Psychology 101 Test 1_chapters 1, 2, 4

First Test Of Quarter On Chapters 1, 2, And 4.
Created Oct 8, 2009
by hmhansen
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Side ASide B
What is psychology?
~a science~study of mind and behavior or mental process~direct study~inferred elements: infer...
Goals of psychology?
1. to describe behavior2. to understand behavior3. to influence behavior 4. to apply research...
Three important principles of science?
1. objectivity: evaluate research data and theory based on what's observed.2. Accuracy: gather...
basic research?
studies conducted to obtain knowledge for its own sake.
applied research?
studies conducted to solve specific problems.
Perspectives on behavior?
enable us to conceptualize bahvior.
A. THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES?
1. focus: brain (function); genetic influence.2. buzz words: anything to do with biology and...
A. THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVEDualism?Monism?
dualism is mind and body are separate entities.monism is mind and body are unified whole and...
A. THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVEEvolutionary psychology?
based on principles of Darwin's theory on evolution. 
A. THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVEEvolutionary psychology-a. natural selection?
"survival of the fittest"characteristic that allows one to survive and reproduce will be handed...
A. THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVEEvolutionary psychology-b. Basic premise?
evolution is important in the development of human behavior.
A. THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVESociobiology?
~very conroversial~proposes that complex social behaviors are further products of evolution. 
A. THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVEBehavior Genetics?
to what extent behaviors are related to one's genetic predispositions.~twin studies:  ~identical...
B. PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY?
biggest name for this theory = Sigmund Freud
B. PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY?1. Focus?
unconscious mental processes that direct your behavior and early childhood experiences. 
B. PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY?2. Buzz word
unconscious. 
B. PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY?3. Defense mechanism?
behaviors that are used to reduce anxiety.~"denial" - deny any threat or danger of an event,...
B. PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY?4. Free Association?
technique used to probe unconscious.~look for patterns in their associations as they freely...
C. BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE1. Focal points?
observable behaviors, the environment; learning.
C. BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE2. Buzz words?
learning and conditioning.
C. BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE3. Basic premise?
(how you are shaped over time)~behavior is shaped by environment.   "shapeless lump of clay"~also...
D. HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE1. Focus point ?
free will; the self (how you feel about who you are); we make choices.
D. HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE2. Buzz Word?
self  (ex: self-esteem, self-concept, etc.)
D. HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE3. Self-Actualization?
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rodgers.Live up to one's potential"be all that you can be"
D. HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE4. Basic Premise?
People are inherently good, are striving toward growth, and are seeking to find the meaning...
E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE ?1. Historical roots?
also a reaction to behaviorism.~studies of mental processes. 
E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE1. Historical rootsa. Structuralism?
~Wundt & Titchenerstudied the mind by breaking it down into components "thoughts""introspection"...
E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE1. Historical rootsb. Functionalism?
~Jameslooked at how the components of the mind worked together and in certain environments.
E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE1. Historical rootsc. Gestalt?
~german scientists, 1920's"the whole is greater than the sum of the parts."
E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE1.) more recently?
information-processing
E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE2.) Buzz words?
thinking, thoughts, beliefs, information-processing.
E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE3.) Focus of cognitive?
on thoughts (direct behavior); beliefs (also direct); use of memory.
E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE4.) Basic Premise?
behavior is a product of thoughts and ideas and beliefs.
F. ECLECTICISM (variety) ?
a bit of all of the above.
G. SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE ?
Role of one's cultural environment.
G. SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE1. Focus points?
how cultural is transmitted and how cultures are similar and yet different from one another.
G. SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE2. Buzz words?
culture- consists of traditions, values, shared history, beliefs, behaviors, norms.norms- rules...
G. SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE3. Individualism vs. Collectivism?
Indiv.-emphasis is on the individual and personal goals, achievement, well being of the individual.collect.-emphasis...
NATURE VS. NURTUREa. 
nature- characteristics are biological predetermined and with which one is born."hard-wired"nurture-...
NATURE VS. NURTUREb. originating vs. present causes of behavior?
originating- evolved characteristics that have survival value. (nature)present- learned factors...
NATURE VS. NURTUREc. interaction of biology and environment~nature (biology) ~nurture (environment)
nature (biology)- provides a range of possible behaviors.ex: I.Q. scorenature- 100-125nurture...
second review packet
yay 1 down 2 to go!!
I. SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES (chun wondering and being curious about the guy biking up the hill...
observe a real world phenomena and become curious
I. SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDESb. skepticism?
remain skeptical of everything until it can be tested.
I. SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDESc. open mindedness?
keep one's mind open to many explanations.
II. STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC PROCESS ?
1. Observation and formation of questions2. form hypothesis- tentative statements about variables3....
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECT
Ach- learning and memory.
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECTa. hypothesis?
ex: taking Ach pill will increase your memory.
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECTb. variable?
a condition or characteristic whole value is free to vary.
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECTb. variable1. Independent variable (I.V.)?
variable manipulated by experimenter to see if its effects on something else.ex. the dose...
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECTb. variable 2. Dependent variable...
variable measured by experimenter; outcome variable.  "the something else"ex: increase in...
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECTC. Operational Definitions?
specific definition of variables that quantifies them; makes them measurable.ex: dependent...
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECTD. "Extraneous Variables"  ?
variables that affect your outcome but were NOT manipulated by the experimenter. 
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECTD. "Extraneous Variables" 1. Control...
hold conditions constant except for manipulation (you do this by having a control group)
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECTD. "Extraneous Variables" 2. Control...
Random selection of subjects.-this means each subject had an equal chance of being in either group...
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECTE. Significant Differences?
statistically significant differences in scores that tell you to what extent these differences...
