Psychology 101

Combined Questions From The Study Guide

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The three major ideas in the definition of psychology are
mind, science, behavior
What are the parent disciplines of psychology? 
philosophy & physiology
The four goals of psychology are
describe, explain, predict, control
Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution influenced which early school of psychology?
What is a major difference between behaviorism and  cognitive psychology?
behaviorism- directly observable behaviorcognitive- human info. processing
Which type of psychologist would be most interested in how groups influence individuals’ behavior?  
social psychologist
______ is a relatively new branch of ethics that addresses the dangers and benefits of research investigating the brain.
According to ____ psychology, people have positive values, free will, and a deep inner creativity, which in combination allow us to choose life-fulfilling paths to personal growth. 
The followers of structuralism used what primary method to accomplish their goal?
A psychologist interested in the social behavior of the cheetah investigates such behavior in the cheetah’s natural habitat. This type of research most likely represents
naturalistic observation
Pete was interested in whether training students in memory techniques really improved their memory. He randomly assigned students in his class to one of two groups. One group received...
A researcher investigates whether age of groups (adolescents, young adults, middle-aged adults, and senior citizens) affects performance on a test of short-term memory. Because the...
Correlation provides researchers with a measure of
relationships between people, groups, or entities
When researchers combine results from different studies into one large study, the study is called a(an)
meta analysis
A _____ is a tentative idea that might explain a set of observations.
Dr. Almay indicated in her study that aggression was measured as the number of times children threw stuffed animals in a 10 minute period. The description of aggression is considered...
operational definition
According to your text, what are three examples of descriptive research?
naturalistic observation, case studies, theories
Dr. Russell is interested in the effects of caffeine on memory in lab rats. In setting up an experiment, the independent variable is  
To test his hypothesis, Dr. Russell in #20 decides to inject one group of rats with caffeine every day for a week, but to leave the other group alone. At the end of the week, he...
not inject some of the rats at all; control group
During an action potential, ____ ions move into the neuron and ____ ions move out.
positive; negative
Reuptake refers to the process of
reabsorbing excess neurotransmitters back into the vesicles of sending neuron
The nervous system has ____ major parts
The central nervous system consists of the 
brain & spinal cord
The two cerebral hemispheres are connected by the 
corpus callosum
Split-brain patients have undergone surgery in which _____ has been lesioned.
corpus callosum/brain hemispheres
An EEG displays a pattern of recording in which sleep spindles are evident. This finding is indicative of which stage of sleep?
Stage 2
Which two stages of sleep are referred to collectively as slow wave sleep? 
Stage 3 & 4
John has an appointment to have his brain waves monitored while sleeping. After first waking up, it is learned that he had an unusually large percentage of REM sleep. Why might this...
because he didn't sleep enough the first night or woke up early
How would an evolutionary psychologist explain humans’ need for sleep? 
Darwin theory- Energy conservation: because body temperature lowers & calorie demand is down
There are a total of ___ stages of sleep
If you suddenly move or your body jerks while sleeping, you are most likely in the ____ stage of sleep.
What can sleep deprivation adversely affect? 
Performance, learning, attention and increased stress
The latent content of a dream refers to:
symbolic content & meaning
Which brain structure mediates our circadian rhythms?
hypothalamus- supracinasmatic nucleus
Who proposed that dreams are symbolic? 
Which sleep disorder is accompanied by snoring?
Sleep apnea
If you have repeated difficulty sleeping, you are said to suffer from which sleep disorder?
The suprachiasmatic nucleus is found in the
According to the activation-synthesis hypothesis, dreams arise from 
random bursts of nerve cell activity
Sleeping pills are in a class of medications referred to as ______
As you sit down to work at the computer you hear the buzzing of the hard drive, which is a bit annoying. However, after a short period of time you no longer notice the irritable...
