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Psychology 101 Test 1_chapters 1, 2, 4

First Test Of Quarter On Chapters 1, 2, And 4.
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Side ASide B
What is psychology?
~a science~study of mind and behavior or mental process~direct study~inferred elements: infer behaviors from less observable things. 
Goals of psychology?
1. to describe behavior2. to understand behavior3. to influence behavior 4. to apply research findings to real world phenomena
Three important principles of science?
1. objectivity: evaluate research data and theory based on what's observed.2. Accuracy: gather data from lab and real world in precise ways.3. healthy skepticism: take a cautious view...
basic research?
studies conducted to obtain knowledge for its own sake.
applied research?
studies conducted to solve specific problems.
Perspectives on behavior?
enable us to conceptualize bahvior.
A. THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES?
1. focus: brain (function); genetic influence.2. buzz words: anything to do with biology and bodily processes. 3. Dualism vs. monism: philosophies used.
A. THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVEDualism?Monism?
dualism is mind and body are separate entities.monism is mind and body are unified whole and more widely accepted currently.
A. THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVEEvolutionary psychology?
based on principles of Darwin's theory on evolution. 
A. THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVEEvolutionary psychology-a. natural selection?
"survival of the fittest"characteristic that allows one to survive and reproduce will be handed down.
A. THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVEEvolutionary psychology-b. Basic premise?
evolution is important in the development of human behavior.
A. THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVESociobiology?
~very conroversial~proposes that complex social behaviors are further products of evolution. 
A. THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVEBehavior Genetics?
to what extent behaviors are related to one's genetic predispositions.~twin studies:  ~identical twins (monozygotic) 100% of same genetic makeup.  ~fraternal twins (Dizygotic) no...
B. PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY?
biggest name for this theory = Sigmund Freud
B. PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY?1. Focus?
unconscious mental processes that direct your behavior and early childhood experiences. 
B. PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY?2. Buzz word
unconscious. 
B. PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY?3. Defense mechanism?
behaviors that are used to reduce anxiety.~"denial" - deny any threat or danger of an event, behavior, etc.
B. PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY?4. Free Association?
technique used to probe unconscious.~look for patterns in their associations as they freely speak.
C. BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE1. Focal points?
observable behaviors, the environment; learning.
C. BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE2. Buzz words?
learning and conditioning.
C. BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE3. Basic premise?
(how you are shaped over time)~behavior is shaped by environment.   "shapeless lump of clay"~also shaped by observing others.
D. HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE1. Focus point ?
free will; the self (how you feel about who you are); we make choices.
D. HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE2. Buzz Word?
self  (ex: self-esteem, self-concept, etc.)
D. HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE3. Self-Actualization?
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rodgers.Live up to one's potential"be all that you can be"
D. HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE4. Basic Premise?
People are inherently good, are striving toward growth, and are seeking to find the meaning in their existence.
E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE ?1. Historical roots?
also a reaction to behaviorism.~studies of mental processes. 
E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE1. Historical rootsa. Structuralism?
~Wundt & Titchenerstudied the mind by breaking it down into components "thoughts""introspection" (looking inside yourself, thoughts within). 
E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE1. Historical rootsb. Functionalism?
~Jameslooked at how the components of the mind worked together and in certain environments.
E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE1. Historical rootsc. Gestalt?
~german scientists, 1920's"the whole is greater than the sum of the parts."
E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE1.) more recently?
information-processing
E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE2.) Buzz words?
thinking, thoughts, beliefs, information-processing.
E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE3.) Focus of cognitive?
on thoughts (direct behavior); beliefs (also direct); use of memory.
E. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE4.) Basic Premise?
behavior is a product of thoughts and ideas and beliefs.
F. ECLECTICISM (variety) ?
a bit of all of the above.
G. SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE ?
Role of one's cultural environment.
G. SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE1. Focus points?
how cultural is transmitted and how cultures are similar and yet different from one another.
G. SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE2. Buzz words?
culture- consists of traditions, values, shared history, beliefs, behaviors, norms.norms- rules that tell us what is acceptable
G. SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE3. Individualism vs. Collectivism?
Indiv.-emphasis is on the individual and personal goals, achievement, well being of the individual.collect.-emphasis is on the group, group welfare, goals, community, family, social...
NATURE VS. NURTUREa. 
nature- characteristics are biological predetermined and with which one is born."hard-wired"nurture- characteristic due to environmental influences and that come from experience.
