Psychology Chaps 10+12

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Psychology Chaps 10+12

Terms From Ch Aps 10+1

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a strong affectional bond with special others that endures over time
 
attachment
biological source for attachment
 
imprinting
the pleasurable tactile sensations provided by a soft and cuddly "parent" is a powerful contributor to attachment
 
contact comfort
researcher observes infants in the presence or absence of their mother and a stranger
 
strange situation procedure
when exposed to a stranger the infant seeks closeness and contact with the mother-uses mother as a safe base to explore-moderate distress when mother leaves
 
securely attached
infant does not seek closeness or contact with the mother, treats mother like a stranger, rarely cries when mother leaves
 
avoidant
infant becomes very upset when the mother leaves the room. when mother returns infants seeks close contact and then squirms angrily to get away
 
anxious/ambivalent
kohlbergs first level of moral development, in which morality is based on rewards, punishment, and the exchange of favors
 
preconventional level
Kohlbergs second level of moral development, moral judgements are based on compliance with the rules and values of society
 
conventional level
Kohlbergs highest level of moral development, individuals develop personal standards for right and wrong, define morality in terms of abstraxt principles and values that apply to all situations and societies
 
postconventional level
the eight developmental satges, each involving a crisis that must be successfully resolved, that individuals pass through in ericksons theory of psychosocial development
 
psychosocial stages
social responsibility and personal concerns are seperate issues
 
hindu
stage where we learn to trust needs will be met
 
stage 1-birth -1yr
stage where we begin to assert sense of independence-autonomy vs shame and doubt
 
stage 2-ages 1-3
stage where we learn to initiate activities and develop sense of self-confidence and sense of social responsibility-initiative vs guilt
 
stage 3 ages 3-6
stage where we begin to learn new productive life skills, develop a sense of pride and competence-industry vs inferiority
 
stage 4 ages 6-12
stage where we develop a coherent and stable self-definition(identity) by exploring many roles and deciding who or what they want to be-identity vs role confusion
 
stage 5 ages 12-20
stage where we from lasting, meaningful relationships, which help develop a sense of connectedness and intamacy with others-intamacy vs isolation
 
stage 6 -young adulthood
stage where the challenge is to be nurturant of the younger generation- generativity vs stagnation
 
stage 7 middle adulthood
during this stage we reflect on our pasts. if reflection shows a life well-spent, person experiences self-acceptance and satisfaction-ego integrity vs despair
 
late adulthood
biological maleness and femaleness, including chromosomal sex-related activities
 
sex
psychological and sociocultural meanings added to biological maleness or femaleness
 
gender
societal expectations for normal and appropriate male and female behavior
 
gender roles
suggest gender roles develop as children
 
social learning theory
suggest children form gender schemas(mental images) of correct behaviors for boys vs girls
 
cognitive developmentall theory
combining characteristics typically male with those typically female
 
androgyny
societal role as other sex
 
transgendered
change biological sex
 
transexual
cultures in which the needs and goals of the individual are emphasized over the needs and goals of the group
 
indiviualistic cultures
cultures in which the needs and goals of the group are emphasized over the needs and goals of the individual
 
collectivistic cultures
major factor in determining job success and satisfactiona according to John Holland
 
personality-job fit theory
successful aging is fostered by a full and active commitment to life
 
activity theory of aging
successful aging is characterized by mutual withdrawal between the elderly and society
 
disengagement theory
a natural decline in social contact as older adults become more selective with their time
 
socioemotional selectivity theoy
one a living thing dies, it cannot be brought back to life
 
permanence
all living things eventually die
 
universality
all living functions, including thought, movement, and vital signs end at death
 
nonfunctionality
the study of death and dying
 
thanatolgy
patterns of emotion, thought, and action that are considered pathological (diseased or dioredered) for one or more of these reasons: statistical infrequency, disability or dysfunction, personal distress, or violation of norms
 
abnormal behavior
perspective that diseases (including mental illness) have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and possibly cured
 
medical model
branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders
 
psychiatry
classification system developed by the American Psychiatric Association used to describe abnormal behaviors
 
diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
used to be all freuds belief that all neurotic conditions arise from unconscious conflicts-many now redistributed as anxiety disorders....
 
neurosis
refers to a person who cannot be held responsible for his or her own actions, or is judged incompetent to manage his or her own affairs because of mental illness
 
insanity
term for distinguishing the most severe mental disoreders such as schizophrenia and some mood diorders
 
psychosis
patients current condition or "state", such as anxiety, substance abuse, amd depression
 
state disorders
enduring problems that seem to be an integral part of the self including long0running personality disorders and mental retardation
 
trait disorders
which axis is classified as symptoms taht cause distress or significantly impair social or occupational funtioning(anxiety disorders, depression)
 
axis 1- clinical disorders
which axis refers to chronic and enduring problems that generally persist throughout life and impair interpersonal or occupational funtioning
 
axis 2-personality disorders and mental retardation
which axis refers to physical disorders that may be relevent to understanding or treating a psychological disorder
 
axis 3-general medical condition
which axis refers to problems such as interpersonal stressors and negative life events that may effect the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of psychological disorders
 
axis 4-psychosocial and environmental problems
which axis refers to the individuals overall level of functioning in social, occupational, and leisure activities
 
axis 5-global assessmet of functioning
a type of abnormal behavior characterized by unrealistic, irrational fear
 
anxiety disorder
characterized by chronic, uncontrollable, and excessive fear and worry that lasts atleast six months and is not focused on any particular object or situation
 
generalized anxiety disorder
symptoms are sudden, but brief, attacks of intense apprehension that cause trembling, dizziness, and difficulty breathing
 
panic disorder
involve a stron, irrational fear and avoidance of objects or situations that are generally considered harmless-ex fear of dentist, elevators
 
phobia
people with this restrict their noraml activities because they fear having a panic attack in a crowded, enclosed, or wide-open places where they would be unable to recieve help in an emergency
 
agoraphobia
involves persistant, unwanted, fearful thoughts(obsessions) and/or irrestible urges to perform an act or repeated rituals(compulsions) which help relieve the anxiety created by the obsession
 