The term “elicit” is most associated with 
Classical conditioning
____ is the researcher credited as being the discoverer of classical conditioning
If you were to use pepper to elicit sneezing in your conditioning study, pepper would be considered a/an
The finding that we form associations between certain combinations of CSs and USs more quickly than other combinations is evidence for 
Avoidance learning
Each time your dog raises its paw you give it a treat. In terms of operant conditioning terminology, the treat technically serves as a 
CS - reinforcement
____ refers to learning but not immediately displaying the learned behavior
Latent learning
Suddenly knowing an answer to a question that you could not correctly answer at an earlier time is representative of ____ learning
The process by which one learns new behaviors through observing others is known as 
The Bobo doll was used in classic studies conducted by 
Albert Bandura
Responses voluntarily produced in operant conditioning are referred to as being
limitless #
If, in order to get people to sneeze as part of your conditioning study, you were to pair the sound of a gong with the inhalation of some pepper, the sound of the gong would be considered...
(CS) Conditioned stimulus
Taking an aspirin to get rid of a headache illustrates _____ reinforcement
____ is also known as the “gambling reinforcement schedule.” 
Variable Ratio Reinforcement
Tolman and Honzik’s rats developed ____ to be able to use later when they were motivated to find their way around the maze
Jeremy just could not understand how to “do” geometry proofs. One day, after months of trying, Jeremy was walking down the street when suddenly it all became clear-he had found...
Learning that is not dependent of reinforcement, occurs in a social context, and involves voluntary behaviors is called ____ learning
The fact that you prefer redheads because your last love interest was a redhead best illustrates stimulus 
Does food or money serve as a primary reinforcer for most people? 
food, water, relief from pain
Does money serve as a primary or secondary reinforcer for most people?
secondary; attention, praise, money, a good grade, promotion
According to psychologists, sensory memory holds a ____ amount of perceptual input for a ____ amount of time. 
large; brief
“Knowing where you parked your car” is/is not an example of semantic memory
“Knowing the chemical formula for salt” is/is not an example of semantic memory
Conditioned responses and habits are examples of ____ memory
Memory research indicates that the memory system which has the largest capacity is 
Long Term Memory (LTM)
According to psychologists, episodic memories include memories of 
The road to semantic (Memories of what you learned)
Do primacy effects occur for material that is at the beginning or the end of a list?
Suppose you have very vivid memories of your 16th birthday party, when all of your friends got together and threw you a surprise party. Even though a number of years have passed,...
flashbulb memory
You have a big psychology test next week that requires you to learn a long list of important terms. Based on what memory research has shown regarding distributed versus massed practice,...
Martha remembers the day she was born very vividly, down to the things that people were saying. This is most likely a _____ memory
When previously established memories interfere with the creation of new memories, _____ interference has occurred
What effect does hypnosis have on memory? 
Confidence in remembering-you can implant beliefs, leading the hypnotical person to believe that suggested happened
Jenny listens attentively in her psychology class and translates the information into new memories. This illustrates 
The capacity of short-term memory can be enhanced by 
chunk-organized unit of information
Jeremy is trying to remember the names of the cranial nerves for his anatomy exam. He read the names through several times, and then tested himself on how well he could recall them....
first and few last
The visuospatial sketchpad, the articulatory loop, and the central executive are all parts of 
working memory
In the research of Elizabeth Loftus (1993) and others, what percentage of participants reported an event that did not occur? 
Your text authors discuss the case of “S” who had extraordinary memory skills. How did his memory affect his life? 
Had a hard time learning things a new way, trouble understanding
According to the effect called state-dependent retrieval, if you decide to study while drinking, how should you take the test? 
The basic building blocks of speech sounds that combine into meaningful speech are called:
The sentence, “The watchful the barked mean at man dog,” would be difficult for an English speaker to understand because the sentence violates the rules of: 
The phase, “I go,” has ___ morphemes
Semantics refers to: 
True language must have: 
Production, comprehension, phonology, phoneme
When you get stuck solving a problem, it could be because you are stuck on one interpretation or use of an object. This is called: 
functional fixedness
If you want to solve a problem and get the same answer each time, you will need to use a/an:
Unlike using an algorithm, analogical thinking requires: 
finding points of correspondence w/ previously solved problems & their solutions
_____ refers to the internal structure of the sentence
The words “seem” and “seam” differ in
One way to solve a problem is to take a short-cut and look at only a few ways to solve it. This is called
How many morpheme(s) are in “reread?”
