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Psychology 101 Test 1_chapters 1, 2, 4


First Test Of Quarter On Chapters 1, 2, And 4.
  
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What is psychology?
 
~a science~study of mind and behavior or mental process~direct study~inferred elements: infer behaviors from less observable things. 
Goals of psychology?
 
1. to describe behavior2. to understand behavior3. to influence behavior 4. to apply research findings to real world phenomena
Three important principles of science?
 
1. objectivity: evaluate research data and theory based on what's observed.2. Accuracy: gather data from lab and real world in precise ways.3. healthy skepticism: take a cautious view of things until data are replicated.
basic research?
 
studies conducted to obtain knowledge for its own sake.
applied research?
 
studies conducted to solve specific problems.
Perspectives on behavior?
 
enable us to conceptualize bahvior.
A. THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES?
 
1. focus: brain (function); genetic influence.2. buzz words: anything to do with biology and bodily processes. 3. Dualism vs. monism: philosophies used.
A. THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
Dualism?
Monism?
 
dualism is mind and body are separate entities.
monism is mind and body are unified whole and more widely accepted currently.
A. THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
Evolutionary psychology?
 
based on principles of Darwin's theory on evolution. 
A. THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
Evolutionary psychology-
a. natural selection?
 
"survival of the fittest"characteristic that allows one to survive and reproduce will be handed down.
A. THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
Evolutionary psychology-
b. Basic premise?
 
evolution is important in the development of human behavior.
A. THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
Sociobiology?
 
~very conroversial~proposes that complex social behaviors are further products of evolution. 
A. THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
Behavior Genetics?
 
to what extent behaviors are related to one's genetic predispositions.~twin studies:  ~identical twins (monozygotic) 100% of same genetic makeup.  ~fraternal twins (Dizygotic) no more similar that siblings.
B. PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY?
 
biggest name for this theory = Sigmund Freud
B. PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY?
1. Focus?
 
unconscious mental processes that direct your behavior and early childhood experiences. 
B. PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY?
2. Buzz word
 
unconscious. 
B. PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY?
3. Defense mechanism?
 
behaviors that are used to reduce anxiety.~"denial" - deny any threat or danger of an event, behavior, etc.
B. PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY?
4. Free Association?
 
technique used to probe unconscious.~look for patterns in their associations as they freely speak.
C. BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE
1. Focal points?
 
observable behaviors, the environment; learning.
C. BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE
2. Buzz words?
 
learning and conditioning.
C. BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE
3. Basic premise?
 
(how you are shaped over time)~behavior is shaped by environment.   "shapeless lump of clay"~also shaped by observing others.
D. HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE
1. Focus point ?
 
free will; the self (how you feel about who you are); we make choices.
D. HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE
2. Buzz Word?
 
self  (ex: self-esteem, self-concept, etc.)
D. HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE
3. Self-Actualization?
 
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rodgers.
Live up to one's potential
"be all that you can be"
D. HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE
4. Basic Premise?
 
People are inherently good, are striving toward growth, and are seeking to find the meaning in their existence.
E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE ?
1. Historical roots?
 
also a reaction to behaviorism.
~studies of mental processes. 
E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE1. Historical roots
a. Structuralism?
 
~Wundt & Titchener
studied the mind by breaking it down into components "thoughts""introspection" (looking inside yourself, thoughts within). 
E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE1. Historical roots
b. Functionalism?
 
~James
looked at how the components of the mind worked together and in certain environments.
E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE1. Historical roots
c. Gestalt?
 
~german scientists, 1920's
"the whole is greater than the sum of the parts."
E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE
1.) more recently?
 
information-processing
E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE
2.) Buzz words?
 
thinking, thoughts, beliefs, information-processing.
E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE
3.) Focus of cognitive?
 
on thoughts (direct behavior); beliefs (also direct); use of memory.
E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE
4.) Basic Premise?
 
behavior is a product of thoughts and ideas and beliefs.
F. ECLECTICISM (variety) ?
 
a bit of all of the above.
G. SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE ?
 
Role of one's cultural environment.
G. SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
1. Focus points?
 
how cultural is transmitted and how cultures are similar and yet different from one another.
G. SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
2. Buzz words?
 
culture- consists of traditions, values, shared history, beliefs, behaviors, norms.
norms- rules that tell us what is acceptable
G. SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
3. Individualism vs. Collectivism?
 
Indiv.-emphasis is on the individual and personal goals, achievement, well being of the individual.
collect.-emphasis is on the group, group welfare, goals, community, family, social group.
NATURE VS. NURTURE
a. 

 
nature- characteristics are biological predetermined and with which one is born."hard-wired"
nurture- characteristic due to environmental influences and that come from experience.
NATURE VS. NURTURE
b. originating vs. present causes of behavior?
 
originating- evolved characteristics that have survival value. (nature)
present- learned factors that determine whether of not behaviors will occur. (nurture)
NATURE VS. NURTURE
c. interaction of biology and environment~nature (biology) ~nurture (environment)
 
nature (biology)- provides a range of possible behaviors.ex: I.Q. scorenature- 100-125
nurture (environment)- determines where you fall within the range. ex: nurture- post natal environment   enriched environment; diet; encouragement; etc.
second review packet
 
yay 1 down 2 to go!!
I. SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES (chun wondering and being curious about the guy biking up the hill she drives up, curious about how he does it, why he does it, what drives him to keep going...)
a. curiosity?
 
observe a real world phenomena and become curious
I. SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES
b. skepticism?
 
remain skeptical of everything until it can be tested.
I. SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES
c. open mindedness?
 
keep one's mind open to many explanations.
II. STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC PROCESS ?

