psychology chaps 10+12

109 cards

Terms from ch aps 10+1


 
  
Created Apr 18, 2010
by
pateacakes

 

 
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1
a strong affectional bond with special others that endures over time
 
attachment
2
biological source for attachment
 
imprinting
3
the pleasurable tactile sensations provided by a soft and cuddly "parent" is a powerful contributor...
 
contact comfort
4
researcher observes infants in the presence or absence of their mother and a  stranger
 
strange situation procedure
5
when exposed to a stranger the infant seeks closeness and contact with the mother-uses mother...
 
securely attached
6
infant does not seek closeness or contact with the mother, treats mother like a stranger, rarely...
 
avoidant
7
infant becomes very upset when the mother leaves the room. when mother returns infants seeks...
 
anxious/ambivalent
8
kohlbergs first level of moral development, in which morality is based on rewards, punishment,...
 
preconventional level
9
Kohlbergs second level of moral development, moral judgements are based on compliance with...
 
conventional level
10
Kohlbergs highest level of moral development, individuals develop personal standards for right...
 
postconventional level
11
the eight developmental satges, each involving a crisis that must be successfully resolved,...
 
psychosocial stages
12
social responsibility and personal concerns are seperate issues
 
hindu
13
stage where we learn to trust needs will be met
 
stage 1-birth -1yr
14
stage where we begin to assert sense of independence-autonomy vs shame and doubt
 
stage 2-ages 1-3
15
stage where we learn to initiate activities and develop sense of self-confidence and sense...
 
stage 3 ages 3-6
16
stage where we begin to learn new productive life skills, develop a sense of pride and competence-industry...
 
stage 4 ages 6-12
17
stage where we develop a coherent and stable self-definition(identity) by exploring many roles...
 
stage 5 ages 12-20
18
stage where we from lasting, meaningful relationships, which help develop a sense of connectedness...
 
stage 6 -young adulthood
19
stage where the challenge is to be nurturant of the younger generation- generativity vs stagnation
 
stage 7 middle adulthood
20
during this stage we reflect on our pasts. if reflection shows a life well-spent, person experiences...
 
late adulthood
21
biological maleness and femaleness, including chromosomal sex-related activities
 
sex
22
psychological and sociocultural meanings added to biological maleness or femaleness
 
gender
23
societal expectations for normal and appropriate male and female behavior
 
gender roles
24
suggest gender roles develop as children
 
social learning theory
25
suggest children form gender schemas(mental images) of correct behaviors for boys vs girls
 
cognitive developmentall theory
26
combining characteristics typically male with those typically female
 
androgyny
27
societal role as other sex
 
transgendered
28
change biological sex
 
transexual
29
cultures in which the needs and goals of the individual are emphasized over the needs and goals...
 
indiviualistic cultures
30
cultures in which the needs and goals of the group are emphasized over the needs and goals...
 
collectivistic cultures
31
major factor in determining job success and satisfactiona according to John Holland
 
personality-job fit theory
32
successful aging is fostered by a full and active commitment to life
 
activity theory of aging
33
successful aging is characterized by mutual withdrawal between the elderly and society
 
disengagement theory
34
a natural decline in social contact as older adults become more selective with their time
 
socioemotional selectivity theoy
35
one a living thing dies, it cannot be brought back to life
 
permanence
36
all living things eventually die
 
universality
37
all living functions, including thought, movement, and vital signs end at death
 
nonfunctionality
38
the study of death and dying
 
thanatolgy
39
patterns of emotion, thought, and action that are considered pathological (diseased or dioredered)...
 
abnormal behavior
40
perspective that diseases (including mental illness) have physical causes that can be diagnosed,...
 
medical model
41
branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders
 
psychiatry
42
classification system developed by the American Psychiatric Association used to describe abnormal...
 
diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
43
used to be all freuds belief that all neurotic conditions arise from unconscious conflicts-many...
 
neurosis
44
refers to a person who cannot be held responsible for his or her own actions, or is judged...
 
insanity
45
term for distinguishing the most severe mental disoreders such as schizophrenia and some mood...
 
psychosis
46
patients current condition or "state", such as anxiety, substance abuse, amd depression
 
state disorders
47
enduring problems that seem to be an integral part of the self including long0running personality...
 
trait disorders
48
which axis is classified as symptoms taht cause distress or significantly impair social or...
 
axis 1- clinical disorders
49
which axis refers to chronic and enduring problems that generally persist throughout life and...
 
axis 2-personality disorders and mental retardation
50
which axis refers to physical disorders that may be relevent to understanding or treating a...
 
axis 3-general medical condition
51
which axis refers to problems such as interpersonal stressors and negative life events that...
 
axis 4-psychosocial and environmental problems
52
which axis refers to the individuals overall level of functioning in social, occupational,...
 
axis 5-global assessmet of functioning
53
a type of abnormal behavior characterized by unrealistic, irrational fear
 
anxiety disorder
54
characterized by chronic, uncontrollable, and excessive fear and worry that lasts atleast six...
 
generalized anxiety disorder
55
symptoms are sudden, but brief, attacks of intense apprehension that cause trembling, dizziness,...
 
panic disorder
56
involve a stron, irrational fear and avoidance of objects or situations that are generally...
 
phobia
57
people with this restrict their noraml activities because they fear having a panic attack...
 
agoraphobia
58
involves persistant, unwanted, fearful thoughts(obsessions) and/or irrestible urges to perform...
 
