Psychology 101

220 cards

Combined questions from the study guide


 
  
Created Dec 7, 2011
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  Side A   Side B
1
The three major ideas in the definition of psychology are
 
mind, science, behavior
2
What are the parent disciplines of psychology? 
 
philosophy & physiology
3
The four goals of psychology are
 
describe, explain, predict, control
4
Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution influenced which early school of psychology?
 
functionalism
5
What is a major difference between behaviorism and  cognitive psychology?
 
behaviorism- directly observable behaviorcognitive- human info. processing
6
Which type of psychologist would be most interested in how groups influence individuals’...
 
social psychologist
7
______ is a relatively new branch of ethics that addresses the dangers and benefits of research...
 
Neuroethics
8
According to ____ psychology, people have positive values, free will, and a deep inner creativity,...
 
humanistic
9
The followers of structuralism used what primary method to accomplish their goal?
 
introspection
10
A psychologist interested in the social behavior of the cheetah investigates such behavior...
 
naturalistic observation
11
Pete was interested in whether training students in memory techniques really improved their...
 
experiment
12
A researcher investigates whether age of groups (adolescents, young adults, middle-aged adults,...
 
Quasi-experimental
13
Correlation provides researchers with a measure of
 
relationships between people, groups, or entities
14
When researchers combine results from different studies into one large study, the study is...
 
meta analysis
15
A _____ is a tentative idea that might explain a set of observations.
 
hypothesis
16
Dr. Almay indicated in her study that aggression was measured as the number of times children...
 
operational definition
17
According to your text, what are three examples of descriptive research?
 
naturalistic observation, case studies, theories
18
Dr. Russell is interested in the effects of caffeine on memory in lab rats. In setting up...
 
caffeine
19
To test his hypothesis, Dr. Russell in #20 decides to inject one group of rats with caffeine...
 
not inject some of the rats at all; control group
20
During an action potential, ____ ions move into the neuron and ____ ions move out.
 
positive; negative
21
Reuptake refers to the process of
 
reabsorbing excess neurotransmitters back into the vesicles of sending neuron
22
The nervous system has ____ major parts
 
2
23
The central nervous system consists of the 
 
brain & spinal cord
24
The two cerebral hemispheres are connected by the 
 
corpus callosum
25
Split-brain patients have undergone surgery in which _____ has been lesioned.
 
corpus callosum/brain hemispheres
26
An EEG displays a pattern of recording in which sleep spindles are evident. This finding is...
 
Stage 2
27
Which two stages of sleep are referred to collectively as slow wave sleep? 
 
Stage 3 & 4
28
John has an appointment to have his brain waves monitored while sleeping. After first waking...
 
because he didn't sleep enough the first night or woke up early
29
How would an evolutionary psychologist explain humans’ need for sleep? 
 
Darwin theory- Energy conservation: because body temperature lowers & calorie demand is...
30
There are a total of ___ stages of sleep
 
4
31
If you suddenly move or your body jerks while sleeping, you are most likely in the ____ stage...
 
hypnogogic
32
What can sleep deprivation adversely affect? 
 
Performance, learning, attention and increased stress
33
The latent content of a dream refers to:
 
symbolic content & meaning
34
Which brain structure mediates our circadian rhythms?
 
hypothalamus- supracinasmatic nucleus
35
Who proposed that dreams are symbolic? 
 
Freud
36
Which sleep disorder is accompanied by snoring?
 
Sleep apnea
37
If you have repeated difficulty sleeping, you are said to suffer from which sleep disorder?
 
insomnia
38
The suprachiasmatic nucleus is found in the
 
hypothalamus
39
According to the activation-synthesis hypothesis, dreams arise from 
 
random bursts of nerve cell activity
40
Sleeping pills are in a class of medications referred to as ______
 
Barbiturates
41
As you sit down to work at the computer you hear the buzzing of the hard drive, which is...
 
Habituation
42
The term “elicit” is most associated with 
 
Classical conditioning
43
____ is the researcher credited as being the discoverer of classical conditioning
 
Pavlov
44
If you were to use pepper to elicit sneezing in your conditioning study, pepper would be considered...
 