What does it mean to say that language production is generative? 
we can arrange words in countless new combinations to produce more sentences
Binet and Simon’s specific aim for developing an intelligence test was
finding a way to identify kids who struggled in school
Gardner based his theory of intelligence on
multiple intelligences controlled by diff. brain areas
Sternberg’s theory of intelligence added two concepts to the idea that intelligence is based on analytic knowledge like you learn in school. Those two new types are
practical intelligence & creative intelligence
Similar to genetic and environmental causes for differences in intelligence, if you plant identical seed in two types of soil, the differences between the plants in the two areas will...
environmental factors
Mental retardation/intellectual disability can be defined as having an IQ score that is____or less
Gifted girls, relative to non-gifted girls, may have higher levels of which hormone?
Are prodigies gifted in all areas or usually gifted in a specific area?
usually in a specific area
Is the mean of IQ in the population always 100?
Yes; adjusted
Is IQ correlated with achievement in the real world?
Yes, not job performance
Has there been little modern interest in the idea of emotional intelligence?
According to your textbook, who created the first intelligence test?
Binet & Simon
William Stern’s formula for IQ was (MA/CA) X 100. MA is
Mental Age
As you become an expert in an area, what type of intelligence is developing?
Gardner’s theory is very appealing. Is there currently a way to measure all the separate intelligences, making it possible to rigorously test the theory?
Most researchers would agree that intelligence is about ____% genetic and ____%environmental.
50; 50
Using what you have learned about intelligence from your book, how should you choose a good study partner?
By asking what grade they made on the previous test (assuming they tell the truth)
A psychological state that includes subjective experience, bodily arousal, overt behavior and specific mental processes is called
_____ theory argues that an emotion arises when you interpret a situation, not when you notice your bodily arousal
Your text suggests that effective coping strategies are promoted by
positive psychology
According to your text, the internal imbalance that causes us to strive to achieve a particular goal that will reduce that imbalance is called
Which theory suggests that emotions arise simply because of our internal recognition of different body states?
James - lunge
A(an) _____ is an inherited tendency to produce organized and unalterable responses to particular stimuli.
Sarah has a compact car but really wishes she had an SUV. Does Sarah’s desire for an SUV fit the description of a want or a need?
According to your text, being happy is one focus of what is called _____ psychology.
According to _____ , if you force yourself to smile, you might actually feel a little happier
facial feedback hypothesis
Is stiff body posture combined with direct eye contact often a sign of deception?
The condition that arises from a lack of a requirement is called a
Is disgust considered a basic emotion?
Your text identifies how many basic emotions that appear to be innate and shared by all humans?
______ is one of the best understood emotions.
Which lie-detector technique uses neutral questions along with questions related directly to the crime in question?
Relevant/Irrelevant technique
According to Yerkes-Dodson law, we prefer a/an _____level of arousal
Greg has a teacher who is constantly criticizing his work. No matter how hard he tries or what he does, he seems to stay on his teacher’s “bad side.” Finally Greg just gave up...
learned helplessness
According to Freud, your normal awareness is called your
Which theorist is most closely associated with the inferiority complex?
Alfred Adler
Britt seems to have a sense that she can accomplish whatever she really sets her mind to. According to Bandura, Britt has
Compared to first and later borns, are middle children more responsible, temperamental, agreeable, or rebellious?
Grayson was asked for his social security number when he applied for a job. Freud would say that Grayson retrieved the information from his
Kayla ordered an ice cream sundae and a diet soda. She said that the ice cream treat was not was big of a deal since she was having a diet drink instead of a regular one. Which of Freud’s...
Which test generally is used to measure psychopathology?