IV. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH- RELATIONS BETWEEN EVENTS: measures rather than manipulates variables....
when you just want to measure relations among variables and/or when you cannot ethically or...
IV. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH- RELATIONS BETWEEN EVENTSA. Correlation Coefficient: (r-value) ?
a statistic that tells the strength and direction of a relationship between variables.
IV. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH- RELATIONS BETWEEN EVENTSA. Correlation Coefficient: (r-value) 1....
pos. correlation: as value of 1 variable increases, so does the value of 2nd variable.ex: higher...
IV. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH- RELATIONS BETWEEN EVENTSA. Correlation Coefficient: (r-value) 2....
~varies between 0-1.00  : closer to 1.00, the stronger the correlation.perfect correlation=1.00zero...
IV. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH- RELATIONS BETWEEN EVENTSB. Correlation & Prediction ?
if our variables significantly co-vary then knowing value of 1 enables us to predict the value...
IV. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH- RELATIONS BETWEEN EVENTSC. Correlation Does Not Equal Causation1....
does A>B ? or does B>AAlex>more stress or does more stress> more difficulty expressing feelings.
IV. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH- RELATIONS BETWEEN EVENTSC. Correlation Does Not Equal Causation1....
A>B A is related to B- is "c" responsible for A being related to "B"
V. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH ?
Describes how organisms behave in natural (non-lab) settings. NO manipulations   NO control...
V. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCHA. Case Studies ?
Intense detailed analysis of an individual or group.
V. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCHA. Case Studies 1. Some Pros and Cons of case studies?
Pros: (advantages) - get rich detailed info.                              ...
V. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCHB. Naturalistic Observation ?
observe subjects in a natural setting ( kids on a playground)
V. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCHB. Naturalistic Observation 2. Some Pros and Cons of survey studies?
Pros: -very efficient; cost affective collect large amounts of dataCons: -cannot establish...
VI. KEY CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH a. populations vs. samples? 
Populations: ALL the individuals of an area of study.Samples: A subset of the population (hopefully...
VI. KEY CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH b. Representative Sample ?
a sample that possesses the important characteristics of our population. ex: ratio of male...
VI. KEY CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH c. Random Sampling ?
selecting a sample such that each subject in the population had an equal chance of being...
VI. KEY CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH D. Threats to the Validity of research  ?
validity = accuracy (in terms of how well you are measuring what you want.)
VI. KEY CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH D. Threats to the Validity of research Types of Validity:1....
Degree to which you have measured exactly what you set out to measure. Requires strict control...
VI. KEY CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH D. Threats to the Validity of research Types of Validity:2....
extent to which your findings can be generalized outside of your study conditions.  
VI. KEY CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH D. Threats to the Validity of research Types of Validity:3....
they are inversely related. similar to a negative correlation(as one goes up the other goes...
VII. ETHICAL STANDARDS IN RESEARCH ?
Guidelines for professional, responsible, and ethical conduct in research. 
VII. ETHICAL STANDARDS IN RESEARCHA. Ethics in Human research driven by 5 basic principles:...
1. Beneficence: "Do good". research to be beneficial to those involved."non-maleficence" -...
VII. ETHICAL STANDARDS IN RESEARCHA. Ethics in Human research driven by 5 basic principles:...
conduct research with great care and a strong sense of responsibiliy.
VII. ETHICAL STANDARDS IN RESEARCHA. Ethics in Human research driven by 5 basic principles:...
Be accurate, precise, and truthful when conducting research & when reporting.
VII. ETHICAL STANDARDS IN RESEARCHA. Ethics in Human research driven by 5 basic principles:...
Enabling all to equally benefit from psychological research. Don't just focus on one subject...
VII. ETHICAL STANDARDS IN RESEARCHA. Ethics in Human research driven by 5 basic principles:...
maintain the dignity and privacy of those being studied.deception: when subjects in a study...
3 packet 
Biological foundations
I. NEURONS
basic units of the nervous system
I. NEURONSA. Structure:Soma ?
cell body
I. NEURONSA. Structure:Dendrites ?
receive incoming; branch like structures
I. NEURONSA. Structure:Axon ?
conducts info away
I. NEURONSA. Structure:axon terminals ?
end of axon; where communication between neurons takes place
I. NEURONSB. Function ?
1. generate electricity2. release chemicals "electrochemical process"
I. NEURONSC. Types of Neurons- 3 types ?
1. sensory- typically afferent --> conveys info UP to brain from periphery.2. Motor: typically...
I. NEURONSD. Myelin Sheath: ?
~consists of fatty material~facilitates conductionex: multiple sclerosis (MS) [things slow...
I. NEURONSE. Synapse: ?
microscopic gap between neurons~site of communication between neurons~communicate using chemicals...
I. NEURONSF. Glial cells: ?
outnumber neurons 10 to 1~hold neurons in place~manufacture nutrients for neurons~help reabsorb...
II. NEUROTRANSMITTERSA. excitatory vs. inhibitory ?
excitatory: - results in stimulation of an adjoining neuron.                   -...
II. NEUROTRANSMITTERSB. Commonly studied in psych. : ?
- Ach: memory and learning & muscle activity~dopamine: psychotic behaviors; pleasure; depression~norepinephrine:...
III. HOW NEURONS COMMUNICATE (electrochemical process)A. Steps in the process: ?
1. neuron is stimulated: usually by a NT, changed from the "resting potential"2. If stimulated...
III. HOW NEURONS COMMUNICATE (electrochemical process)B. Differing sensations & the All-or-none...
1. a strong stimulus may increase the rate of firing.2. a strong stimulus may increase the...
IV. ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEMA. central nervous system (CNS) ?
brain and spinal cord: brain receives most info from spinal cord.spinal reflexes: ~do not...
IV. ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEMB. peripheral nervous system (PNS) ?
all except the brain and spinal 


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