US
45
The finding that we form associations between certain combinations of CSs and USs more quickly...
 
Avoidance learning
46
Each time your dog raises its paw you give it a treat. In terms of operant conditioning terminology,...
 
CS - reinforcement
47
____ refers to learning but not immediately displaying the learned behavior
 
Latent learning
48
Suddenly knowing an answer to a question that you could not correctly answer at an earlier...
 
insight
49
The process by which one learns new behaviors through observing others is known as 
 
observation
50
The Bobo doll was used in classic studies conducted by 
 
Albert Bandura
51
Responses voluntarily produced in operant conditioning are referred to as being
 
limitless #
52
If, in order to get people to sneeze as part of your conditioning study, you were to pair...
 
(CS) Conditioned stimulus
53
Taking an aspirin to get rid of a headache illustrates _____ reinforcement
 
negative
54
____ is also known as the “gambling reinforcement schedule.” 
 
Variable Ratio Reinforcement
55
Tolman and Honzik’s rats developed ____ to be able to use later when they were motivated...
 
learning
56
Jeremy just could not understand how to “do” geometry proofs. One day, after months of...
 
insight
57
Learning that is not dependent of reinforcement, occurs in a social context, and involves...
 
observational
58
The fact that you prefer redheads because your last love interest was a redhead best illustrates...
 
generalization
59
Does food or money serve as a primary reinforcer for most people? 
 
food, water, relief from pain
60
Does money serve as a primary or secondary reinforcer for most people?
 
secondary; attention, praise, money, a good grade, promotion
61
According to psychologists, sensory memory holds a ____ amount of perceptual input for a ____...
 
large; brief
62
“Knowing where you parked your car” is/is not an example of semantic memory
 
not
63
“Knowing the chemical formula for salt” is/is not an example of semantic memory
 
is
64
Conditioned responses and habits are examples of ____ memory
 
implicit
65
Memory research indicates that the memory system which has the largest capacity is 
 
Long Term Memory (LTM)
66
According to psychologists, episodic memories include memories of 
 
The road to semantic (Memories of what you learned)
67
Do primacy effects occur for material that is at the beginning or the end of a list?
 
Beginning
68
Suppose you have very vivid memories of your 16th birthday party, when all of your friends...
 
flashbulb memory
69
You have a big psychology test next week that requires you to learn a long list of important...
 
Distribute
70
Martha remembers the day she was born very vividly, down to the things that people were saying....
 
false
71
When previously established memories interfere with the creation of new memories, _____ interference...
 
proactive
72
What effect does hypnosis have on memory? 
 
Confidence in remembering-you can implant beliefs, leading the hypnotical person to believe...
73
Jenny listens attentively in her psychology class and translates the information into new...
 
encoding
74
The capacity of short-term memory can be enhanced by 
 
chunk-organized unit of information
75
Jeremy is trying to remember the names of the cranial nerves for his anatomy exam. He read...
 
first and few last
76
The visuospatial sketchpad, the articulatory loop, and the central executive are all parts...
 
working memory
77
In the research of Elizabeth Loftus (1993) and others, what percentage of participants reported...
 
All
78
Your text authors discuss the case of “S” who had extraordinary memory skills. How did...
 
Had a hard time learning things a new way, trouble understanding
79
According to the effect called state-dependent retrieval, if you decide to study while drinking,...
 
drinking
80
The basic building blocks of speech sounds that combine into meaningful speech are called:
 
phonology
81
The sentence, “The watchful the barked mean at man dog,” would be difficult for an English...
 
syntax
82
The phase, “I go,” has ___ morphemes
 
one
83
Semantics refers to: 
 
meaning
84
True language must have: 
 
Production, comprehension, phonology, phoneme
85
When you get stuck solving a problem, it could be because you are stuck on one interpretation...
 
functional fixedness
86
If you want to solve a problem and get the same answer each time, you will need to use a/an:
 
algorithm
87
Unlike using an algorithm, analogical thinking requires: 
 
finding points of correspondence w/ previously solved problems & their solutions
88
_____ refers to the internal structure of the sentence
 
Syntax
89
The words “seem” and “seam” differ in
 
semantics
90
One way to solve a problem is to take a short-cut and look at only a few ways to solve it....
 
heuristic
91
How many morpheme(s) are in “reread?”
 