According to Freud, the______ is the seat of morality.
Which theorist is most closely associated with the archetype?
Carl Jung
A relatively consistent characteristic exhibited in different situations is called
personality trait
Eysenck’s personality superfactors are
extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism
The “inkblot” test refers to the
Rorschach Test
Compared to first and middle-born children, later-born children are more rebellious, assertive, dominant, or adventurous?
In Freud’s view, are more of your thoughts and feelings in your unconscious or your conscious mind?
Tess was angry with her boyfriend, so she went to the gym and worked out for an extra hour. This is an example of the defense mechanism,
Accepting another person without any conditions is what Carl Rogers called
unconditional positive regard
Among the “Big Five” sociability is another term for
Freud believed that personality development progressed through and depended upon stages based on erogenous zones. These were called
psycho sexual
The highest emotional and intellectual potential recognized by Maslow is called
Gary was shown detailed black and white drawings and asked to explain various elements of them. He was most likely taking the projective test called the
Thematic Apperception Test
Ninth graders who believe that drinking will make them more popular are more likely to drink at an earlier age. This demonstrates the sociocognitive concept of
Compared to middle and later-borns, are first born children more sociable, adventurous, self-conscious, or responsible?
According to your text, over time, more college students are reporting an ____ locus of control.
What is a teratogen?
external agent that is harmful to a zygote, embryo, or fetus
Give an example of a teratogen:
Differences in temperament are apparent as early as
hours after birth
What is the correct order of “embryo, fetus, and zygote” in prenatal development?
zygote, embryo, fetus
Sunnel is a young pregnant mother who experiences high levels of stress due to her job. What is a possible result to her baby of her high level of stress?
suppressed brain growth
Are babies a blank slate just waiting to learn from their environment?
In the _____experiment, 6-month old infants did not want to crawl over the “deep end.” This experiment provided evidence that infants can perceive depth before they are able to...
visual cliff
Which theorist is responsible for the stages of cognitive development?
Jean Piaget
John’s mother has just baked a fresh apple pie for his birthday. She asks him how many pieces he would like the pie cut into – 8 or 12. John replies, “I am very hungry. Cut it...
Dr. Rhea Peeted wants to track the development of children over time. She proposes to interview the children at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 years of age. This is an example of a _____ study
longitudinal study
Who developed the eight psychosocial stages of development?
Erik Erikson
Which theorist proposed that the first stage of cognitive development is preconventional?
According to Piaget, when does a child begin fantasy play?
Whose theory emphasizes the role of culture in the development of children’s cognitive abilities?
Vugotsky's Sociocultural Theory
According to the general adaptation syndrome, the period in which the body adapts to the stressor is known as the
The emotional predicament experienced when making difficult choices is
internal conflict
According to the research, what determines whether an event will be a stressor?
perceived control
Stage two of Selye’s three-stage stress response is called
When you cannot decide between the double-chocolate cake and the strawberry mousse pie, because you like them both, you are experiencing an
approach-approach conflict
Stress impacts
the immune system
Studies that investigate the relationship between stress and the immune system typically measure_____ as an index of immune system activity.
white blood cells aka nk cells
What style of coping strategies alters either the environment itself or the way in which the person and the environment interact?
problem-focused coping
When someone is using a coping style that focuses on changing his or her emotional response to the stressor, he or she is using ____ coping
Problem-focused coping tends to be used by people who score high on the personality factor of
What is the first phase of the stress response?