NATURE VS. NURTUREb. originating vs. present causes of behavior?
originating- evolved characteristics that have survival value. (nature)present- learned factors that determine whether of not behaviors will occur. (nurture)
NATURE VS. NURTUREc. interaction of biology and environment~nature (biology) ~nurture (environment)
nature (biology)- provides a range of possible behaviors.ex: I.Q. scorenature- 100-125nurture (environment)- determines where you fall within the range. ex: nurture- post natal environment  ...
second review packet
yay 1 down 2 to go!!
I. SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES (chun wondering and being curious about the guy biking up the hill she drives up, curious about how he does it, why he does it, what drives him to keep going...)a....
observe a real world phenomena and become curious
I. SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDESb. skepticism?
remain skeptical of everything until it can be tested.
I. SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDESc. open mindedness?
keep one's mind open to many explanations.
II. STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC PROCESS ?
1. Observation and formation of questions2. form hypothesis- tentative statements about variables3. test hypothesis- collect data; conduct research4. analyze data- submit data to statistics...
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECT
Ach- learning and memory.
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECTa. hypothesis?
ex: taking Ach pill will increase your memory.
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECTb. variable?
a condition or characteristic whole value is free to vary.
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECTb. variable1. Independent variable (I.V.)?
variable manipulated by experimenter to see if its effects on something else.ex. the dose of Ach
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECTb. variable 2. Dependent variable (D.V.)?
variable measured by experimenter; outcome variable.  "the something else"ex: increase in learning and memorythis value is dependent upon the independent variable
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECTC. Operational Definitions?
specific definition of variables that quantifies them; makes them measurable.ex: dependent variable:class performance, performance on memory tasks, etc.
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECTD. "Extraneous Variables"  ?
variables that affect your outcome but were NOT manipulated by the experimenter. 
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECTD. "Extraneous Variables" 1. Control for Ext. variables?
hold conditions constant except for manipulation (you do this by having a control group)
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECTD. "Extraneous Variables" 2. Control for individual differences?
Random selection of subjects.-this means each subject had an equal chance of being in either group (exp. or control group)
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH-LOOKING AT CAUSE AND EFFECTE. Significant Differences?
statistically significant differences in scores that tell you to what extent these differences are not by chance alone.
IV. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH- RELATIONS BETWEEN EVENTS: measures rather than manipulates variables.  ?
when you just want to measure relations among variables and/or when you cannot ethically or realistically manipulate variables.
IV. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH- RELATIONS BETWEEN EVENTSA. Correlation Coefficient: (r-value) ?
a statistic that tells the strength and direction of a relationship between variables.
IV. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH- RELATIONS BETWEEN EVENTSA. Correlation Coefficient: (r-value) 1. Direction: positive vs. negative (+ vs. -) ?
pos. correlation: as value of 1 variable increases, so does the value of 2nd variable.ex: higher Alexithymia scores related to higher distress scores.neg. correlation: as a value of...
IV. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH- RELATIONS BETWEEN EVENTSA. Correlation Coefficient: (r-value) 2. strength: absolute size of the correlation coefficient irrespective of direction ?
~varies between 0-1.00  : closer to 1.00, the stronger the correlation.perfect correlation=1.00zero correlation=0               neither occur
IV. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH- RELATIONS BETWEEN EVENTSB. Correlation & Prediction ?
if our variables significantly co-vary then knowing value of 1 enables us to predict the value of the other. 
IV. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH- RELATIONS BETWEEN EVENTSC. Correlation Does Not Equal Causation1. Problems with correlation and assuming causation:a. Bidirectional problem (directionality)?
does A>B ? or does B>AAlex>more stress or does more stress> more difficulty expressing feelings.
IV. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH- RELATIONS BETWEEN EVENTSC. Correlation Does Not Equal Causation1. Problems with correlation and assuming causation:b. 3rd variable problem?
A>B A is related to B- is "c" responsible for A being related to "B"
V. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH ?
Describes how organisms behave in natural (non-lab) settings. NO manipulations   NO control over conditions.
V. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCHA. Case Studies ?
Intense detailed analysis of an individual or group.
V. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCHA. Case Studies 1. Some Pros and Cons of case studies?
Pros: (advantages) - get rich detailed info.                                    -can study rare phenomenaCons: (disadvantages) - cannot establish cause & effect  ...
V. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCHB. Naturalistic Observation ?
observe subjects in a natural setting ( kids on a playground)
V. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCHB. Naturalistic Observation 2. Some Pros and Cons of survey studies?
Pros: -very efficient; cost affective collect large amounts of dataCons: -cannot establish causality             self-report bias?          must have a representable...
VI. KEY CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH a. populations vs. samples? 
Populations: ALL the individuals of an area of study.Samples: A subset of the population (hopefully representative of the population.)