2
92
What does it mean to say that language production is generative? 
 
we can arrange words in countless new combinations to produce more sentences
93
Binet and Simon’s specific aim for developing an intelligence test was
 
finding a way to identify kids who struggled in school
94
Gardner based his theory of intelligence on
 
multiple intelligences controlled by diff. brain areas
95
Sternberg’s theory of intelligence added two concepts to the idea that intelligence is based...
 
practical intelligence & creative intelligence
96
Similar to genetic and environmental causes for differences in intelligence, if you plant identical...
 
environmental factors
97
Mental retardation/intellectual disability can be defined as having an IQ score that is____or...
 
70
98
Gifted girls, relative to non-gifted girls, may have higher levels of which hormone?
 
testosterone
99
Are prodigies gifted in all areas or usually gifted in a specific area?
 
usually in a specific area
100
Is the mean of IQ in the population always 100?
 
Yes; adjusted
101
Is IQ correlated with achievement in the real world?
 
Yes, not job performance
102
Has there been little modern interest in the idea of emotional intelligence?
 
No
103
According to your textbook, who created the first intelligence test?
 
Binet & Simon
104
William Stern’s formula for IQ was (MA/CA) X 100. MA is
 
Mental Age
105
As you become an expert in an area, what type of intelligence is developing?
 
crystalized
106
Gardner’s theory is very appealing. Is there currently a way to measure all the separate...
 
No
107
Most researchers would agree that intelligence is about ____% genetic and ____%environmental.
 
50; 50
108
Using what you have learned about intelligence from your book, how should you choose a good...
 
By asking what grade they made on the previous test (assuming they tell the truth)
109
A psychological state that includes subjective experience, bodily arousal, overt behavior and...
 
emotion
110
_____ theory argues that an emotion arises when you interpret a situation, not when you...
 
Cognitive
111
Your text suggests that effective coping strategies are promoted by
 
positive psychology
112
According to your text, the internal imbalance that causes us to strive to achieve a particular...
 
need
113
Which theory suggests that emotions arise simply because of our internal recognition of different...
 
James - lunge
114
A(an) _____ is an inherited tendency to produce organized and unalterable responses to particular...
 
instinct
115
Sarah has a compact car but really wishes she had an SUV. Does Sarah’s desire for an SUV...
 
want
116
According to your text, being happy is one focus of what is called _____ psychology.
 
positive
117
According to _____ , if you force yourself to smile, you might actually feel a little happier
 
facial feedback hypothesis
118
Is stiff body posture combined with direct eye contact often a sign of deception?
 
Yes
119
The condition that arises from a lack of a requirement is called a
 
need
120
Is disgust considered a basic emotion?
 
Yes
121
Your text identifies how many basic emotions that appear to be innate and shared by all humans?
 
6
122
______ is one of the best understood emotions.
 
Fear
123
Which lie-detector technique uses neutral questions along with questions related directly to...
 
Relevant/Irrelevant technique
124
According to Yerkes-Dodson law, we prefer a/an _____level of arousal
 
intermediate
125
Greg has a teacher who is constantly criticizing his work. No matter how hard he tries or what...
 
learned helplessness
126
According to Freud, your normal awareness is called your
 
ego
127
Which theorist is most closely associated with the inferiority complex?
 
Alfred Adler
128
Britt seems to have a sense that she can accomplish whatever she really sets her mind to. According...
 
self-efficiency
129
Compared to first and later borns, are middle children more responsible, temperamental, agreeable,...
 
rebellious
130
Grayson was asked for his social security number when he applied for a job. Freud would say...
 
preconscious
131
Kayla ordered an ice cream sundae and a diet soda. She said that the ice cream treat was not...
 
rationalization
132
Which test generally is used to measure psychopathology?
 
