Psych Test Chp 5

 
Created Oct 30, 2012
by lizbialkowski93
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learning 
the precoess by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in nehavior...
classical (or Pavolvian) conditioning
the type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus comes to be elicited...
uncondtioned stimulus (US)
a stimulus that invariably causes an orgaism to respond in a specific way.
unconditioned response (UR)
a response tha takes place in an organism whenever an unconditoned stimulus occurs.
conditioned stimulus (CS)
an originallu neautral stimuls that is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and eventually...
conditoined response (CR)
after conditioning, the response an organism produces when a conditioned stimulus is presented. 
intermittent pairing
pairing the conditioned stimuls and the unconditioned stimulus on only a portion of the laerning...
desensitization therapy 
a conditioning technique designed to gradually reduce anxiety about a particular object or...
preparedness 
a biological readiness to learn vertain associations because of their survival advantages 
conditioned taste aversion 
conditioned avoidance of certain foods even if there is only one pairing of conditoned and...
operant (or instrumental) conditioning 
the type of learning in which behaviors are emitted (in the presence of specific stimuli) to...
operant behaviors 
behaviors designed to operate on the enviornment in a way that will gain something desired...
reinforcers
stimuli that follow a behavior and increase the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated.
punishers 
stimuli that follow a behavior and decrease the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated 
law of effect (principle of reinforcement)
Thorndike's theory that behavior consistently rewarded will be "stamped in" as...
skinner box
a box often used in operant conditioning of animals; it limits the availbale reponses and thus...
shaping
reinforcing successive approximations to a desired behavior 
positive reinforcers 
events whose presence increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur 
negative reinforcers
events whose reduction or termination increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
punishment 
any event whose presence decreases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
avoidance training 
learning a desirbale behavior to prevent the occurance of something unpleasant, such as punishment
avoidance training 
learning a desirbale behavior to prevent the occurance of something unpleasant, such as punishment
learned helplessness 
failure to take steps to avoid or escape from an unpleasant or aversive stimulus that occurs...
biofeedback
a technique that uses monitioring devices to provide precise information about internal physiological...
nearofeedback
a biofeedback technique that monitors brain waves with the use of an EEG to teach people to...
contingency
a reliable "if-then" relationship between two events, such as a CS and a US. 
blocking
a process whereby prior conditioning prevents conditioning to a second stimulus even when the...
schedule of reinforcement 
in operant conditioning, the rule for determining when a how often reinforvers will be delivered 
schedule of reinforcement 
in operant conditioning, the rule for determining when a how often reinforvers will be delivered 
schedule of reinforcement 
in operant conditioning, the rule for determining when a how often reinforvers will be delivered 
fixed-interval schedule
a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after a fixed length of...
variable-interval schedule
a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after varying lengths...
fixed-ratio schedule
a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after a fixed number of...
variable-ratio schedule 
a reinforcement schedule in which a varying number of correct responses much occur before reinforcement...
extinction
a decrease in the strength or frequency, or stopping, of a learned response because of failure...
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance of an extinguished response after the passage of time, without training. 
stimulus control 
control of conditioned reponses by cues or stimuli in the enviornment 
stimulus generalization
the transfer of a leanred reponse to different but similar stimuli 
stimulus discrimination 
learning to respond to only one stimulus and to inhibit the response to all other stimuli 
response generalization 
giving a reponse that is somewhat different from the response originally learned to that stimulus 
higher order conditioning 
conditioning based on previous learning; the conditioned stimulus serves as an unconditioned...
primary reinforcers
reinforcers that are rewarding in themselves, such as food, water, or sex
secondary reinforcers 
reinforcers whose value is acquired through associations with other primary or secondary reinforcers 
cognitive learning
learning that depends on mental processes that are not directly obervable 
latent learning 
learning that is not immediately reflected in a behavior change 
cognitive map
a learned mental image of a spatial enviornment that may be called on to solve problems when...
insight 
learning that occurs rapidly as a result of understanding all the elements of a problem. 
learning set 
the ability to become increasingly more effective in solving problems as more problems are...
observational (or vicarious) learning 
learning by observing other people's behavior 
social learning theorists 
psychologists whose view of learning emphasizes the ability to learn by observing a model or...
vicarious reinforcement (or punishment) 
reinforcement or punishment experineced by models that affects the willingness of others to...


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