Psych Test Chp 5

51 cards

 


 
  
Created Oct 30, 2012
by
lizbialkowski93

 

 
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1
learning 
 
the precoess by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in nehavior...
2
classical (or Pavolvian) conditioning
 
the type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus comes to be elicited...
3
uncondtioned stimulus (US)
 
a stimulus that invariably causes an orgaism to respond in a specific way.
4
unconditioned response (UR)
 
a response tha takes place in an organism whenever an unconditoned stimulus occurs.
5
conditioned stimulus (CS)
 
an originallu neautral stimuls that is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and eventually...
6
conditoined response (CR)
 
after conditioning, the response an organism produces when a conditioned stimulus is presented. 
7
intermittent pairing
 
pairing the conditioned stimuls and the unconditioned stimulus on only a portion of the laerning...
8
desensitization therapy 
 
a conditioning technique designed to gradually reduce anxiety about a particular object or...
9
preparedness 
 
a biological readiness to learn vertain associations because of their survival advantages 
10
conditioned taste aversion 
 
conditioned avoidance of certain foods even if there is only one pairing of conditoned and...
11
operant (or instrumental) conditioning 
 
the type of learning in which behaviors are emitted (in the presence of specific stimuli) to...
12
operant behaviors 
 
behaviors designed to operate on the enviornment in a way that will gain something desired...
13
reinforcers
 
stimuli that follow a behavior and increase the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated.
14
punishers 
 
stimuli that follow a behavior and decrease the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated 
15
law of effect (principle of reinforcement)
 
Thorndike's theory that behavior consistently rewarded will be "stamped in" as...
16
skinner box
 
a box often used in operant conditioning of animals; it limits the availbale reponses and thus...
17
shaping
 
reinforcing successive approximations to a desired behavior 
18
positive reinforcers 
 
events whose presence increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur 
19
negative reinforcers
 
events whose reduction or termination increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
20
punishment 
 
any event whose presence decreases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
21
avoidance training 
 
learning a desirbale behavior to prevent the occurance of something unpleasant, such as punishment
22
avoidance training 
 
learning a desirbale behavior to prevent the occurance of something unpleasant, such as punishment
23
learned helplessness 
 
failure to take steps to avoid or escape from an unpleasant or aversive stimulus that occurs...
24
biofeedback
 
a technique that uses monitioring devices to provide precise information about internal physiological...
25
nearofeedback
 
a biofeedback technique that monitors brain waves with the use of an EEG to teach people to...
26
contingency
 
a reliable "if-then" relationship between two events, such as a CS and a US. 
27
blocking
 
a process whereby prior conditioning prevents conditioning to a second stimulus even when the...
28
schedule of reinforcement 
 
in operant conditioning, the rule for determining when a how often reinforvers will be delivered 
29
schedule of reinforcement 
 
in operant conditioning, the rule for determining when a how often reinforvers will be delivered 
30
schedule of reinforcement 
 
in operant conditioning, the rule for determining when a how often reinforvers will be delivered 
31
fixed-interval schedule
 
a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after a fixed length of...
32
variable-interval schedule
 
a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after varying lengths...
33
fixed-ratio schedule
 
a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after a fixed number of...
34
variable-ratio schedule 
 
a reinforcement schedule in which a varying number of correct responses much occur before reinforcement...
35
extinction
 
a decrease in the strength or frequency, or stopping, of a learned response because of failure...
36
spontaneous recovery
 
the reappearance of an extinguished response after the passage of time, without training. 
37
stimulus control 
 
control of conditioned reponses by cues or stimuli in the enviornment 
38
stimulus generalization
 
the transfer of a leanred reponse to different but similar stimuli 
39
stimulus discrimination 
 
learning to respond to only one stimulus and to inhibit the response to all other stimuli 
40
response generalization 
 
giving a reponse that is somewhat different from the response originally learned to that stimulus 
41
higher order conditioning 
 
conditioning based on previous learning; the conditioned stimulus serves as an unconditioned...
42
primary reinforcers
 
reinforcers that are rewarding in themselves, such as food, water, or sex
43
secondary reinforcers 
 
reinforcers whose value is acquired through associations with other primary or secondary reinforcers 
44
cognitive learning
 
learning that depends on mental processes that are not directly obervable 
45
latent learning 
 
learning that is not immediately reflected in a behavior change 
46
cognitive map
 
a learned mental image of a spatial enviornment that may be called on to solve problems when...
47
insight 
 
learning that occurs rapidly as a result of understanding all the elements of a problem. 
48
learning set 
 
the ability to become increasingly more effective in solving problems as more problems are...
49
observational (or vicarious) learning 
 
learning by observing other people's behavior 
50
social learning theorists 
 
psychologists whose view of learning emphasizes the ability to learn by observing a model or...
51
vicarious reinforcement (or punishment) 
 
reinforcement or punishment experineced by models that affects the willingness of others to...


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