Psychology Chapter 11

The Vocabulary And Some Other Important Facts From Chapter 11 

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Side ASide B
a pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions and behaviors that characterize the way...
psychodynamic perspecitves
the view that personality is primarily unconscious (beyond awareness) and develops in stages....
Freudian slips
misstatements Freud believed to be revealed unconscious thoughts
Freud's approach to personality
physical symptoms that have no physical cause
had a multitude of causes in the unconscious
consists of unconscious drives and is the individual's reservoir of psychic energy, has no...
structure of personality that deals with the demands of reality, abides by reality principle...
harsh internal judge of our behavior (judges our morality), also only considers reality (considers...
defense mechanisms
reduce anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
the master defense mechanism; the ego pushes unacceptable impulses out of awareness, back into...
the ego replaces a less acceptable motive with a more acceptable one
the ego shifts feelings toward an unacceptable object to another, more acceptable object
the ego replaces an unacceptable impulse with a socially acceptable one
the ego attributes personal shortcomings, problems and faults to others
reaction formation
the ego transforms an unacceptable motive into its opposite
the ego refuses to acknowledge anxiety-producing realities
to ego seeks the security of an earlier developmental period in the face of stress
oral stage
occurs in the first 18 months of life, infants pleasure centers on the mouth; chewing, sucking,...
anal stage
occurs in between the 18-36th months of life, during a time when most children are toilet training,...
phallic stage
occurs in the first 3-6 years of life, pleasure focuses on the genitals as child discovers...
Oedipus Complex
a boy's intense desire to replace his father and enjoy the affections of his mother (boy recognizes...
castration anxiety
boy's intense fear of being mutilated by his father (to reduce conflict boy identifies with...
latency period
occurs between 6 years and puberty, psychic time out or intermission, after drama of phallic...
genital stage
occurs during adolescence and adulthood, time of sexual reawakening; source of sexual pleasure...
psychoanalytic defense mechanism that occurs when the individual remains locked in an earlier...
collective unconscious 
the impersonal, deepest layer of the unconscious mind shared by all humans because of their...
emotionally laden ideas and images that have rich and symbolic meaning for all people
individual psychology
term for Adler's approach, views people as motivated by purposes and goals and as striving...
Adler's term for the individuals attempt to overcome imagined or real inferiorities or weaknesses...
humanistic perspectives
stress a person's capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose one's own destiny, and positive...
self concept
a central theme in the views of Carl Rogers and other humanists, in an individual's overall...
unconditional positive regard
Roger's term for accepting, valuing, and being positive towards another person regardless of...
being a sensitive listener and understanding another's true feelings
being open with our feelings and dropping our pretenses and facades
an enduring personality characteristic that tends to lead to certain behaviors
trait theories 
state that personality consists of broad, enduring dispositions (traits) that tend to lead...
lexical appraoch
method used by Allport where he used a dictionary to find all the way to describe a person
a personality scale that is commonly used
big five factors of personality
openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism (emotionally stability) 
personological and life story perspectives
stress that the way to understand the person is to focus on his or her life story and life...
the study of the whole person
a means of inquiry in which the personality psychologist attempts to apply a personality theory...
social cognitive perspectives
emphasize conscious awareness, beliefs, expectations, and goals, it incorporates principles...
reciprocal determinism
Bandura's theory that describes the way behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors...
self efficacy 
the belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes
the idea that personality and behavior often vary considerably from one context to another...
person vs situation debate
debate started after the publishing of Mischel's ideas in Personality and Assessment
cognitive affective processing systems (CAPS)
Mischel's approach to personality as a set of systems
Self Report Tests (also known as objective test or inventory)
directly asks people weather specific items describe their personality traits
face validity 
the extent to which a test item appears to be valid to those who are completing it
social desirability 
picking or not picking a trait based on if it is generally socially accepted
empirically keyed test
a type of test that presents a host of questionnaire items to groups of people who are already...
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
most widely used and researched empirically keyed self-report personality test
projective test
personality assessment tool that presents individuals with an ambiguous stimulus and them asks...
Rorschach inkblot test
developed in 1921 by the Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach, uses an individual's perception...
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
developed by Henry Murray and Christiana Morgan in the 1930s designed to elicit stories that...
personality is characterized by unconscious processes.  Personality develops over stages,...
personality evolves out of the person's innate, organismic motives to grow and actualize the...
Social Cognitive
personality is the pattern of coherence that characterizes a person's interactions with the...
personality is characterized by a set of five general traits that are represented in the natural...
Personology and Life Story
to understand personality we must understand the whole person, each person has a unique set...
Type A Behavior Pattern
a cluster of characteristics such as being excessively competitive, hard-driven, impatient...
Type B Behavior Pattern
a cluster of characteristics such as being relaxed and easy going, related to very good health
a trait characterized by a sense of commitment (rather than alienation) and of control (rather...

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