MMPI-2
133
According to Freud, the______ is the seat of morality.
 
superego
134
Which theorist is most closely associated with the archetype?
 
Carl Jung
135
A relatively consistent characteristic exhibited in different situations is called
 
personality trait
136
Eysenck’s personality superfactors are
 
extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism
137
The “inkblot” test refers to the
 
Rorschach Test
138
Compared to first and middle-born children, later-born children are more rebellious, assertive,...
 
adventurous
139
In Freud’s view, are more of your thoughts and feelings in your unconscious or your conscious...
 
unconscious
140
Tess was angry with her boyfriend, so she went to the gym and worked out for an extra hour....
 
sublimination
141
Accepting another person without any conditions is what Carl Rogers called
 
unconditional positive regard
142
Among the “Big Five” sociability is another term for
 
extraversion
143
Freud believed that personality development progressed through and depended upon stages based...
 
psycho sexual
144
The highest emotional and intellectual potential recognized by Maslow is called
 
self-actualization
145
Gary was shown detailed black and white drawings and asked to explain various elements of them....
 
Thematic Apperception Test
146
Ninth graders who believe that drinking will make them more popular are more likely to drink...
 
expectancies
147
Compared to middle and later-borns, are first born children more sociable, adventurous, self-conscious,...
 
responsible
148
According to your text, over time, more college students are reporting an ____ locus of control.
 
external
149
What is a teratogen?
 
external agent that is harmful to a zygote, embryo, or fetus
150
Give an example of a teratogen:
 
virus
151
Differences in temperament are apparent as early as
 
hours after birth
152
What is the correct order of “embryo, fetus, and zygote” in prenatal development?
 
zygote, embryo, fetus
153
Sunnel is a young pregnant mother who experiences high levels of stress due to her job. What...
 
suppressed brain growth
154
Are babies a blank slate just waiting to learn from their environment?
 
No
155
In the _____experiment, 6-month old infants did not want to crawl over the “deep end.”...
 
visual cliff
156
Which theorist is responsible for the stages of cognitive development?
 
Jean Piaget
157
John’s mother has just baked a fresh apple pie for his birthday. She asks him how many pieces...
 
conservation
158
Dr. Rhea Peeted wants to track the development of children over time. She proposes to interview...
 
longitudinal study
159
Who developed the eight psychosocial stages of development?
 
Erik Erikson
160
Which theorist proposed that the first stage of cognitive development is preconventional?
 
Kohlberg
161
According to Piaget, when does a child begin fantasy play?
 
Preoperational
162
Whose theory emphasizes the role of culture in the development of children’s cognitive abilities?
 
Vugotsky's Sociocultural Theory
163
According to the general adaptation syndrome, the period in which the body adapts to the stressor...
 
resistance
164
The emotional predicament experienced when making difficult choices is
 
internal conflict
165
According to the research, what determines whether an event will be a stressor?
 
perceived control
166
Stage two of Selye’s three-stage stress response is called
 
resistance
167
When you cannot decide between the double-chocolate cake and the strawberry mousse pie, because...
 
approach-approach conflict
168
Stress impacts
 
the immune system
169
Studies that investigate the relationship between stress and the immune system typically measure_____...
 
white blood cells aka nk cells
170
What style of coping strategies alters either the environment itself or the way in which the...
 
problem-focused coping
171
When someone is using a coping style that focuses on changing his or her emotional response...
 
emotion-focused
172
Problem-focused coping tends to be used by people who score high on the personality factor...
 
conscientious
173
What is the first phase of the stress response?
 
alarm
174
Perceived lack of control can lead to
 
learned helplessness
175
We are less likely to be stressed about uncontrollable situations if the situations are at...
 
predictable
176
In what way(s) can stress affect the growth of cancerous tumor cells?
 
it suppresses the nervous system
177
______ _______defined as intentionally damaging relationships or injuring others psychologically...
 
