Psychology 101, Personality

Terms From Th E Chapte

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The pattern of Enduring Character istics that differentiate people - the behaviors that make each individual unique
Psychoanalytis Theory
Freud's theory that unconscious forces act as determinants of personality
A part of the personality of which a person is not aware and which is a potential determinate of behavior
The raw, Unorganized, inborn part of personality whose sole purpose is to reduce tension created by primitive drives related to hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational impulses
The par of the Personality that provides a buffer between the Id and the outside world
According to Freud, the final personality structure to develop; it represents the rights and wrongs of society as handed down by a persons parents, teachers, and other important figures
Oral Stage
According to Freud, a stage from birth to age 12 to 18 months, in which an infant's center of pleasure is the mouth
Conflicts or concerns that persist beyond the developmental period in which they first occur
Anal Stage
According to Freud, a stage from age 12 to 18 months to 3 years of age, in which a child's pleasure is center in the anus
Phallic Stage
According to Freud, a period beginning around age 3 during which the child's pleasure focuses on the genetials
Oedipal conflict
A child's sexual interest in his or her opposite-sex parent, typically resolve through identification with the same-sex parent
The process of wanting to be like another person as much as possible, imitating that person's behavior and adopting similiar beliefs and values
Latency Period
According to Freud, the period between the phallic stage and puberty during which children's sexual concerns are temporarily put aside
Gential Stage
According to Freud, the period from puberty til death, marked by mature sexual behavior
Defense Mechanisms
Unconscious stratagies that people use to reduce anxiety by concealing the source of the anxiety from themselves and others
Neo-Freudian Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysts who were trained in traditional Freudian theory but later rejected some of its major points
Collective unconscious
a common set of ideas, feelings, images, and symbols that we inherit from our ancestors , the whole human races, and even animal ancestors from the distant past
Inferiority complex
According to Adler, a Situation in which adults have not been able to overcome the feelings of inferiority that they developed as children
Trait theory
A model of personality that seeks to identify the basic traits necessary to describe personality
Enduring dimensions of personality characteristics along which people differ
Social cognitive approaches to personality
Theories that emphasize the influence of a person's cognitions- thoughts, feelings, expectations, and values-in determining personality
Biological and evolutionary approaches to personality
Theories that suggest that important components of personality are inherited
Humanistic approaches to personality
Theories that emphasize people's basic goodness and tendency to grow higher levels of function
A state of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential, each in his or her own unique way
Unconditional positive regard
An attitude of acceptance and respect on the part of an observer, no matter what a person says or does
Psychological Tests
Standard measures devised to assess behavior objectivity; used by psychologist to help people make decisions more about themselves
Self-report Measures
A method of gathering data about people by asking them questions about a sample of their behavior
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2(MMPI-2)
A widely used self-report test that identifies people with psychological difficulties and is employed to predict some everyday behavior
Test Standardization
A technique used to validate in personality tests by studying the responses of people with known diagnoses
Projective personality test
A test in which a person is shown an ambiguous stimulus and asked to describe it or tell a story about it
Rorschach test
A test developed by swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorshach that involves showing a series of symmetrical visual stimuli to people who then are asked what the figures represent to them
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A test consisting of a series of pictures about which a person is asked to write a story
Behavioral Assessment
Direct meassures of an individual's behavior used to describe characteristics indicative of personality

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