.
Need to Excel: Achievement
Desire to do things well and overcome obstacles.Atkinson (1964) tendency to achieve success is a function of 3 things:Motivation to SucceedExpectation of SuccessIncentive Value of the Success
Motivation to Succeed
The extent to which you really want to be successful. Ex: what a grade means to you.
Expectation of Success
An individuals evaluation of the likelihood of succeeding at a task.
Incentive Value
How important is it to you & the higher difficulty of a task and lowering the odds of succeeding at it, the more it will mean to you to succeed it

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