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a strong affectional bond with special others that endures over time
biological source for attachment
the pleasurable tactile sensations provided by a soft and cuddly "parent" is a powerful contributor...
researcher observes infants in the presence or absence of their mother and a stranger
strange situation procedure
when exposed to a stranger the infant seeks closeness and contact with the mother-uses mother...
infant does not seek closeness or contact with the mother, treats mother like a stranger, rarely...
infant becomes very upset when the mother leaves the room. when mother returns infants seeks...
kohlbergs first level of moral development, in which morality is based on rewards, punishment,...
Kohlbergs second level of moral development, moral judgements are based on compliance with...
Kohlbergs highest level of moral development, individuals develop personal standards for right...
the eight developmental satges, each involving a crisis that must be successfully resolved,...
social responsibility and personal concerns are seperate issues
stage where we learn to trust needs will be met
stage 1-birth -1yr
stage where we begin to assert sense of independence-autonomy vs shame and doubt
stage 2-ages 1-3
stage where we learn to initiate activities and develop sense of self-confidence and sense...
stage 3 ages 3-6
stage where we begin to learn new productive life skills, develop a sense of pride and competence-industry...
stage 4 ages 6-12
stage where we develop a coherent and stable self-definition(identity) by exploring many roles...
stage 5 ages 12-20
stage where we from lasting, meaningful relationships, which help develop a sense of connectedness...
stage 6 -young adulthood
stage where the challenge is to be nurturant of the younger generation- generativity vs stagnation
stage 7 middle adulthood
during this stage we reflect on our pasts. if reflection shows a life well-spent, person experiences...
biological maleness and femaleness, including chromosomal sex-related activities
psychological and sociocultural meanings added to biological maleness or femaleness
societal expectations for normal and appropriate male and female behavior
suggest gender roles develop as children
social learning theory
suggest children form gender schemas(mental images) of correct behaviors for boys vs girls
cognitive developmentall theory
combining characteristics typically male with those typically female
societal role as other sex
change biological sex
cultures in which the needs and goals of the individual are emphasized over the needs and goals...
cultures in which the needs and goals of the group are emphasized over the needs and goals...
major factor in determining job success and satisfactiona according to John Holland
personality-job fit theory
successful aging is fostered by a full and active commitment to life
activity theory of aging
successful aging is characterized by mutual withdrawal between the elderly and society
a natural decline in social contact as older adults become more selective with their time
socioemotional selectivity theoy
one a living thing dies, it cannot be brought back to life
all living things eventually die
all living functions, including thought, movement, and vital signs end at death
the study of death and dying
patterns of emotion, thought, and action that are considered pathological (diseased or dioredered)...
perspective that diseases (including mental illness) have physical causes that can be diagnosed,...
branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders
classification system developed by the American Psychiatric Association used to describe abnormal...
diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
used to be all freuds belief that all neurotic conditions arise from unconscious conflicts-many...
refers to a person who cannot be held responsible for his or her own actions, or is judged...
term for distinguishing the most severe mental disoreders such as schizophrenia and some mood...
patients current condition or "state", such as anxiety, substance abuse, amd depression
enduring problems that seem to be an integral part of the self including long0running personality...
which axis is classified as symptoms taht cause distress or significantly impair social or...
axis 1- clinical disorders
which axis refers to chronic and enduring problems that generally persist throughout life and...
axis 2-personality disorders and mental retardation
which axis refers to physical disorders that may be relevent to understanding or treating a...
axis 3-general medical condition
which axis refers to problems such as interpersonal stressors and negative life events that...
axis 4-psychosocial and environmental problems
which axis refers to the individuals overall level of functioning in social, occupational,...
axis 5-global assessmet of functioning
a type of abnormal behavior characterized by unrealistic, irrational fear
characterized by chronic, uncontrollable, and excessive fear and worry that lasts atleast six...
generalized anxiety disorder
symptoms are sudden, but brief, attacks of intense apprehension that cause trembling, dizziness,...
