Psychology Chapter 11

Psychology Chapter 11 The Vocabulary And Some Other Important Facts From Chapter 11 
  
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personality
 
a pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world
psychodynamic perspecitves
 
the view that personality is primarily unconscious (beyond awareness) and develops in stages. Most psychoanalytic perspectives emphasize that early experiences with parents play a role in sculpting personality
Freudian slips
 
misstatements Freud believed to be revealed unconscious thoughts
psychoanalysis
 
Freud's approach to personality
hysteria
 
physical symptoms that have no physical cause
overdetermined
 
had a multitude of causes in the unconscious
id
 
consists of unconscious drives and is the individual's reservoir of psychic energy, has no contact with reality, works according to the pleasure principle (seeks pleasure, avoids pain)
ego
 
structure of personality that deals with the demands of reality, abides by reality principle (tries to bring the individual pleasure within the norms of society)
superego
 
harsh internal judge of our behavior (judges our morality), also only considers reality (considers if the id's impulses can be satisfied in acceptable moral terms)
defense mechanisms
 
reduce anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
repression
 
the master defense mechanism; the ego pushes unacceptable impulses out of awareness, back into the unconscious mind
rationalization
 
the ego replaces a less acceptable motive with a more acceptable one
displacement
 
the ego shifts feelings toward an unacceptable object to another, more acceptable object
sublimation
 
the ego replaces an unacceptable impulse with a socially acceptable one
projection
 
the ego attributes personal shortcomings, problems and faults to others
reaction formation
 
the ego transforms an unacceptable motive into its opposite
denial
 
the ego refuses to acknowledge anxiety-producing realities
regression
 
to ego seeks the security of an earlier developmental period in the face of stress
oral stage
 
occurs in the first 18 months of life, infants pleasure centers on the mouth; chewing, sucking, and biting are chief sources of pleasure and reducing tension
anal stage
 
occurs in between the 18-36th months of life, during a time when most children are toilet training, the child's greatest pleasure is through the anus and urethra; pleasure in "going" and "holding it" as well as in control of these functions
phallic stage
 
occurs in the first 3-6 years of life, pleasure focuses on the genitals as child discovers self-stimuation is enjoyable, special stage because it triggers the Oedipus Complex
Oedipus Complex
 
a boy's intense desire to replace his father and enjoy the affections of his mother (boy recognizes that his father might punish him by cutting off the boy's penis)
castration anxiety
 
boy's intense fear of being mutilated by his father (to reduce conflict boy identifies with his father striving to be like him)
latency period
 
occurs between 6 years and puberty, psychic time out or intermission, after drama of phallic stage child represses all interest in sexuality (Freud believed no real development occurred in this stage)
genital stage
 
occurs during adolescence and adulthood, time of sexual reawakening; source of sexual pleasure now becomes put on a person outside of the family, unresolved conflicts with parents reemerge during adolescence, however once resolved individual is capable of becoming a mature independently functioning adult
fixation
 
psychoanalytic defense mechanism that occurs when the individual remains locked in an earlier developmental stage
collective unconscious
 
the impersonal, deepest layer of the unconscious mind shared by all humans because of their common ancestral past
archetypes
 
emotionally laden ideas and images that have rich and symbolic meaning for all people
individual psychology
 
term for Adler's approach, views people as motivated by purposes and goals and as striving for perfection over pleasure
compensation
 
Adler's term for the individuals attempt to overcome imagined or real inferiorities or weaknesses by developing one's own abilities
humanistic perspectives
 
stress a person's capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose one's own destiny, and positive human qualities
self concept
 
a central theme in the views of Carl Rogers and other humanists, in an individual's overall perceptions and assessments of his or her abilities, behavior, and personality
unconditional positive regard
 
Roger's term for accepting, valuing, and being positive towards another person regardless of the person's behavior
empathic
 
being a sensitive listener and understanding another's true feelings
genuine
 
being open with our feelings and dropping our pretenses and facades
trait
 
an enduring personality characteristic that tends to lead to certain behaviors
trait theories
 
state that personality consists of broad, enduring dispositions (traits) that tend to lead to characteristic responses
lexical appraoch
 
method used by Allport where he used a dictionary to find all the way to describe a person
16PF
 
a personality scale that is commonly used
big five factors of personality
 
openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism (emotionally stability)
personological and life story perspectives
 
stress that the way to understand the person is to focus on his or her life story and life history, aspects that distinguish that individual from all others
personology
 
the study of the whole person
psychobiography
 
a means of inquiry in which the personality psychologist attempts to apply a personality theory to a single person's life
social cognitive perspectives
 
emphasize conscious awareness, beliefs, expectations, and goals, it incorporates principles from behaviorism but explore the person's ability to reason; to think about the past, present, future and to reflect on the self
reciprocal determinism
 
Bandura's theory that describes the way behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors interact to create personality
self efficacy
 
the belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes
situationism
 
the idea that personality and behavior often vary considerably from one context to another (Mischel's idea in Personality and Assessment)
person vs situation debate
 
debate started after the publishing of Mischel's ideas in Personality and Assessment
cognitive affective processing systems (CAPS)
 
Mischel's approach to personality as a set of systems
Self Report Tests (also known as objective test or inventory)
 
directly asks people weather specific items describe their personality traits
face validity
 
the extent to which a test item appears to be valid to those who are completing it
social desirability
 
picking or not picking a trait based on if it is generally socially accepted
empirically keyed test
 
a type of test that presents a host of questionnaire items to groups of people who are already known to differ in some central way
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
 
most widely used and researched empirically keyed self-report personality test
projective test
 
personality assessment tool that presents individuals with an ambiguous stimulus and them asks them to describe it or tell a story about it (in other words project their own meaning onto it)
Rorschach inkblot test
 
developed in 1921 by the Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach, uses an individual's perception of the inkblots to determine his or her personality
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
 
developed by Henry Murray and Christiana Morgan in the 1930s designed to elicit stories that reveal something about an individual's personality
Psychodynamic
 
personality is characterized by unconscious processes. Personality develops over stages, and childhood experiences are of great importance to adult personality, the most important aspects of personality are unconscious, uses case studies and projective techniques
Humanistic
 
personality evolves out of the person's innate, organismic motives to grow and actualize the self. These healthy tendencies can be undermined by social pressure, human nature is basically good by getting in touch with who we really are and what we really want we can lead happier and healthier lives, uses questionnaires and interviews with some observation
Social Cognitive
 
personality is the pattern of coherence that characterizes a person's interactions with the situations he or she encounters in life, the individual's beliefs and expectations rather than global traits are the central variables of interest, behavior is best understood as changing across situations to understand personality we must understand what each situation means for a given person, uses multiple observations over different situations and questionnaires
Trait
 
personality is characterized by a set of five general traits that are represented in the natural language that everyday people use to describe themselves and others, traits are relatively stable over time and predict behavior, uses questionnaires and observer reports
Personology and Life Story
 
to understand personality we must understand the whole person, each person has a unique set of life experiences and the stories we tell about those experiences make up our identities, the life story provides a unique opportunity to examine the personality processes associated with behavior, development, and well being using written narratives, TAT stories, autobiographical memories, interviews and psychobiography
Type A Behavior Pattern
 
a cluster of characteristics such as being excessively competitive, hard-driven, impatient and hostile, related to the incidence of heart disease
Type B Behavior Pattern
 
a cluster of characteristics such as being relaxed and easy going, related to very good health
hardiness
 
a trait characterized by a sense of commitment (rather than alienation) and of control (rather than powerlessness) and a perception of problems as challenges (rather than threats)

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