OCD-Obsessive-compulsive disorder
characterized by extreme disturbances in emotional states
 
mood disorders
long-lasting depressed mood that interferes with the ability to function, feel pleasure, or maintain interest in life
 
major depressive disorder
repeated episodes of mania (unreasonable elation and hyperactivity) and depression
 
bipolar disorder
theory that people(and other animals) become resigned to the idea that they are helpless to escape from something painful
 
learned helplessness theory
group of psychiatric disorders involving major disturbances in perception, language, thought, emotion, and behavior. Individual withdraws from people and reality, often into a fantasy life of delussions and hallucinations
 
schizophrenia
imaginary sensory perceptions that occur withouot an external stimulus
 
hallucinations
mistaken beliefs based on misrepresentations of reality
 
delusions
almost no emotional response of any kind
 
flattened affect
assume a nearly immobile stance for an extended period of time
 
cataleptic
involve addictions to or exaggerations of normal thought processes and behaviors, including bizarre delusions and hallucinations
 
positive schizophrenia symptoms
involve loss or absence of normal thought processes and behaviors, including impaired attention, limited or toneless speech, flattened affect, and social withdrawal
 
negative schizophrenia symptoms
abuse of or dependence on a mood or behaviior altering drug
 
substance-related disorders
Amnesia, fugue, or multiple personalities resulting from avoidance or painful memories or situations
 
dissociative disorders
previously known as multiple personality disorder-in which atleast two seperate and distinct personalitites exist within a person at the same time
 
dissociative identity disorder (DID)
inflexible, maladaptive personality traits that cause significant impairment of social and occupational functioning
 
personality disorders
used interchangeably with the terms sociopath and psychopath-describe behavior so far outside the ethical and legal standards of society that many consider it the most serious of all mental disorders
 
antisocial personality disorder
core features of this disorder are impulsivity and instability in mood, relationships, and self-image
 
borderline personality disorder (BPD)
characterized by delusions and cannibalistic impulses-may see people turning into edible animals-typically loss of appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, insomnia
 
windigo-or wiitiko-psychosis
relatively stable and enduring patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions
 
personality
relatively stable and consistent characteristics that an be used to describe someone
 
traits
trait thoery that explains personality in terms of the "big five" model, which is composed of openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism
 
five-factor model (FFM) Big Five-first letters of model spell out word ocean:)
frueds term for thoughts or motives that a person is currently aware of or is remembering
 
conscious
freuds term for thoughts or motives that can be easily brought to mind
 
preconscious
freuds term for thoughts or motives that lie beyond a persons normal awareness but that can be made available through psychoanalysis
 
unconscious
set of ethical rules for behavior
 
superego
in freudian theory, the ego's protective method of reducing anxiety by distorting reality
 
defense mechanisms
mechanism by which the ego prevents the most unacceptable, anxiety-provoking thoughts from entering consciousness
 
repression
in freudian theory, the five developmental periods (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital) during which particular kinds of pleasures must be gratified if personality development is to proceed normally
 
psychosexual stages
we are motivated by our goals in lief-especially our goals of obtaining security and overcoming feelings of inferiority
 
individual psychology
deep feelings of inadequacy and incompetence that arise from our feelings of helplessness as infants
 
inferiority complex
emphasized unconscious processes, but he believed that the unconscious contains positive and spiritual motives as well as sexual and agressive forces- Carl Jung
 
analytical psychology
the collective unconscious consists of primitive images and patterns of thought, feeling, and behavior
 
archetypes
Rogers term for all the information and beliefs that individuals have about their own nature, qualities, and behavior
 
self-concept
Rogers term for positive behavior toward a person with no contingencies attached
 
unconditional positive regard
Banduras term for the learned belief that one is capable of producing desired results, such as mastering new skills and achieving personal goals
 
self-efficacy
Banduras belief that cognitions, behaviors, and the environment interact to produce personality
 
reciprical determinism
attempts to determine the extent to which behavioral differences among people are due to genetics as opposed to the environment
 
behavioral genetics
standardized questionnaires that require written responses, usually to multiple-choice or true-false questions
 
objective-personality tests-Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
psychological tests that use ambiguous stimuli, such as inkblots or drawings, which allow the test taker to project his or her unconscious thoughts onto the test material
 
projective tests-Rorschach Inkblot Test, Thematic Apperception Test
study of how other people influence a persons thoughts, feelings, and actions
 
social psychology
explanations for behaviors or events
 
attributions
misjudgemnet of others behaviors as stemming from internal (dispositioinal) rather than external (situational) causes
 
fundamental attribution error (FAE)
human personalitites and behaviors are more noticable than situational factors
 
saliency bias
when we explain our own behavior we tend to favor internal attributions for our successes and external attributions for our failures
 
self-serving bias
learned predispositions to respond cognitively, affectively, and behaviorally to particular objects in a particular way
 
attitudes
a feeling of discomfort caused by a discepancy between an attitude and a behavior between two attitudes
 
cognitive dissonance
a learned, generally negative attitude directed toward specific people solely because of their membership in an identified group
 
prejudice
when a stereotype or prejudice occurs without a persons conscious awareness or control- "automatic"
 
implicit bias
positive feelings towards another
 
interpersonal attraction
faulty decision making that occurs when a highly cohesive group strives for agreement and avoids inconsistent information
 
groupthink
actions designed to help others with no obvious benefit to the helper
 
altruism-prosocial behavior
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