involve a stron, irrational fear and avoidance of objects or situations that are generally...
people with this restrict their noraml activities because they fear having a panic attack...
involves persistant, unwanted, fearful thoughts(obsessions) and/or irrestible urges to perform...
characterized by extreme disturbances in emotional states
long-lasting depressed mood that interferes with the ability to function, feel pleasure, or...
major depressive disorder
repeated episodes of mania (unreasonable elation and hyperactivity) and depression
theory that people(and other animals) become resigned to the idea that they are helpless to...
learned helplessness theory
group of psychiatric disorders involving major disturbances in perception, language, thought,...
imaginary sensory perceptions that occur withouot an external stimulus
mistaken beliefs based on misrepresentations of reality
almost no emotional response of any kind
assume a nearly immobile stance for an extended period of time
involve addictions to or exaggerations of normal thought processes and behaviors, including...
positive schizophrenia symptoms
involve loss or absence of normal thought processes and behaviors, including impaired...
negative schizophrenia symptoms
abuse of or dependence on a mood or behaviior altering drug
Amnesia, fugue, or multiple personalities resulting from avoidance or painful memories or situations
previously known as multiple personality disorder-in which atleast two seperate and distinct...
dissociative identity disorder (DID)
inflexible, maladaptive personality traits that cause significant impairment of social and...
used interchangeably with the terms sociopath and psychopath-describe behavior so far outside...
antisocial personality disorder
core features of this disorder are impulsivity and instability in mood, relationships, and...
borderline personality disorder (BPD)
characterized by delusions and cannibalistic impulses-may see people turning into edible animals-typically...
relatively stable and enduring patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions
relatively stable and consistent characteristics that an be used to describe someone
trait thoery that explains personality in terms of the "big five" model, which is composed...
five-factor model (FFM) Big Five-first letters of model spell out word ocean:)
frueds term for thoughts or motives that a person is currently aware of or is remembering
freuds term for thoughts or motives that can be easily brought to mind
freuds term for thoughts or motives that lie beyond a persons normal awareness but that can...
set of ethical rules for behavior
in freudian theory, the ego's protective method of reducing anxiety by distorting reality
mechanism by which the ego prevents the most unacceptable, anxiety-provoking thoughts from...
in freudian theory, the five developmental periods (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital)...
we are motivated by our goals in lief-especially our goals of obtaining security and overcoming...
deep feelings of inadequacy and incompetence that arise from our feelings of helplessness as...
emphasized unconscious processes, but he believed that the unconscious contains positive and...
the collective unconscious consists of primitive images and patterns of thought, feeling, and...
Rogers term for all the information and beliefs that individuals have about their own nature,...
Rogers term for positive behavior toward a person with no contingencies attached
unconditional positive regard
Banduras term for the learned belief that one is capable of producing desired results, such...
Banduras belief that cognitions, behaviors, and the environment interact to produce personality
attempts to determine the extent to which behavioral differences among people are due to genetics...
standardized questionnaires that require written responses, usually to multiple-choice or true-false...
objective-personality tests-Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
psychological tests that use ambiguous stimuli, such as inkblots or drawings, which allow the...
projective tests-Rorschach Inkblot Test, Thematic Apperception Test
study of how other people influence a persons thoughts, feelings, and actions
explanations for behaviors or events
misjudgemnet of others behaviors as stemming from internal (dispositioinal) rather than external...
fundamental attribution error (FAE)
human personalitites and behaviors are more noticable than situational factors
when we explain our own behavior we tend to favor internal attributions for our successes and...
learned predispositions to respond cognitively, affectively, and behaviorally to particular...
a feeling of discomfort caused by a discepancy between an attitude and a behavior between two...
a learned, generally negative attitude directed toward specific people solely because of their...
when a stereotype or prejudice occurs without a persons conscious awareness or control- "automatic"
positive feelings towards another
faulty decision making that occurs when a highly cohesive group strives for agreement and avoids...
actions designed to help others with no obvious benefit to the helper