Psychology 101, Development

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Developmental Psychology
The Branch of Psychology that studies patterns of growth and change that occur throughout life
Nature-nurture issue
the issue of the degree to which environment and heredity influence behavior
Identical Twins
Twins who are genetically identical
Cross-sectional Research
A Research Method that compares people of different ages at the same point in time
Longitudinal Research
A research method that investigates behavior as participants age
Sequential Research
A research method that combines cross-sectional and longitudinal research by considering a number of different age groups and examining them at several points in time
Rod-shaped structures that contain all basic hereditary information
The parts of the chromosomes through which genetic information is transmitted
The new cell formed by the union of an egg and sperm
A developed zygote that has a heart, a brain, and other organs
A developed individual, from eight weeks after conception til birth
Age of viability
The point at which a fetus can survive if born prematurely
Environmental agents such as a drug, chemical, virus, or other factor that produce a birth defect
A newborn Child
Unlearned, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli
The decrease in the response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentation of the same stimulus
The postive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual
Authoritarian Parents
Parents who are rigid and punitive and value unquestioning obedience from their children
Permissive Parents
Parents who give their children relaxed or inconsistent direction and, although warm, require litte of them
Authoritative Parents
Parents who ar firm, set clear limits, reason with their children and explain things to them
Uninvolved Parents
Parents who show little interest in their children and are emotionally detached
Basic, innate dispostion
Psychosocial development
Developments of individuals' interactions and the understanding of each other and of their knowledge and understanding of themselves as members of society
Trust-versus-mistrust stage
According to Erikson, the first stage of psychosocial development, occuring from brith to age 1.5 years, during which time infants develop feelings of trust or lack of trust
Autonomy-versus- shame-and-doubt stage
The period during which, according to Erikson,toddlers(Age 1.5-3 years)develop indepedence and autonomy if exploration and freedom are encouraged, or shame and self-doubt if they are...
Initiative vs Guilt Stage
According to Erikson, The period during children ages 3 to 6 experience conflict between indepedence of action and the sometimes negative result of that action
Industry vs Inferiority Stage
According to Erikson, the last stage of childhood, during which children age 6-12 years may develop positive social interactions with others or may feel inadequate and become less sociable
Cognitive Development
The process by which child's understanding of the world change as a function of age and experience
Sensorimotor Stage
According to Piaget, the stage from birth to 2 years, during which a child has little competence in representing the environment by using images, language, or other symbols
Object Permanence
The awareness that objects- and people- continue to exsist even if they are not in sight
Preoperational Stage
according to Piaget, the period from 2 to 7 years of age that is characterized by language development
Egocentric Stage
A way of thinking in which a child veiws the world entirely from his or her own perspective
Principle of Conservation
The knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects
Concrete Operation Stage
According to Piaget, the period from 7-12 years of age that is characterized by logical thought and a loss of egocentrism
Fromal Operational Stage
According to Piaget, the period from 12 to adulthood that is characterized by abstract thought
Information Processing
The way in which people take in, use, and store information
An awareness and understanding of one's own cognitive process
Zone of proximal development
According to Vygotsky, the level at which a child can almost, but not fully, comprehend or preform a task on his or her own
The developmental stage between childhood and adulthood
The period at which maturation of the sexual organs occurs, beginning at about 11 to 12 for girls and 13 to 14 for boys
Identity vs role confusion Stage
According to Erikson, a time in adolescence of major testing to determine one's unique qualities
The distinguishing character of the individual: who each of us is, what our roles are and what we are capable of
Intimacy vs isolation Stage
According to Erikson, a period during early adulthood that focuses on developing close relationships
Generativity vs Stagnation Stage
According to Erikson, a period during middle adulthood during which we take stock of our contributions to family and society
Ego-integrity vs despair Stage
According to Erikson, a period during late adulthood until death during which we review life's accomplishments and failures
The period during which women stop menstrating and are no longer fertile
Genetic preprogramming theories of aging
Theories that human cells have a built in time limit to their reproduction, and that after a certain time they are no longer able to divide
Wear and Tear theories of aging
Theories that suggest that the mechanical functions of the body simply stop working efficiently
Alzheimer's Disease
A progressive brain disorder that leads to a gradual and irreversible decline in cognitive abilities
Disengagement theory of aging
A theory that suggests that aging produces a gradual withdrawal from the world on physical, psychological and social levels
Activity Theory of Aging
A theory that suggests that the elderly that are most successful while aging are those who maintain the interest and activities they had during middle age
Life Review
The process by which people review and evaluate their lives

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