Psych Test Chp 5

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Psych Test Chp 5

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learning
 
the precoess by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in nehavior or potential behavior.
classical (or Pavolvian) conditioning
 
the type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus comes to be elicited by a different, formerly neutral, stimulus. almost by accident.
uncondtioned stimulus (US)
 
a stimulus that invariably causes an orgaism to respond in a specific way.
unconditioned response (UR)
 
a response tha takes place in an organism whenever an unconditoned stimulus occurs.
conditioned stimulus (CS)
 
an originallu neautral stimuls that is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and eventually produces the desired response in an orgaism when presented alone.
conditoined response (CR)
 
after conditioning, the response an organism produces when a conditioned stimulus is presented.
intermittent pairing
 
pairing the conditioned stimuls and the unconditioned stimulus on only a portion of the laerning trials
desensitization therapy
 
a conditioning technique designed to gradually reduce anxiety about a particular object or situation
preparedness
 
a biological readiness to learn vertain associations because of their survival advantages
conditioned taste aversion
 
conditioned avoidance of certain foods even if there is only one pairing of conditoned and unconditioned stimuli
operant (or instrumental) conditioning
 
the type of learning in which behaviors are emitted (in the presence of specific stimuli) to earn rewards or avoid punishments.
operant behaviors
 
behaviors designed to operate on the enviornment in a way that will gain something desired or avoid something unpleasant.
reinforcers
 
stimuli that follow a behavior and increase the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated.
punishers
 
stimuli that follow a behavior and decrease the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
law of effect (principle of reinforcement)
 
Thorndike's theory that behavior consistently rewarded will be "stamped in" as learned behavior, and behavior that brings about discomfort will be "stamped out"
skinner box
 
a box often used in operant conditioning of animals; it limits the availbale reponses and thus increases the likelihood that the desired response will occur.
shaping
 
reinforcing successive approximations to a desired behavior
positive reinforcers
 
events whose presence increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
negative reinforcers
 
events whose reduction or termination increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
punishment
 
any event whose presence decreases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
avoidance training
 
learning a desirbale behavior to prevent the occurance of something unpleasant, such as punishment
avoidance training
 
learning a desirbale behavior to prevent the occurance of something unpleasant, such as punishment
learned helplessness
 
failure to take steps to avoid or escape from an unpleasant or aversive stimulus that occurs as a result of previous exposure to unavoidable painful stimuli
biofeedback
 
a technique that uses monitioring devices to provide precise information about internal physiological processes, such as heart rate, or blood pressure, to teach people to gain voluntary control over these functions.
nearofeedback
 
a biofeedback technique that monitors brain waves with the use of an EEG to teach people to gain voluntary control over their brain wave activity.
contingency
 
a reliable "if-then" relationship between two events, such as a CS and a US.
blocking
 
a process whereby prior conditioning prevents conditioning to a second stimulus even when the two stimuli are presented simultaneously.
schedule of reinforcement
 
in operant conditioning, the rule for determining when a how often reinforvers will be delivered
schedule of reinforcement
 
in operant conditioning, the rule for determining when a how often reinforvers will be delivered
schedule of reinforcement
 
in operant conditioning, the rule for determining when a how often reinforvers will be delivered
fixed-interval schedule
 
a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after a fixed length of time since the last reinforcemnt.
variable-interval schedule
 
a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after varying lengths of time followig the last reinforcement.
fixed-ratio schedule
 
a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after a fixed number of correct responses
variable-ratio schedule
 
a reinforcement schedule in which a varying number of correct responses much occur before reinforcement is presented
extinction
 
a decrease in the strength or frequency, or stopping, of a learned response because of failure to continue pairing the US and CS (classical conditioning) or withholding of reinforcement (operant conditioning)
spontaneous recovery
 
the reappearance of an extinguished response after the passage of time, without training.
stimulus control
 
control of conditioned reponses by cues or stimuli in the enviornment
stimulus generalization
 
the transfer of a leanred reponse to different but similar stimuli
stimulus discrimination
 
learning to respond to only one stimulus and to inhibit the response to all other stimuli
response generalization
 
giving a reponse that is somewhat different from the response originally learned to that stimulus
higher order conditioning
 
conditioning based on previous learning; the conditioned stimulus serves as an unconditioned stimulus for further training.
primary reinforcers
 
reinforcers that are rewarding in themselves, such as food, water, or sex
secondary reinforcers
 
reinforcers whose value is acquired through associations with other primary or secondary reinforcers
cognitive learning
 
learning that depends on mental processes that are not directly obervable
latent learning
 
learning that is not immediately reflected in a behavior change
cognitive map
 
a learned mental image of a spatial enviornment that may be called on to solve problems when stimuli in the enviornmental change
insight
 
learning that occurs rapidly as a result of understanding all the elements of a problem.
learning set
 
the ability to become increasingly more effective in solving problems as more problems are sovled.
observational (or vicarious) learning
 
learning by observing other people's behavior
social learning theorists
 
psychologists whose view of learning emphasizes the ability to learn by observing a model or receiving instructions, without firsthand experience by the learner.
vicarious reinforcement (or punishment)
 
reinforcement or punishment experineced by models that affects the willingness of others to perform the behaviors they learned by observing those models
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