Relational aggression
178
What are the three parts of the definition of a psychological disorder?
 
distress, impairment, risk of harm
179
Mental images so vivid that they seem real, but are not real, are called
 
hallucinations
180
The most common psychological disorder is
 
MDD - major depressive disorder
181
Major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder are examples of
 
mood disorders
182
Another name for a period of at least one week during which an abnormally elevated, expansive,...
 
manic episode; seen in bipolar disorder
183
A person who suffers from attacks of intense fear or discomfort, accompanied by heightened...
 
panic disorder
184
The primary difference between generalized anxiety disorder and other anxiety disorders is...
 
is not related to specific stimuli
185
In what way(s) are people with bulimia always different from people with anorexia
 
weight - anorexia people are underweight           - bulimia...
186
____ is a personality disorder characterized by a longstanding pattern of disregard for...
 
anti-social personality disorder
187
The diathesis-stress model proposes that mental illnesses arise from a combination of
 
genetics, environmental, and stress issues
188
For the past 2 weeks, Regina has felt very fatigued. She has slept almost all of the time and...
 
MDD
189
Frank has been asked to present his company’s proposal to a funding board in a few days....
 
social phobia
190
Daniel has schizophrenia and remains flat in his emotional responses. In general, he fails...
 
catatonic schizophrenia
191
The most studied personality disorder is
 
antisocial personality disorder
192
The original insight-oriented therapy directly connected to Freud’s theory of personality...
 
psychoanalyst
193
According to Freud, when patients come to relate to their therapist as they did someone who...
 
transference
194
Carl Rogers developed ____ therapy.
 
client-centered
195
Incongruence is a mismatch between your ____ self and your ____self.
 
real; ideal
196
The therapist must empathize with the client and provide_____in client-centered therapy
 
unconditional positive regard
197
Eleani, a therapist, conveys positive feelings towards her client even though he is discussing...
 
empathy
198
The clients most likely to benefit from insight therapies are
 
healthy & articulate patients
199
_______is a type of therapy that aims to change problematic behaviors and irrational thoughts...
 
Cognitive-behavior theory
200
Behavior modification is based on ____ conditioning principles
 
operate
201
Albert Ellis developed a treatment called
 
REBT
202
____is a behavior therapy technique that teaches people to be relaxed in the presence of a...
 
Systemic desensitization
203
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are used to treat
 
depression
204
The use of an electric current to induce a controlled brain seizure in people with certain...
 
electroconvulsive therapy - ECT
205
A negative side effect of ECT is
 
memory loss
206
What type of treatment is most effective for panic disorder?
 
CBT - Cognitive Behavior Therapy
207
Treatment with medication can help people with schizophrenia by
 
reducing psychotic symptoms 
208
What type of therapist would most likely say, “Tell me about your dreams.”
 
psycho-dynamic therapist
209
_____is a type of therapy that is based on well-researched learning principles that focus on...
 
Behavior therapy
210
_____is a type of therapy that focuses on a client’s thoughts rather than his or her feelings...
 
Cognitive therapy
211
What is the primary focus of rational-emotive behavior therapy?
 
to help clients engage in rational, logical thinking- to avoid irrational thoughts that can...
212
What type of treatment was the first antidepressant discovered and requires users to adhere...
 
MAOI
213
When an attitude and a behavior, or two attitudes, are inconsistent with one another, the resulting...
 
cognitive dissonance
214
Has conformity tended to increase or decrease since Asch’s original research (1951, 1 955)?
 
decrease
215
The rules that implicity or explicity govern members of a group are called
 
norm
216
In the Milgram studies, psychiatrists predicted ____% would go to the maximum shock level. Actual...
 
2; 65
217
A limitation of the Robber’s cave experiment is that the study only used _____, and...
 
boys; 11 years old
218
In Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment, what appeared to transform the participants’...
 
situation & circumstances
219
How long was the Stanford Prison Experiment supposed to last? How long did it actually last?
 
2 weeks; 6 days
220
The Kitty Genovese story and the Darley and Latene (1968) study exemplify the____Effect
 
bystander


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