OCD-Obsessive-compulsive disorder
59
characterized by extreme disturbances in emotional states
 
mood disorders
60
long-lasting depressed mood that interferes with the ability to function, feel pleasure, or...
 
major depressive disorder
61
repeated episodes of mania (unreasonable elation and hyperactivity) and depression
 
bipolar disorder
62
theory that people(and other animals) become resigned to the idea that they are helpless to...
 
learned helplessness theory
63
group of psychiatric disorders involving major disturbances in perception, language, thought,...
 
schizophrenia
64
imaginary sensory perceptions that occur withouot an external stimulus
 
hallucinations
65
mistaken beliefs based on misrepresentations of reality
 
delusions
66
almost no emotional response of any kind
 
flattened affect
67
assume a nearly immobile stance for an extended period of time
 
cataleptic
68
involve addictions to or exaggerations of normal thought processes and behaviors, including...
 
positive schizophrenia symptoms
69
involve loss or absence of normal thought processes and behaviors, including impaired...
 
negative schizophrenia symptoms
70
abuse of or dependence on a mood or behaviior altering drug
 
substance-related disorders
71
Amnesia, fugue, or multiple personalities resulting from avoidance or painful memories or situations
 
dissociative disorders
72
previously known as multiple personality disorder-in which atleast two seperate and distinct...
 
dissociative identity disorder (DID)
73
inflexible, maladaptive personality traits that cause significant impairment of social and...
 
personality disorders
74
used interchangeably with the terms sociopath and psychopath-describe behavior so far outside...
 
antisocial personality disorder
75
core features of this disorder are impulsivity and instability in mood, relationships, and...
 
borderline personality disorder (BPD)
76
characterized by delusions and cannibalistic impulses-may see people turning into edible animals-typically...
 
windigo-or wiitiko-psychosis
77
relatively stable and enduring patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions
 
personality
78
relatively stable and consistent characteristics that an be used to describe someone
 
traits
79
trait thoery that explains personality in terms of the "big five" model, which is composed...
 
five-factor model (FFM) Big Five-first letters of model spell out word ocean:)
80
frueds term for thoughts or motives that a person is currently aware of or is remembering
 
conscious
81
freuds term for thoughts or motives that can be easily brought to mind
 
preconscious
82
freuds term for thoughts or motives that lie beyond a persons normal awareness but that can...
 
unconscious
83
set of ethical rules for behavior
 
superego
84
in freudian theory, the ego's protective method of reducing anxiety by distorting reality
 
defense mechanisms
85
mechanism by which the ego prevents the most unacceptable, anxiety-provoking thoughts from...
 
repression
86
in freudian theory, the five developmental periods (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital)...
 
psychosexual stages
87
we are motivated by our goals in lief-especially our goals of obtaining security and overcoming...
 
individual psychology
88
deep feelings of inadequacy and incompetence that arise from our feelings of helplessness as...
 
inferiority complex
89
emphasized unconscious processes, but he believed that the unconscious contains positive and...
 
analytical psychology
90
the collective unconscious consists of primitive images and patterns of thought, feeling, and...
 
archetypes
91
Rogers term for all the information and beliefs that individuals have about their own nature,...
 
self-concept
92
Rogers term for positive behavior toward a person with no contingencies attached
 
unconditional positive regard
93
Banduras term for the learned belief that one is capable of producing desired results, such...
 
self-efficacy
94
Banduras belief that cognitions, behaviors, and the environment interact to produce personality
 
reciprical determinism
95
attempts to determine the extent to which behavioral differences among people are due to genetics...
 
behavioral genetics
96
standardized questionnaires that require written responses, usually to multiple-choice or true-false...
 
objective-personality tests-Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
97
psychological tests that use ambiguous stimuli, such as inkblots or drawings, which allow the...
 
projective tests-Rorschach Inkblot Test, Thematic Apperception Test
98
study of how other people influence a persons thoughts, feelings, and actions
 
social psychology
99
explanations for behaviors or events
 
attributions
100
misjudgemnet of others behaviors as stemming from internal (dispositioinal) rather than external...
 
fundamental attribution error (FAE)
101
human personalitites and behaviors are more noticable than situational factors
 
saliency bias
102
when we explain our own behavior we tend to favor internal attributions for our successes and...
 
self-serving bias
103
learned predispositions to respond cognitively, affectively, and behaviorally to particular...
 
attitudes
104
a feeling of discomfort caused by a discepancy between an attitude and a behavior between two...
 
cognitive dissonance
105
a learned, generally negative attitude directed toward specific people solely because of their...
 
prejudice
106
when a stereotype or prejudice occurs without a persons conscious awareness or control- "automatic"
 
implicit bias
107
positive feelings towards another
 
interpersonal attraction
108
faulty decision making that occurs when a highly cohesive group strives for agreement and avoids...
 
groupthink
109
actions designed to help others with no obvious benefit to the helper
 
altruism-prosocial behavior


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