 
1. Observation and formation of questions2. form hypothesis- tentative statements about variables3. test hypothesis- collect data; conduct research4. analyze data- submit data to statistics and draw tentative conclusions.5. further research and building of theories. ~theory: a set of statements about relations among events or variables. ~hypothesis: a narrower statement focused on specific variables or factors.6. develop new hypotheses from theory-full circle
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECT
 
Ach- learning and memory.
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECT
a. hypothesis?
 
ex: taking Ach pill will increase your memory.
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECT
b. variable?
 
a condition or characteristic whole value is free to vary.
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECT
b. variable
1. Independent variable (I.V.)?
 
variable manipulated by experimenter to see if its effects on something else.ex. the dose of Ach
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECT
b. variable 2. Dependent variable (D.V.)?
 
variable measured by experimenter; outcome variable.  "the something else"ex: increase in learning and memory
this value is dependent upon the independent variable
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECT
C. Operational Definitions?
 
specific definition of variables that quantifies them; makes them measurable.ex: dependent variable:class performance, performance on memory tasks, etc.
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECT
D. "Extraneous Variables"  ?
 
variables that affect your outcome but were NOT manipulated by the experimenter. 
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECT
D. "Extraneous Variables" 
1. Control for Ext. variables?
 
hold conditions constant except for manipulation (you do this by having a control group)
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECT
D. "Extraneous Variables" 
2. Control for individual differences?
 
Random selection of subjects.-this means each subject had an equal chance of being in either group (exp. or control group)
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECT
E. Significant Differences?
 
statistically significant differences in scores that tell you to what extent these differences are not by chance alone.
IV. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH- RELATIONS BETWEEN EVENTS: measures rather than manipulates variables.  ?
 
when you just want to measure relations among variables and/or when you cannot ethically or realistically manipulate variables.
IV. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH- RELATIONS BETWEEN EVENTS
A. Correlation Coefficient: (r-value) ?
 
a statistic that tells the strength and direction of a relationship between variables.
IV. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH- RELATIONS BETWEEN EVENTS
A. Correlation Coefficient: (r-value) 
1. Direction: positive vs. negative (+ vs. -) ?
 
pos. correlation: as value of 1 variable increases, so does the value of 2nd variable.
ex: higher Alexithymia scores related to higher distress scores.
neg. correlation: as a value of 1 variable increases value of second variable decreases. 
ex: higher alexthymia scores related to lower well-being scores. 
IV. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH- RELATIONS BETWEEN EVENTS
A. Correlation Coefficient: (r-value) 
2. strength: absolute size of the correlation coefficient irrespective of direction ?
 
~varies between 0-1.00  : closer to 1.00, the stronger the correlation.
perfect correlation=1.00zero correlation=0               neither occur
IV. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH- RELATIONS BETWEEN EVENTS
B. Correlation & Prediction ?
 
if our variables significantly co-vary then knowing value of 1 enables us to predict the value of the other. 
IV. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH- RELATIONS BETWEEN EVENTS
C. Correlation Does Not Equal Causation
1. Problems with correlation and assuming causation:
a. Bidirectional problem (directionality)?
 
does A>B ? or does B>A
Alex>more stress or does more stress> more difficulty expressing feelings.
IV. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH- RELATIONS BETWEEN EVENTS
C. Correlation Does Not Equal Causation
1. Problems with correlation and assuming causation:
b. 3rd variable problem?
 
A>B A is related to B
- is "c" responsible for A being related to "B"
V. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH ?
 
Describes how organisms behave in natural (non-lab) settings. 
NO manipulations   NO control over conditions.
V. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
A. Case Studies ?
 
Intense detailed analysis of an individual or group.
V. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
A. Case Studies 
1. Some Pros and Cons of case studies?
 
Pros: (advantages) - get rich detailed info.                                    -can study rare phenomena
Cons: (disadvantages) - cannot establish cause & effect                                    - cannot generalize results to great public

V. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
B. Naturalistic Observation ?
 
observe subjects in a natural setting ( kids on a playground)
V. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
B. Naturalistic Observation 
2. Some Pros and Cons of survey studies?
 
Pros: -very efficient; cost affective collect large amounts of data
Cons: -cannot establish causality             self-report bias?          must have a representable sample
VI. KEY CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH 
a. populations vs. samples? 
 