VI. KEY CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH b. Representative Sample ?
a sample that possesses the important characteristics of our population. ex: ratio of male to female; socioeconomic status (SES), etc. 
VI. KEY CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH c. Random Sampling ?
selecting a sample such that each subject in the population had an equal chance of being selected. prevents bias being introduced by purposeful selection of subjects. ex: selecting...
VI. KEY CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH D. Threats to the Validity of research  ?
validity = accuracy (in terms of how well you are measuring what you want.)
VI. KEY CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH D. Threats to the Validity of research Types of Validity:1. Internal Validity ?
Degree to which you have measured exactly what you set out to measure. Requires strict control over your variables. "tight" study- ruled out extraneous variables.
VI. KEY CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH D. Threats to the Validity of research Types of Validity:2. External Validity ?
extent to which your findings can be generalized outside of your study conditions.  
VI. KEY CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH D. Threats to the Validity of research Types of Validity:3. Relationship between Internal and external validity ?
they are inversely related. similar to a negative correlation(as one goes up the other goes down.)
VII. ETHICAL STANDARDS IN RESEARCH ?
Guidelines for professional, responsible, and ethical conduct in research. 
VII. ETHICAL STANDARDS IN RESEARCHA. Ethics in Human research driven by 5 basic principles:  1. beneficence ?
1. Beneficence: "Do good". research to be beneficial to those involved."non-maleficence" - do not inflict harm.
VII. ETHICAL STANDARDS IN RESEARCHA. Ethics in Human research driven by 5 basic principles: 2. responsibility ?
conduct research with great care and a strong sense of responsibiliy.
VII. ETHICAL STANDARDS IN RESEARCHA. Ethics in Human research driven by 5 basic principles: 3. Integrity ?
Be accurate, precise, and truthful when conducting research & when reporting.
VII. ETHICAL STANDARDS IN RESEARCHA. Ethics in Human research driven by 5 basic principles: 4. Justice ?
Enabling all to equally benefit from psychological research. Don't just focus on one subject or one group of people.
VII. ETHICAL STANDARDS IN RESEARCHA. Ethics in Human research driven by 5 basic principles: 5. Respect ?
maintain the dignity and privacy of those being studied.deception: when subjects in a study do not know they are in a research project. 
3 packet 
Biological foundations
I. NEURONS
basic units of the nervous system
I. NEURONSA. Structure:Soma ?
cell body
I. NEURONSA. Structure:Dendrites ?
receive incoming; branch like structures
I. NEURONSA. Structure:Axon ?
conducts info away
I. NEURONSA. Structure:axon terminals ?
end of axon; where communication between neurons takes place
I. NEURONSB. Function ?
1. generate electricity2. release chemicals "electrochemical process"
I. NEURONSC. Types of Neurons- 3 types ?
1. sensory- typically afferent --> conveys info UP to brain from periphery.2. Motor: typically efferent--> conveys info from brain DOWN to muscles/glands; the periphery.3. Interneurons:...
I. NEURONSD. Myelin Sheath: ?
~consists of fatty material~facilitates conductionex: multiple sclerosis (MS) [things slow down]
I. NEURONSE. Synapse: ?
microscopic gap between neurons~site of communication between neurons~communicate using chemicals (NT's)
I. NEURONSF. Glial cells: ?
outnumber neurons 10 to 1~hold neurons in place~manufacture nutrients for neurons~help reabsorb toxins and other material
II. NEUROTRANSMITTERSA. excitatory vs. inhibitory ?
excitatory: - results in stimulation of an adjoining neuron.                   - can result in neuron firing stimulation is sufficientinhibitory: makes it harder for adjoining...
II. NEUROTRANSMITTERSB. Commonly studied in psych. : ?
- Ach: memory and learning & muscle activity~dopamine: psychotic behaviors; pleasure; depression~norepinephrine: arousal states (fight/flight) depression.~serotonin: Depression,...
III. HOW NEURONS COMMUNICATE (electrochemical process)A. Steps in the process: ?
1. neuron is stimulated: usually by a NT, changed from the "resting potential"2. If stimulated sufficiently-reaches "Action Potential Threshold"3. Generates an "action potential" :...
III. HOW NEURONS COMMUNICATE (electrochemical process)B. Differing sensations & the All-or-none law: ?
1. a strong stimulus may increase the rate of firing.2. a strong stimulus may increase the number of neurons stimulated.
IV. ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEMA. central nervous system (CNS) ?
brain and spinal cord: brain receives most info from spinal cord.spinal reflexes: ~do not directly involve brain; ex: patellar reflex.                           ~monosynaptic:...
IV. ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEMB. peripheral nervous system (PNS) ?
all except the brain and spinal 


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