Perceived lack of control can lead to
learned helplessness
We are less likely to be stressed about uncontrollable situations if the situations are at least
In what way(s) can stress affect the growth of cancerous tumor cells?
it suppresses the nervous system
______ _______defined as intentionally damaging relationships or injuring others psychologically in ways such as gossiping
Relational aggression
What are the three parts of the definition of a psychological disorder?
distress, impairment, risk of harm
Mental images so vivid that they seem real, but are not real, are called
The most common psychological disorder is
MDD - major depressive disorder
Major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder are examples of
mood disorders
Another name for a period of at least one week during which an abnormally elevated, expansive, or irritable mood persists is a
manic episode; seen in bipolar disorder
A person who suffers from attacks of intense fear or discomfort, accompanied by heightened sympathetic nervous system activity, would be diagnosed with
panic disorder
The primary difference between generalized anxiety disorder and other anxiety disorders is that generalized anxiety disorder
is not related to specific stimuli
In what way(s) are people with bulimia always different from people with anorexia
weight - anorexia people are underweight           - bulimia maintain same weight & may be over weight
____ is a personality disorder characterized by a longstanding pattern of disregard for other people to the point of violating their rights
anti-social personality disorder
The diathesis-stress model proposes that mental illnesses arise from a combination of
genetics, environmental, and stress issues
For the past 2 weeks, Regina has felt very fatigued. She has slept almost all of the time and lost a considerable amount of weight. Not even her favorite activities, such as horseback...
Frank has been asked to present his company’s proposal to a funding board in a few days. However, Frank was terrified to speak in public, and consequently quit his job to avoid what...
social phobia
Daniel has schizophrenia and remains flat in his emotional responses. In general, he fails to respond emotionally and exhibits minimal body language. He is displaying
catatonic schizophrenia
The most studied personality disorder is
antisocial personality disorder
The original insight-oriented therapy directly connected to Freud’s theory of personality is
According to Freud, when patients come to relate to their therapist as they did someone who was important in their lives, ____ is said to have taken place
Carl Rogers developed ____ therapy.
Incongruence is a mismatch between your ____ self and your ____self.
real; ideal
The therapist must empathize with the client and provide_____in client-centered therapy
unconditional positive regard
Eleani, a therapist, conveys positive feelings towards her client even though he is discussing the desire to hit his spouse. This aspect of client-centered therapy is known as
The clients most likely to benefit from insight therapies are
healthy & articulate patients
_______is a type of therapy that aims to change problematic behaviors and irrational thoughts and provide new, more adaptive behaviors and beliefs to replace old, maladaptive ones
Cognitive-behavior theory
Behavior modification is based on ____ conditioning principles
Albert Ellis developed a treatment called
____is a behavior therapy technique that teaches people to be relaxed in the presence of a feared object or situation
Systemic desensitization
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are used to treat
The use of an electric current to induce a controlled brain seizure in people with certain psychological disorders is known as
electroconvulsive therapy - ECT
A negative side effect of ECT is
memory loss
What type of treatment is most effective for panic disorder?
CBT - Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Treatment with medication can help people with schizophrenia by
reducing psychotic symptoms 
What type of therapist would most likely say, “Tell me about your dreams.”
psycho-dynamic therapist
_____is a type of therapy that is based on well-researched learning principles that focus on changing observable, measurable behaviors.
Behavior therapy
_____is a type of therapy that focuses on a client’s thoughts rather than his or her feelings or behavior.
Cognitive therapy
What is the primary focus of rational-emotive behavior therapy?
to help clients engage in rational, logical thinking- to avoid irrational thoughts that can lead to psychological problems
What type of treatment was the first antidepressant discovered and requires users to adhere to a diet free of tyramine?
When an attitude and a behavior, or two attitudes, are inconsistent with one another, the resulting feeling is called
cognitive dissonance
Has conformity tended to increase or decrease since Asch’s original research (1951, 1 955)?
The rules that implicity or explicity govern members of a group are called
In the Milgram studies, psychiatrists predicted ____% would go to the maximum shock level. Actual results: _____% of teachers went to the maximum levels
2; 65
A limitation of the Robber’s cave experiment is that the study only used _____, and ____ as participants
boys; 11 years old
In Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment, what appeared to transform the participants’ perceptions and behavior?
situation & circumstances
How long was the Stanford Prison Experiment supposed to last? How long did it actually last?
2 weeks; 6 days
The Kitty Genovese story and the Darley and Latene (1968) study exemplify the____Effect

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