Populations: ALL the individuals of an area of study.
Samples: A subset of the population (hopefully representative of the population.)
VI. KEY CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH 
b. Representative Sample ?
 
a sample that possesses the important characteristics of our population. 
ex: ratio of male to female; socioeconomic status (SES), etc. 
VI. KEY CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH 
c. Random Sampling ?
 
selecting a sample such that each subject in the population had an equal chance of being selected. 
prevents bias being introduced by purposeful selection of subjects. 
ex: selecting only those sitting in the front , only those from on particular town, only those who raise their  hands first etc.
VI. KEY CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH 
D. Threats to the Validity of research  ?
 
validity = accuracy (in terms of how well you are measuring what you want.)
VI. KEY CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH 
D. Threats to the Validity of research 
Types of Validity:
1. Internal Validity ?
 
Degree to which you have measured exactly what you set out to measure. Requires strict control over your variables. "tight" study- ruled out extraneous variables.
VI. KEY CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH 
D. Threats to the Validity of research 
Types of Validity:
2. External Validity ?
 
extent to which your findings can be generalized outside of your study conditions.  
VI. KEY CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH 
D. Threats to the Validity of research 
Types of Validity:
3. Relationship between Internal and external validity ?
 
they are inversely related. similar to a negative correlation(as one goes up the other goes down.)
VII. ETHICAL STANDARDS IN RESEARCH ?
 
Guidelines for professional, responsible, and ethical conduct in research. 
VII. ETHICAL STANDARDS IN RESEARCH
A. Ethics in Human research driven by 5 basic principles:  1. beneficence ?
 
1. Beneficence: "Do good". research to be beneficial to those involved.
"non-maleficence" - do not inflict harm.
VII. ETHICAL STANDARDS IN RESEARCH
A. Ethics in Human research driven by 5 basic principles: 2. responsibility ?
 
conduct research with great care and a strong sense of responsibiliy.
VII. ETHICAL STANDARDS IN RESEARCH
A. Ethics in Human research driven by 5 basic principles: 3. Integrity ?
 
Be accurate, precise, and truthful when conducting research & when reporting.
VII. ETHICAL STANDARDS IN RESEARCH
A. Ethics in Human research driven by 5 basic principles: 4. Justice ?
 
Enabling all to equally benefit from psychological research. Don't just focus on one subject or one group of people.
VII. ETHICAL STANDARDS IN RESEARCH
A. Ethics in Human research driven by 5 basic principles: 5. Respect ?
 
maintain the dignity and privacy of those being studied.
deception: when subjects in a study do not know they are in a research project. 
3 packet 
 
Biological foundations
I. NEURONS
 
basic units of the nervous system
I. NEURONS
A. Structure:
Soma ?
 
cell body
I. NEURONS
A. Structure:
Dendrites ?
 
receive incoming; branch like structures
I. NEURONS
A. Structure:
Axon ?
 
conducts info away
I. NEURONS
A. Structure:
axon terminals ?
 
end of axon; where communication between neurons takes place
I. NEURONS
B. Function ?
 
1. generate electricity
2. release chemicals "electrochemical process"
I. NEURONS
C. Types of Neurons- 3 types ?
 
1. sensory- typically afferent --> conveys info UP to brain from periphery.
2. Motor: typically efferent--> conveys info from brain DOWN to muscles/glands; the periphery.
3. Interneurons: connect neurons & allow them to communicate
I. NEURONS
D. Myelin Sheath: ?
 
~consists of fatty material~facilitates conductionex: multiple sclerosis (MS) [things slow down]
I. NEURONS
E. Synapse: ?
 
microscopic gap between neurons~site of communication between neurons~communicate using chemicals (NT's)
I. NEURONS
F. Glial cells: ?
 
outnumber neurons 10 to 1~hold neurons in place~manufacture nutrients for neurons~help reabsorb toxins and other material
II. NEUROTRANSMITTERS
A. excitatory vs. inhibitory ?
 
excitatory: - results in stimulation of an adjoining neuron.                   - can result in neuron firing stimulation is sufficient
inhibitory: makes it harder for adjoining neuron to fire.
II. NEUROTRANSMITTERS
B. Commonly studied in psych. : ?
 
- Ach: memory and learning & muscle activity~dopamine: psychotic behaviors; pleasure; depression~norepinephrine: arousal states (fight/flight) depression.~serotonin: Depression, pain perception.~endorphins: pain, sense of well-being, released during stress. 
III. HOW NEURONS COMMUNICATE (electrochemical process)
A. Steps in the process: ?
 
1. neuron is stimulated: usually by a NT, changed from the "resting potential"2. If stimulated sufficiently-reaches "Action Potential Threshold"3. Generates an "action potential" : electrical current is conducted down the axon"all or none law" : neuron either reaches threshold and fires of it doesn't. 4. refractory period: brief period during which not likely to fire 
III. HOW NEURONS COMMUNICATE (electrochemical process)
B. Differing sensations & the All-or-none law: ?
 
1. a strong stimulus may increase the rate of firing.
2. a strong stimulus may increase the number of neurons stimulated.
IV. ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
A. central nervous system (CNS) ?
 
brain and spinal cord: brain receives most info from spinal cord.
spinal reflexes: ~do not directly involve brain; ex: patellar reflex.                           ~monosynaptic: takes about 50 milliseconds, if brain involved it would take 200 milliseconds. 
IV. ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
B. peripheral nervous system (PNS) ?
 
all except the brain and spinal 


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